Mt. Merapi Volcanic Eruption



Event Type Volcanic Eruption, Earthquake, Tsunami
Location Yogyakarta City, Central Java, Indonesia.
Event Date 25 October 2010, (ongoing)

25 October: Erupted 3 times. 222 volcanic seismic events, and 454 avalanche seismic events.

26 October: 232 volcanic seismic events, 269 avalanche seismic events, 4 lava flow seismic events, and 6 heat clouds.

29 October: Eruptive activity included lava ejection with hot ash clouds reported to be flowing 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) down the slopes of the mountain and lasting four to nine minutes. Ash falls reached as far as the Central Java town of Magelang.

30 October: Ash from eruptions fell more than 30 kilometres (19 mi) away and now included ash falls upon the city of Yogyakarta. The morning eruptions lasted for 22 minutes and heat clouds flowed into the Krasak and Boyong Rivers also rising 3.5 kilometres (11,000 ft) into the air, westward toward Magelang

3 November: Heat clouds travelled up to 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) away from the eruption forcing the government to evacuate people from within the refugee camps set up to accommodate those already dislocated by the volcano. Eruptions on the afternoon of Wednesday 3 November followed a morning eruption that sent hot gas clouds down the volcano's slopes. The volcano spewed clouds of ash and gas 5 kilometres (16,000 ft) into the sky for more than an hour on 3 November. The eruptions of that day were reported as being the largest since the eruptions commenced. Heavy rain during the night triggered lahars with mixtures of water and rock debris cascading down the Kuning, Gendol, Woro, Boyong, Krasak and Opak rivers on the slopes of the volcano. A bridge was destroyed and riverbanks damaged.

4 November: Merapi had been erupting for 24 hours without stopping. Heat clouds of 600 to 800 degrees Celsius spread as far as 11.5 kilometers from the crater reaching toward the edge of the then 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) exclusion zone, and lava flowed into the mountain’s rivers.

5 November: Volcanic ash fell at Cangkringan village and its surroundings 10 kilometres (6.2 mi). More than 100,000 people had been evacuated.

6 November: Schools were reported closed up to 120 kilometres (75 mi) west of Yogyakarta. High intensity ash falls on the slopes of Mt Merapi. At 23:51 a flash of smoke, hot air winds and flames as high as 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) occurred to the west, north and to the east.

7 November: Hot ash clouds flowed in the direction Gendol and Woro rivers. Volcanic earthquake and hot ash cloud events were reported to have increased from the previous day.

9 November: 5.6 magnitude earthquake was felt in Yogyakarta at 14:03:27. The epicenter was 125 kilometers southwest of Bantul, precisely at 8.98 south latitude coordinates (LS) and 110.08 east longitude (BT) at a depth of 10 kilometers. The quake's epicenter was at sea and had no tsunami potential. In the night, there was a burst of ash reaching up to 1.8 kilometres (1.1 mi) vertically.

10 November: Eruptive intensity was noticed to subside, however the volcano's activity remained high and it was still emiting heat clouds. The exclusion zone remained at 20 kