Publications

Published Journal Articles

172) Kie, J.G., B.K. Johnson, H.H. Noyes, C.L Williams, B.L. Dick, O.E. Rhodes, R.J. Stussy, and R.T. Bowyer.  2013.  Reproduction in North American elk Cervus elaphus: paternity of calves sired by males of mixed age classes.  Wildlife Biology 13:302-310. (International) PDF

171) Peterson, W.J., M.W. Lankester, J.G. Kie, and R.T. Bowyer.  2013.  Geospatial analysis of giant liver flukes among moose: effects of white-tailed deer. Acta Theriologica 58:359-365. (International) PDF

170) Bowyer, R.T., J.G. Kie, D.K. Person, and K.L. Monteith*.  2013.  Metrics of predation: perils of predator‑prey ratios.  Acta Theriologica 58:329-340. (International) PDF

169) Lendrum* P.W., C.R. Anderson, Jr., K.L. Monteith, J.A. Jenks, and R.T. Bowyer.  2013.  Migrating mule deer: effects of anthropogenically altered landscapes.  PLoS ONE 8(5):e64548 PDF

168) Monteith, K.L., R.T. Stephenson, V.C. Bleich, M.M. Conner, B.M. Pierce, and R.T. Bowyer.  2013.  Risk‑sensitive allocation in seasonal dynamics of fat and protein reserves in a long-lived mammal.  Journal of Animal Ecology 82:377-378. PDF

167) Monteith*, K.L., R.A. Long*, V.C. Bleich, J.R. Heffelfinger, P.R. Krausman, and R.T. Bowyer.  2013.  Effects of harvest, culture, and climate on trends in size of horn-like structures in trophy ungulates.  Wildlife Monographs 183:1-26. PDF 

166) Whiting, J.C., D.D. Olson, J.M. Shannon, R.T. Bowyer, R.W. Klaver, and J.T. Flinders.  2012.  Timing and synchrony of births in bighorn sheep: implications for reintroduction and conservation.  Wildlife Research 39:565-572. PDF 

165) Lendrum*, P.E., C.R. Anderson, Jr., R.L. Long*, J.G. Kie, and R.T. Bowyer.  2012.  Habitat selection by mule deer during migration: effects of landscape structure and natural-gas development.  Ecosphere 3: art82. PDF 

164) Pierce, B.M., V.C. Bleich, K.L. Monteith*, and R.T. Bowyer.  2012.  Top-down versus bottom-up forcing: evidence from mountain lions and mule deer.  Journal of Mammalogy 93:977-988. PDF

163) Oehlers*, S.A., R.T. Bowyer, F. Huettmann, D.K. Person, and W.B. Kessler.  2012.  Visibility of moose in a temperate rainforest.  Alces 48:89-104. PDF

162) Anderson*, E.D., R.A. Long*, M.P. Atwood*, J.G. Kie, T.R. Thomas, P. Zager, and R.T. Bowyer.  2012.  Winter resource selection by female mule deer Odocoileus hemionus: functional response to spatio-temporal changes in habitat.  Wildlife Biology 18:153-163. PDF

161) Ihl, C., L.K. Duffy, K. Dunlap, and R.T. Bowyer.  2012.  Mercury in the hair of muskox on the Seward Peninsula.  American Journal of Environmental Sciences  8:176-178. PDF

160) Stewart, K.M., R.T. Bowyer, B.L. Dick, and J.G. Kie.  2011.  Effects of density-dependence on diet composition of North American elk Cervus elpahus and mule deer Odocoileus hemionus: an experimental manipulation.  Wildlife Biology 17: 417-430. PDF

159) Bowyer, R.T., J. L. Rachlow, K. M. Stewart, and V. Van Ballenberghe.  2011.  Vocalizations of Alaskan moose: female incitation of male aggression.  Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 65:2251-2260. PDF

158) Ihl, C., and R.T. Bowyer.  2011.  Leadership in mixed-sex groups of muskoxen during the snow-free season.  Journal of Mammalogy  92: 819-827. PDF

157) Villepique*, J.T., B.M. Pierce, V.C. Bleich, and R.T. Bowyer.  2011.  Diets of cougars (Puma concolor) following a decline in a population of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus): lack of evidence for prey switching.  The Southwestern Naturalist  56:187-192. PDF

156) Oehlers*, S.A., R.T. Bowyer, F. Huettmann, D.K. Person, and W.B. Kessler.  2011.  Sex and scale: implications for habitat selection by moose Alces alcesWildlife Biology 17:67-84. PDF

155) Monteith, K.L., V.C. Bleich, T.R. Stephenson, B.M. Pierce, M.M. Conner, R.W. Klaver, and R.T. Bowyer.  2011.  Timing of seasonal migration in mule deer: effects of climate, plant phenology, and life-history characteristics.  Ecosphere 2 (4):art47.  doi:10.1890/ES10-00096.1 PDF

154) Whiting*, J. C., R. T. Bowyer, J. T. Flinders, and D. L. Eggett. 2011. Reintroduced bighorn sheep: fitness consequences of adjusting parturition to local environments. Journal of Mammalogy 92:213-220. PDF

153) C. A. Schroeder, R. T. Bowyer, V. C. Bleich and T. R. Stephenson. 2010. Sexual segregation in Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis sierrae: ramifications for conservation. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 42:476-489. PDF

152) Whiting*, J.C., R.T. Bowyer, J.T. Flinders, V.C. Bleich, and J.G. Kie. 2010b. Sexual segregation and use of water by bighorn sheep: implications for conservation. Animal Conservation 13:541–548. PDF

151) Aho, K.A., R.A. Long, J.G. Kie, and R.T. Bowyer. 2010. A New Index for Measuring Perpendicularity of Animal Movements in Relation to Patch Boundaries. Ecological Modelling 221:2003-2007. (PDF)

150) Whiting*, J.C., K.M. Stewart, R.T. Bowyer, and J.T. Flinders. 2010a. Reintroduced bighorn sheep: do females adjust maternal care to compensate for late-born young? European Journal of Wildlife Research 56:349-357. PDF

149) Stewart, K.M., R.T. Bowyer, J.G. Kie, and M.A. Hurley. 2010. Spatial distributions of mule deer and North American elk: resource partitioning in a sage-steppe environment. The American Midland Naturalist 163:400-412. PDF

148)  Bowyer, R.T., and J.G. Kie.  2009.  Thermal landscapes and resource selection by black-tailed deer:  implications for large herbivores. California Fish and Game 95:128-139. PDF

147) Long*, R.A., J.G. Kie, R.T. Bowyer, and M.A. Hurley.  2009.  Resource selection and movements by female mule deer: effects of reproductive stage.  Wildlife Biology 15:288-298. PDF

146) Whiting*, J.C., R.T. Bowyer, and J.T. Flinders.  2009b.  Diel use of water by reintroduced bighorn sheep.  Western North American Naturalist 69:407-412. PDF

145) Stewart, K.M., R.T. Bowyer, J.G. Kie, B.L. Dick, and R.W. Ruess.  2009.  Population density of North American elk: effects on plant diversity.  Oecologia 161:303-312. PDF

144)  Monteith*, K.L., L.E. Schmitz, J.A. Jenks, J.A. Delger, and R.T. Bowyer.  2009.  Growth of male white‑tailed deer: consequences of maternal effects.   Journal of Mammalogy 90: 651-660. PDF

143)  Whiting*, J.C., R.T. Bowyer, and J.T. Flinders.  2009.  Annual use of water sources by reintroduced Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis canadensis: effects of season and drought.  Acta Theriologica 54:127‑136.  PDF

142)  Duffy, L.K., Oehler*, M.W., Sr., R.T. Bowyer,andV.C. Bleich.  2009.  Mountain sheep: an environmental epidemiological survey of variation in metal exposure and physiological biomarkers following mine development.  American Journal of Environmental Sciences 5:296-303. PDF

141)  Schmidt*, J.I., K.J. Hundertmark, R.T. Bowyer, and K.G. McCracken.  2009.  Population structure and genetic diversity of moose in Alaska.  Journal of Heredity 100:170-180.  PDF

140)  Villepique*, J.T., V.C. Bleich, R.A. Botta, B.M. Pierce, T.R. Stephenson, and R.T. Bowyer.  2008.  Evaluating GPS collar error: a critical evaluation of Televilt POSREC-Science™ collars and a method for screening location data.  California Fish and Game 94:155-168.  PDF

139)  Leslie, D.M., Jr., R.T. Bowyer, and J.A. Jenks.  2008.  Facts from feces: nitrogen still measures up as a nutritional index for mammalian herbivores.  The Journal of Wildlife Management 72:1420-1433.  PDF

138)  Whiting*, J.C., R.T. Bowyer, and J.T. Flinders.  2008.  Young bighorn (Ovis canadensis) males: can they successfully woo females?  Ethology 114:32-41.  PDF

137)  Bowyer, R.T., V.C. Bleich, X. Manteca, J.C. Whiting*, and K.M. Stewart.  2007.  Sociality, mate choice, and timing of mating in American bison (Bison bison): effects of large males.  Ethology 113:1048-1060.  PDF

136)  Monteith*, K.L., C.L. Sexton, J.A. Jenks, and R.T. Bowyer.  2007.  Evaluation of techniques for categorizing group membership of white-tailed deer.  The Journal of Wildlife Management 71:1712-1716.  PDF

135) Schmidt*, J.I., J.M. Ver Hoef, and R.T. Bowyer.  2007.  Antler size of Alaskan moose: effects of population density, harvest intensity, and use of guides.  Wildlife Biology 13:53-65.  PDF

134) Jenks, J.A., C.N. Jacques*, J.D. Sievers*, R.W. Claver, R.T. Bowyer, and D.E. Roddy.  2006.  Evaluating genetic viability of pronghorn in Wind Cave National Park.  The Prairie Naturalist 38:155-165.  PDF

133) Stewart*, K.M., R.T. Bowyer, R.W. Ruess, B.L. Dick, and J.G. Kie.  2006.  Herbivore optimization by North American elk: consequences for theory and management.  Wildlife Monographs 167:1-24.  PDF

132) Farmer, C.F., D.K. Person, and R.T. Bowyer.  2006.  Risk factors and survivorship of black-tailed deer in a managed forest landscape.  The Journal of Wildlife Management 70:1403-1415.  PDF

131) Hundertmark*, K.J., R.T. Bowyer, G.F. Shields, C.C. Schwartz, and M.H. Smith.  2006.  Colonization history and taxonomy of moose Alces alces in southeastern Alaska inferred from mtDNA variation.  Wildlife Biology 12:331-338.  PDF

130) Bowyer, R.T., and J.G. Kie.  2006.  Effects of scale on interpreting life-history characteristics of ungulates and carnivores.  Diversity and Distributions 12:244-257.  PDF

129) Nicholson*, M.C., R.T. Bowyer, and J.G. Kie.  2006.  Forage selection by mule deer: does niche breadth increase with population density?  Journal of Zoology London 269:39-49.  PDF

128) Bleich, V.C., B.M. Pierce, J. Jones, and R.T. Bowyer.  2006.  Survival and cause-specific mortality among young mule deer.  California Fish and Game 92:24-38.  PDF

127) Duffy, L.K., R J. Hallock, G. Finstad, and R. T. Bowyer.  2005.  Noninvasive environmental monitoring of mercury in Alaskan reindeer.  American Journal of Environmental Sciences 1:249-253.  PDF

126) Maier, J.A.K., J. Ver Hoef, A.D. McGuire, R.T. Bowyer, L. Saperstein, and H.A. Maier.  2005.  Distribution and density of moose in relation to landscape characteristics: effects of scale.  Canadian Journal of Forest Research 35:2233-2243.  PDF 

125) Schmidt*, J.I., J.M. Ver Hoef, J.A.K. Maier, and R.T. Bowyer.  2005.  Catch per unit effort for moose: a new approach using Weibull regression.  The Journal of Wildlife Management 69:1112-1124.  PDF

124) Oehler*, M.W., Sr., V.C. Bleich, R.T. Bowyer, and M.C. Nicholson.  2005.  Mountain sheep and mining: implications for conservation and management.  California Fish and Game 91:149-178.  PDF

123) Kie, J.G., A.A. Ager, and R.T. Bowyer.  2005.  Landscape-level movements of North American elk (Cervus elaphus): effects of habitat patch structure and topography.  Landscape Ecology 20:289-300.  PDF

122) Stewart*, K.M., R.T. Bowyer, B.L. Dick, B.K. Johnson, and J.G. Kie.  2005.  Density-dependent effects on physical condition and reproduction in North American elk: an experimental test.  Oecologia 143:85‑93. PDF 

121) Knott*, K.K., P.S. Barboza, and R.T. Bowyer.  2005.  Growth in arctic ungulates: postnatal development and organ maturation in reindeer, caribou, and muskoxen.  Journal of Mammalogy 86: 121-130.  PDF

120) Bowyer, R.T.  2004.  Sexual segregation in ruminants: definitions, hypotheses, and implications for conservation and management.  Journal of Mammalogy 85:1039-1052.  (Merriam Award Paper)  PDF

119) Knott* K.K., P.S. Barboza, R.T. Bowyer, and J.E. Blake.  2004.  Nutritional development of feeding strategies in arctic ruminants: digestive morphometry of reindeer, Rangifer tarandus, and muskoxen, Ovibos moschatusZoology 197:315-333.  PDF

118) Johnson, D.S., R.P. Barry, and R.T. Bowyer.  2004.  Estimating timing of life-history events with coarse data.  Journal of Mammalogy 85:932-939. PDF

117) Blundell*, G.M., M. Ben-David, P. Groves, R.T. Bowyer, and E. Geffen.  2004.  Kinship and sociality in coastal river otters: are they related?  Behavioral Ecology 15:705-714.  PDF

116) Pierce*, B.M., R.T. Bowyer, and V.C. Bleich.  2004.  Habitat selection by mule deer: forage benefits or risk of predation?  The Journal of Wildlife Management 68:533-541.  PDF  

115) Bowyer, R.T., and J.G. Kie.  2004.  Effects of foraging activity on sexual segregation in mule deer.  Journal of Mammalogy 85:498-504.  PDF

114) Spaeth*, D.F., R.T. Bowyer, T.R. Stephenson, and P.S. Barboza.  2004.  Sexual segregation in moose Alces alces: an experimental manipulation of foraging behaviour.  Wildlife Biology 10:59-72.  PDF

113) Hundertmark, K.J., and R.T. Bowyer.  2004.  Genetics, evolution, and phylogeography of moose.  Alces 40:103-122.  PDF

112) Jaren, V., A., R.E. Sinclair, R. Anderson, K. Danell, C.C. Schwartz, R.O. Peterson, R.T. Bowyer, and G. Ericsson.  2003.  Moose in modern integrated ecosystem management—how should the Malawi principles be adapted?  Alces 39:1-10.  PDF

111) Bowyer, R.T., and J.A. Neville*.  2003.  Effects of browsing history by Alaskan moose on regrowth and quality of feltleaf willow.  Alces 39:193-202.  PDF

110) Stewart*, K.M., T.E. Fulbright, D.L. Drawe, and R.T. Bowyer.  2003b. Sexual segregation in white‑tailed deer: responses to habitat manipulations.  Wildlife Society Bulletin 31:1210-1217.  PDF

109) Oehler*, M.W., Sr., R.T. Bowyer, and V.C. Bleich.  2003.  Home ranges of female mountain sheep Ovis canadensis nelsoni: effects of precipitation in a desert ecosystem.  Mammalia 67:385-401.  PDF 

108) Stewart*, K.M., R.T. Bowyer, J.G. Kie, B.L. Dick, and M. Ben-David.  2003a. Niche partitioning among mule deer, elk, and cattle: do stable isotopes reflect dietary niche?  Écoscience 10:297-302.  PDF

107) Bowyer, R.T., G.M. Blundell*, M. Ben-David, S.C. Jewett, T.A. Dean, and L.K. Duffy.  2003.  Effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on river otters: injury and recovery of a sentinel species.  Wildlife Monographs 153:1-53.  PDF

106) Hundertmark*, K.J., R.T. Bowyer, G.F. Shields, and C.C. Schwartz.  2003.  Mitochondrial phylogeography of moose (Alces alces) in North America.  Journal of Mammalogy  84:718-728.  PDF

105) Bowyer, R.T., K.M. Stewart*, B.M. Pierce, K.J. Hundertmark*, and W.C. Gasaway.  2002b. Geographical variation in antler morphology of Alaskan moose: putative effects of habitat and genetics.  Alces 38:155-165.  PDF

104) Spaeth*, D.F., R.T. Bowyer, T.R. Stephenson, P.S. Barboza, and V. Van Ballenberghe.  2002.  Nutritional quality of willows for moose: effects of twig age and diameter.  Alces 38:143-154.  PDF

103) Hundertmark*, K.J., G.F. Shields, R.T. Bowyer, and C.C. Schwartz.  2002b. Genetic relationships deduced from cytochrome-b sequences among moose.  Alces 38:113-122.  PDF

102) Lenart*, E.A., R.T. Bowyer, J. Ver Hoef, and R.W. Ruess.  2002.  Climate change and caribou: effects of summer weather on forage.  Canadian Journal of Zoology 80:664-687.  PDF 

101) Bowyer, R.T., K.M. Stewart*, S.A. Wolfe*, G.M. Blundell*, K.L. Lehmkuhl*, P.J. Joy*, T.J. McDonough*, and J.G. Kie.  2002a. Assessing sexual segregation in deer.  The Journal of Wildlife Management 66:536-544.  PDF 

100) Hundertmark*, K.J., G.F. Shields, I.G. Udina, R.T. Bowyer, A.A. Danilkin, and C.C. Schwartz.  2002a. Mitochrondial phylogeography of moose (Alces alces): late Pleistocene divergence and population expansion.  Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 22:375-387.  PDF

99) Stewart*, K.M., R.T. Bowyer, J.G. Kie, N.J. Cimon, and B.K. Johnson.  2002.  Temprospatial distributions of elk, mule deer, and cattle: resource partitioning and competitive displacement.  Journal of Mammalogy 83:229-244.  PDF

98) Blundell*, G. M., M. Ben-David, P. Groves, R.T. Bowyer, and E. Geffen.  2002b. Characteristics of sex‑biased dispersal and gene flow in coastal river otters: implications for natural recolonization of extirpated populations.  Molecular Ecology 11:289-303.  PDF

97) Kie, J.G., R.T. Bowyer, M.C. Nicholson, B.B. Boroski, and E.R. Loft.  2002.  Landscape heterogeneity at differing scales: effects on spatial distribution of mule deer.  Ecology  83:530-544.  PDF

96) Blundell*, G.M., M. Ben-David, and R.T. Bowyer.  2002a. Sociality in river otters: cooperative foraging or reproductive strategy?  Behavioral Ecology 15:134-141.  PDF

95) Bowyer, R.T., D.R. McCullough, and G.E. Belovsky.  2001c. Causes and consequences of sociality in mule deer.  Alces 37:371-402.  (D.R. Klein Special Issue)  PDF

94) Barboza, P.S., and R.T. Bowyer.  2001.  Seasonality of sexual segregation in dimorphic deer: extending the gastrocentric model.  Alces 37:275-292.  (D.R. Klein Special Issue)  PDF

93) Person*, D.K., R.T. Bowyer, and V. Van Ballenberghe.  2001.  Density dependence of ungulates and functional responses of wolves: effects on predator-prey ratios.  Alces  37:253-273.  (D.R. Klein Special Issue)  PDF

92) Spaeth*, D.F., K.J. Hundertmark*, R.T. Bowyer, P.S. Barboza, T.R. Stephenson, and R.O. Peterson.  2001.  Incisor arcades of Alaskan moose: is dimorphism related to sexual segregation?  Alces 37:217‑226.  PDF

91) Bowyer, R.T., B.M. Pierce, L.K. Duffy, and D.A. Haggstrom.  2001b. Sexual segregation in moose: effects of habitat manipulation.  Alces  37:109-122.  PDF

90) Adams**, C.A., R.T. Bowyer, J.E. Rowell, W.E. Hauer, and J.A. Jenks.  2001.  Scent marking by male caribou: an experimental test of rubbing behavior.  Rangifer 21:21-28.  PDF

89) Ben-David, M., L.K. Duffy, G.M. Blundell*, and R.T. Bowyer. 2001b. Natural exposure to mercury in coastal river otters: age, diet, and survival.  Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 20:1986‑1992.  PDF

88) Bowyer, R.T., K.M. Stewart*, J.G. Kie, and W.C. Gasaway.  2001a. Fluctuating asymmetry in antlers of Alaskan moose: size matters.  Journal of Mammalogy 82:814-824.  PDF

87) Albert*, D.M., R.T. Bowyer, and S.D. Miller.  2001.  Effort and success of brown bear hunters in Alaska.  Wildlife Society Bulletin 29:501-508.  PDF

86) Ben-David M., L.K. Duffy, and R.T. Bowyer.  2001a. Biomarker responses in river otters experimentally exposed to oil contamination.  Journal of Wildlife Diseases 37:489-508.  PDF

85) Taylor*, C., M. Ben-David, R.T. Bowyer, and L.K. Duffy.  2001.  Response of river otters to experimental exposure of weathered crude oil: fecal porphyrin profiles.  Environmental Science and Technology 35:747-752.  PDF

84) Barten*, N.L., R.T. Bowyer, and K.J. Jenkins.  2001.  Habitat use by female caribou: tradeoffs associated with parturition.  The Journal of Wildlife Management 65:77-92.  PDF

83) Taylor*, C., L.K. Duffy, R.T. Bowyer, and G.M. Blundell*.  2000b. Profiles of fecal porphyrins in river otters following the Exxon Valdez oil spill.  Marine Pollution Bulletin 40:1132-1138.  PDF

82) Whittle*, C.L., R.T. Bowyer, T.P. Clausen, and L.K. Duffy.  2000.  Putative pheromones in urine of rutting male moose (Alces alces): evolution of honest advertisement?  Journal of Chemical Ecology 26:2747‑2762.  PDF

81) Taylor*, C., L.K. Duffy, F.G. Plumley, and R.T. Bowyer. 2000a. Comparison of spectrofluorometric and HPLC methods for the characterization of fecal porphyrins in river otters.  Environmental Research A 84:56-63. PDF

80) Pierce*, B.M., V.C. Bleich, and R.T. Bowyer.  2000b. Social organization of mountain lions: does a land‑tenure system regulate population size?  Ecology 81:1533-1543.  PDF

79) Stewart*, K.M., R.T. Bowyer, J.G. Kie, and W.C. Gasaway.  2000.  Antler size relative to body mass in moose: tradeoffs associated with reproduction.  Alces 36:77-83. PDF

78) Barboza, P.S., and R.T. Bowyer.  2000.  Sexual segregation in dimorphic deer: a new gastrocentric hypothesis.  Journal of Mammalogy 81:473-489.  PDF

77) Pierce*, B.M., V.C. Bleich, and R.T. Bowyer. 2000a. Selection of mule deer by mountain lions and coyotes: effects of hunting style, body size, and reproductive status.  Journal of Mammalogy 81:462‑472.  PDF

76) Keech*, M.A., R.T. Bowyer, J.M. Ver Hoef, R.D. Boertje, B.W. Dale, and T.R. Stephenson.  2000.  Life‑history consequences of maternal condition in Alaskan moose.  The Journal of Wildlife Management 64:450-462.  PDF

75) Duffy, L.K., E. Scofield*, T. Rodgers, M. Patton, and R.T. Bowyer.1999.  Comparative baseline levels of Mercury, Hsp70 and Hsp 60 in subsistence fish from the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta region of Alaska.  Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology C 124:181-185. PDF

74) Sauer**, T.M., M. Ben-David, and R.T. Bowyer.  1999.  A new application of the adaptive-kernel method: estimating linear home range of river otters, Lutra canadensisThe Canadian Field‑Naturalist 113:419‑424. PDF

73) Bowyer, R.T., V. Van Ballenberghe, J.G. Kie, and J.A.K. Maier.  1999b. Birth-site selection by Alaskan moose: maternal strategies for coping with a risky environment.  Journal of Mammalogy 80:1070‑1083.(Invited Special Feature)  PDF

72) Leslie, D.M., Jr., R.T. Bowyer, and J.G. Kie.  1999.  Life-history strategies of ungulates.  Journal of Mammalogy 80:1067-1069.(Invited Special Feature)  PDF

71) Bowyer, R.T.,M.C. Nicholson*, E.M. Molvar*, and J.B. Faro.  1999a. Moose on Kalgin Island: are density‑dependent processes related to harvest?  Alces 35:73-89. PDF

70) Kie, J.G., and R.T. Bowyer.1999.  Sexual segregation in white-tailed deer: density-dependent changes in use of space, habitat selection, and dietary niche.  Journal of Mammalogy80:1004‑1020.  PDF

69) Pierce*, B.M., V.C. Bleich, J.D. Wehausen, and R.T. Bowyer.  1999.  Migratory patterns of mountain lions: implications for social regulation and conservation.  Journal of Mammalogy 80:986-992.  PDF

68) Blundell*, G.M., J.W. Kern, R.T. Bowyer, and L.K Duffy.  1999.  Capturing river otters: a comparison of Hancock and leg-hold traps.  Wildlife Society Bulletin 27:184-192. PDF

67) Keech*, M.A., R.D. Boertje, R.T. Bowyer, and B.W. Dale.  1999.  Effects of birth weight on growth of young moose: do low-weight neonates compensate?  Alces 35:51-57.  PDF

66) Scofield**, E., R.T. Bowyer, and L.K. Duffy.  1999.  Baseline levels of Hsp 70, a stress protein and biomarker, in halibut from the Cook Inlet region of Alaska.  The Science of the Total Environment 226:85-88.  PDF

65) Massei, G., and R.T. Bowyer.  1999.  Scent marking in fallow deer: effects of lekking behavior on rubbing and wallowing.  Journal of Mammalogy 80:633-638.  PDF

64) Duffy, L.K., M.K. Hecker**, G.M. Blundell*, and R.T. Bowyer.  1999.   An analysis of the fur of river otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska: oil related hydrocarbons 8 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.  Polar Biology 21:56-58.  PDF

63) Hundertmark*, K.J., T.H. Thelen, and R.T. Bowyer.  1998.  Effects of population density and selective harvest on antler phenotype in simulated moose populations.  Alces 34:375-383.  PDF

62) Ben-David, M., R.T. Bowyer, L.K. Duffy, D.D. Roby, and D.M. Schell.  1998.  Social behavior and ecosystem processes: river otter latrines and nutrient dynamics of terrestrial vegetation.  Ecology 79:2567-2571.  PDF

61) Rachlow*, J.L., and R.T. Bowyer.  1998.  Habitat selection by Dall’s sheep (Ovis dalli): maternal trade‑offs.  Journal of Zoology (London) 245:457-465.  PDF

60) Bowyer, R.T., V. Van Ballenberghe, and J.G. Kie.  1998b. Timing and synchrony of parturition in Alaskan moose: long-term versus proximal effects of climate.  Journal of Mammalogy 79:1332‑1344.  PDF

59) Keech*, M., T.R. Stephenson, R.T. Bowyer, V. Van Ballenberghe, and J. Ver Hoef.  1998.  Relationships between blood-serum variables and depth of rump fat in Alaskan moose.  Alces 34:173-179.  PDF

58) Weixelman*, D.A., R.T.  Bowyer,andV. Van Ballenberghe.  1998.  Diet selection by Alaskan moose during winter: effects of fire and forest succession.  Alces 34:213-238. PDF

57) Bowyer, R.T., J.G. Kie, and V. Van Ballenberghe.  1998a. Habitat selection by neonatal black-tailed deer: climate, forage, or risk of predation?  Journal of Mammalogy 79:415-425.  PDF

56) Prichard*, A.K., D.D. Roby, R.T. Bowyer, and L.K. Duffy.  1997.  Pigeon guillemots as a sentinel species: a dose-response experiment with weathered oil in the field.  Chemosphere 35:1531‑1548.  PDF

55) Bleich*, V.C., R.T. Bowyer, and J.D. Wehausen.  1997.  Sexual segregation in mountain sheep: resources or predation?  Wildlife Monographs 134:1-50.  PDF

54) Nicholson*, M.C., R.T. Bowyer, and J. G. Kie.  1997.  Habitat selection and survival of mule deer: tradeoffs associated with migration.  Journal of Mammalogy 78:483-504.  PDF

53) Bowyer**, J.W., and R.T. Bowyer.1997.  Effects of previous browsing on the selection of willow stems by Alaskan moose.  Alces 33:11-18.  PDF

52) Oehler*, M.W., Sr., V.C. Bleich, and R.T. Bowyer.1996.  Error associated with LORAN-C: effects of aircraft altitude and geographic location.  Desert Bighorn Council Transactions 40:19-21.  PDF

51) Blajeski**, A., L.K. Duffy, and R.T. Bowyer.  1996.  Differences in faecal profiles of porphyrins among river otters exposed to the Exxon Valdez oilspill.  Biomarkers 1:262-266.  PDF

50) Ben-David*, M., R.T. Bowyer, and J.B. Faro.  1996.  Niche separation by mink and river otters: coexistence in a marine environment.  Oikos 75:41-48.  PDF

49) Bowyer, R.T., J.G. Kie, and V. Van Ballenberghe.  1996.  Sexual segregation in black-tailed deer: effects of scale.  The Journal of Wildlife Management 60:10-17.  PDF

48) Oehler**, M.W., Sr., J.A. Jenks, and R.T. Bowyer.  1995.  Antler rubs by white-tailed deer: the importance of trees in a prairie environment.  Canadian Journal of Zoology 73:1383-1386.  PDF

47) Bowyer, R.T., J.W. Testa, and J.B. Faro.  1995.  Habitat selection and home ranges of river otters in a marine environment: effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill.  Journal of Mammalogy 76:1-11.  PDF

46) Bowyer, R.T., V. Van Ballenberghe, and K.R. Rock*.  1994b. Scent marking by Alaskan moose: characteristics and spatial distribution of rubbed trees.  Canadian Journal of Zoology 72:2186‑2192.  PDF

45) Rock*, K.R., E.S. Rock**, R.T. Bowyer, and J.B. Faro.  1994.  Degree of association and use of a helper by coastal river otters, Lutra canadensis, in Prince William Sound, Alaska.  The Canadian Field‑Naturalist 108:367-369.  PDF

44) Levine, M.E., L.K. Duffy, and R.T. Bowyer.  1994.  Fatigue, sleep and seasonal hormone levels: implications for drinking behavior in northern climates.  Drugs and Society 8:61-70.  PDF

43) Bowyer, R.T., J.W. Testa, J.B. Faro, C.C. Schwartz, and J.B. Browning*.  1994a. Changes in diets of river otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska: effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill.  Canadian Journal of Zoology 72:970-976.  PDF

42) Testa, J.W., D.F. Holleman, R.T. Bowyer, and J.B. Faro.  1994.  Estimating marine populations of river otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska, using radiotracer implants.  Journal of Mammalogy 75:1021-1032.  PDF

41) Bleich*, V.C., R.T. Bowyer, A.M. Pauli, M.C. Nicholson*, and R.W. Anthes.  1994.  Mountain sheep Ovis canadensis and helicopter surveys: ramifications for the conservation of large mammals.  Biological Conservation 70:1-7.  PDF

40) Dale*, B.W., L.G. Adams, and R.T. Bowyer.  1994.  Functional response of wolves preying on barren‑ground caribou in a multiple-prey ecosystem.  The Journal of Animal Ecology 63:644-652.  PDF

39) Molvar*, E.M., and R.T. Bowyer.  1994.  Costs and benefits of group living in a recently social ungulate: the Alaskan moose.  Journal of Mammalogy 75:621-630.  PDF

38) Duffy, L.K., R.T. Bowyer, J.W. Testa, and J.B. Faro.  1994.  Evidence for recovery of body mass and haptoglobin values for river otters following the Exxon Valdez oil spill.  Journal of Wildlife Diseases 30:421-425.  PDF

37) Rachlow*, J.L., and R.T. Bowyer.  1994.  Variability in maternal behavior by Dall's sheep: environmental tracking or adaptive strategy?  Journal of Mammalogy 75:328-337.  PDF

36) Duffy, L.K., R.T. Bowyer, J.W. Testa, and J.B. Faro.  1994.  Chronic effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on blood and enzyme chemistry of river otters.  Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 13:643-647. PDF

35) Molvar*, E.M., R.T. Bowyer, and V. Van Ballenberghe.  1993.  Moose herbivory, browse quality, and nutrient cycling in an Alaskan treeline community.  Oecologia 94:472-479.  PDF

34) Duffy, L.K., R.T. Bowyer, J.W. Testa, and J.B. Faro.  1993.  Differences in blood haptoglobin and length‑mass relationships in river otters (Lutra canadensis) from oiled and nonoiled areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska.  Journal of Wildlife Diseases 29:353-359.  PDF

33) Bleich*, V.C., R.T. Bowyer, D.J. Clark, and T.O. Clark.  1992.  Analysis of forage used by mountain sheep in the eastern Mojave Desert.  Desert Bighorn Council Transactions 36:41-47.  PDF

32) Bowyer, R.T., and D.M. Leslie, Jr.  1992.  Ovis dalli.  Mammalian Species 393:1-7.  PDF

31) Rachlow*, J.L., and R.T. Bowyer.  1991.  Interannual variation in timing and synchrony of parturition in Dall's sheep.  Journal of Mammalogy 72:487-492.  PDF

30) Bowyer, R.T.  1991.  Timing of parturition and lactation in southern mule deer.  Journal of Mammalogy 72:138-145.  PDF

29) Bowyer, R.T., J.L. Rachlow*, V. Van Ballenberghe, and R.D. Guthrie.  1991.  Evolution of a rump patch in Alaskan moose: an hypothesis.  Alces 27:12-23.  PDF

28) Albert*, D.M., and R.T. Bowyer.  1991.  Factors related to grizzly bear-human interactions in Denali National Park.  Wildlife Society Bulletin 19:339-349.  PDF

27) Bleich*, V.C., R.T. Bowyer, A.M. Pauli, R.L. Vernoy, and R.W. Anthes.  1990.  Responses of mountain sheep to helicopter surveys.  California Fish and Game 76:197-204. PDF
 
26) Snepenger, D.J., and R.T. Bowyer.  1990.  Differences among nonresident tourists making consumptive and nonconsumptive uses of Alaskan wildlife.  Arctic 43:262-266.  PDF

25) Bleich*, V.C., J.G. Stahmann*, R.T. Bowyer, and J.E. Blake.  1990.  Osteoporosis and cranial asymmetry in a mountain sheep (Ovis canadensis).  Journal of Wildlife Diseases 26:372-376.  PDF

24) Eastland*, W.G., R.T. Bowyer, and S.G. Fancy.  1989.  Effects of snow cover on selection of calving sites by caribou.  Journal of Mammalogy 70:824-828.  PDF

23) Etchberger**, R.C., R. Mazaika**, and R.T. Bowyer.  1988.  White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, fecal groups relative to vegetation biomass and quality in Maine.  The Canadian Field-Naturalist 102:671-671.  PDF

22) Benner**, J.M., and R.T. Bowyer.  1988.  Selection of trees for rubs by white-tailed deer in Maine.  Journal of Mammalogy 69:624-627.  PDF

21) Bowyer, R.T., and D.W. Kitchen.  1987b. Sex and age-class differences in vocalizations of Roosevelt elk during rut.  The American Midland Naturalist 118:225-235.  PDF

20) Bowyer, R.T., and D.W. Kitchen.  1987a. Significance of scent-marking by Roosevelt elk.  Journal of Mammalogy 68:418-423.  PDF

19) Bowyer, R.T.  1987.  Coyote group size relative to predation on mule deer.  Mammalia 51:515-526.  PDF

18) Docktor**, C.M., R.T. Bowyer, and A.G. Clark.  1987.  Number of corpora lutea as related to age and distribution of river otters in Maine.  Journal of Mammalogy 68:182-185.  PDF

17) Clark**, R.A., and R.T. Bowyer.  1986.  Occurrence of protostrongylid nematodes in sympatric populations of moose and white-tailed deer in Maine.  Alces 22:313-321.  PDF

16) Jenks*, J.A., A.G. Clark, and R.T. Bowyer.  1986.  Sex and age determination for fisher using radiographs of canine teeth: a response.  The Journal of Wildlife Management 50:277-278.  PDF

15) Hodgman**, T.P., and R.T. Bowyer.  1986.  Fecal crude protein relative to browsing intensity by white‑tailed deer on wintering areas in Maine.  Acta Theriologica 31:347-353.  PDF

14) Bowyer, R.T.  1986b. Habitat selection by southern mule deer.  California Fish and Game 72:153-169.  PDF

13) Bowyer, R.T.  1986a. Antler characteristics as related to social status of male southern mule deer.  The Southwestern Naturalist 31:289-298.  PDF

12) Shea**, M.E., N.L. Rollins**, R.T. Bowyer, and A.G. Clark.  1985.  Corpra lutea number as related to fisher age and distribution in Maine.  The Journal of Wildlife Management 49:37-40.  PDF

11) Hodgman**, T.P., and R.T. Bowyer.  1985.  Winter use of arboreal lichens, Ascomycetes, by white‑tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, in Maine.  The Canadian Field-Naturalist 99:313-316.  PDF

10) Ludewig**, H.A., and R.T. Bowyer.  1985.  Overlap in winter diets of sympatric moose and white-tailed deer in Maine.  Journal of Mammalogy 66:390-392.  PDF

 9) Lautenschlager*, R.A., and R.T. Bowyer.  1985.  Wildlife management by referendum: when professionals fail to communicate.  Wildlife Society Bulletin 13:564-570.  PDF

 8) Jenks**, J.A., R.T. Bowyer, and A.G. Clark.  1984.  Sex and age-class determination for fisher using radiographs of canine teeth.  The Journal of Wildlife Management 48:626-628.  PDF

 7) Bowyer, R.T.  1984.  Sexual segregation in southern mule deer.  Journal of Mammalogy 65:410‑417.  PDF

 6) Bowyer, R.T., and V.C. Bleich.  1984b. Effects of cattle grazing on selected habitats of southern mule deer.  California Fish and Game 70:240-247.  PDF

 5) Bowyer, R.T., and V.C. Bleich.  1984a. Distribution and taxonomic affinities of mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus, from Anza-Borrego Desert State Park, California.  California Fish and Game 70:53‑57.  PDF

 4) Bowyer, R.T., and K.D. Curry.  1983.  Use of a roller press to obtain cuticular impressions of guard hairs on acetate strips.  Journal of Mammalogy 64:531-532.  PDF

 3) Bowyer, R.T. 1983.  Osteophagia and antler breakage among Roosevelt elk.  California Fish and Game 69:84-88.  PDF

 2) Bowyer, R.T., S.A. McKenna**, and M.E. Shea**.  1983.  Seasonal changes in coyote food habits as determined by fecal analysis.  The American Midland Naturalist 109:266-273.  PDF

 1) Bowyer, R.T.  1981.  Activity, movement, and distribution of Roosevelt elk during rut.  Journal of Mammalogy 62:574-582.  PDF



Publications in Symposia, Proceedings, Workshops, Encyclopedias, and Books

23) Whiting, J.C., V.C. Bleich, R.T. Bowyer, and R.T. Larsen.  2012.  Water availability and bighorn sheep: life‑history characteristics and persistence of populations.  Pages 127-158 in Advances in Environmental Research Vol. 21 (J.A. Daniels, ed.), Nova Science Publishers, Inc., Hauppauge, New York. PDF

22)  Bowyer, R.T., K.M. Stewart, K.L. Monteith*, and R.L. Long*.  2012.  Wildlife ecology.  Pages 2963-2968 in Encyclopedia of Environmetrics (A.-H. El-Shaarawi and W. Piegorsch, eds.), Second  edition.  John Wiley & Sons LTD., Chichester, UK. PDF

21)  Stewart, K.M., R.T. Bowyer, and P.J. Weisberg.  2011.  Spatial use of landscapes.  Pages 181-217  in Biology and Management of White-tailed Deer (D. G. Hewett, ed.),  CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.  674 pp. PDF

20)  Reese, K.P., and R.T. Bowyer.  2007.  Monitoring populations of sage-grouse: an introduction.  Pages 1-2 in Monitoring Populations of Sage-grouse.  College of Natural Resources Experiment Station Bulletin 88, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho, 70 pp.  PDF

19) Bowyer, R.T., D.K. Person, and B.M. Pierce.  2005.  Detecting top-down versus bottom-up regulation of ungulates by large carnivores: implications for conservation of biodiversity.  Pages 342-361 in Large Carnivores and the Conservation of Biodiversity (J.C. Ray, K.H. Redford, R.S. Steneck, and J. Berger, eds.).  Island Press, Covelo, California, 526 pp.  PDF

18) Krausman, P.R., and R.T. Bowyer.  2003.  Mountain sheep (Ovis canadensis and O. dalli).  Pages 1095‑1115 in Wild Mammals of North America: Biology, Management, and Conservation (G.A. Feldhamer, B.C. Thompson, and J.A. Chapman, eds.).  Second edition.  The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, 1216 pp.  PDF

17) Bowyer, R.T., V. Van Ballenberghe, and J.G. Kie.  2003.  Moose (Alces alces).  Pages 931-964 in Wild Mammals of North America: Biology, Management, and Conservation (G.A. Feldhamer, B.C. Thompson, and J.A. Chapman, eds.).  Second edition.  The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, 1216 pp.  PDF
 
16) Kie, J.G., R.T. Bowyer, and K.M. Stewart*.  2003.  Ungulates in western forests: habitat requirements, population dynamics, and ecosystem processes.  Pages 296-340 in Mammal Community Dynamics: Management and Conservation in the Coniferous Forests of Western North America.  (C.J. Zabel and R.G. Anthony, eds.).  Cambridge University Press, New York, New York, 709 pp.  PDF

15) Bowyer, R.T.  2002.  Wildlife ecology.  Pages 2381-2386, in Encyclopedia of Environmetrics (A.H. El‑Shaarawi and W.W. Piegorsch, eds.).  Volume 4.  John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, United Kingdom.  PDF

14) Blundell, G.M., S.C. Jewett, T.A. Dean, and R.T. Bowyer. 2001. An Experiment of Simulated Predation: Can River Otters Become Food Limited in a Marine System? Cold Water Diving for Science 5 University of Alaska Sea Grant: AK-SG-01-06, 2001. PDF

13) Blundell*, G.M., R.T. Bowyer, M. Ben-David, T.A. Dean, and S.C. Jewett.  2000.  Effects of food resources on spacing behavior of river otters: does forage abundance control home-range size?  Pages 325‑333, in 15th International Symposium on Biotelemetry.  (J.H. Eiler, D.J. Alcorn, and M.R. Newman, eds.) International Society on Biotelemetry, Wageningen, The Netherlands.  PDF

12) Bowyer, R.T.,D.M. Leslie, Jr., and J.L. Rachlow.  2000.  Dall’s and Stone’s Sheep.  Pages 491-544 in Ecology and Management of Large Mammals in North America.  (S. Demarais, and P.R. Krausman, eds.)  Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 778 pp.  PDF

11) Reynolds*, P.E., R.T. Bowyer, and D.R. Klein.  1999.  Muskox.  Pages 346-347 in The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals.  (D. E. Wilson and S. Ruff, eds.)  Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., 750 pp. PDF

10) Bowyer, R.T., and D.M. Leslie, Jr. 1999.  Dall’s sheep.  Pages 350-351 in The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals.  (D. E. Wilson and S. Ruff, eds.)  Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., 750 pp. PDF

9) Bowyer, R.T., X. Manteca, and A. Hoymork*.  1998.  Scent marking in American bison: morphological and spatial characteristics of wallows and rubbed trees.  Pages 81-91 in International Symposium on Bison Ecology and Management in North America (L.R. Irby and J.E. Knight, eds.)  Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, 395 pp.  PDF

8) Bowyer, R.T., V. Van Ballenberghe, and J.G. Kie.  1997.  The role of moose in landscape processes: effects of biogeography, population dynamics, and predation.  Pages 265-287 in Wildlife and Landscape Ecology: Effects and Patterns of Scale  (J.A. Bissonette, ed.)  Springer-Verlag, New York, 410 pp.  PDF

7) Hecker**, M.K., L.K. Duffy, G.M. Blundell*, and R.T. Bowyer. 1997.  River otters as a sentinel species: effect and detection of crude oil on the fur of river otters.  Proceedings of the International Conference on Effects of Oil on Wildlife 5:100-102. PDF

6) Duffy, L.K., R.T. Bowyer, J.W. Testa, and J.B. Faro.  1996.  Acute phase proteins and cytokines in Alaskan mammals as markers of chronic exposure to environmental pollutants.  American Fisheries Society Symposia 18:809-813. PDF
 
5) Dale*, B.W., L.G. Adams, and R.T. Bowyer.  1995.  Winter wolf predation in a multiple ungulate prey system, Gates of the Arctic National Park, Alaska.  Pages 223-230 in Ecology and Conservation of Wolves in a Changing World (L.N. Carbyn, S.H. Friits, and D. Seip, eds.).  Canadian Circumpolar Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 620 pp. PDF

4) Nicholson*, M.C., and R.T. Bowyer.  1992.  Deer in a changing environment: the role of GIS in wildlife management.  Proceedings of Resource Technology '92.  International Society for Photogrammery and Remote Sensing 5:304-310. PDF
 
3) Bowyer, R.T., S.C. Amstrup*, J.G. Stahmann*, P. Reynolds*, and F. Burris*.  1988.  Multiple regression methods for modeling caribou populations.  Proceedings of the North American Caribou Workshop 3:89-118. PDF

2) Bowyer, R.T., M.E. Shea**, and S.A. McKenna*.  1986.  The role of winter severity and population density in regulating northern populations of deer.  Pages 193-204 in Is Good Forestry Good Wildlife Management?  (J.A. Bissonette, ed.).  Maine Agricultural Experiment Station Miscellaneous Publication 689, 377 pp. PDF
 
1) Bowyer, R.T., and V.C. Bleich.  1980.  Relationships between southern mule deer and California black oak.  Pages 292-296 in Symposium on the Ecology, Management, and Utilization of California Oaks.  (T.R. Plumb, Technical Coordinator)  U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report PSW‑44, 368 pp.  PDF



Dissertation and Thesis

2) Bowyer, R.T.  1985.  Correlates of group living in southern mule deer.  Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 89 pp.  (Advisors, D.R. McCullough and G.E. Belovsky).

1) Bowyer, R.T.  1976.  Social behavior of Roosevelt elk during rut.  M.S. Thesis, Humboldt State University, Arcata, California, 122 pp.  (Advisor, D.W. Kitchen).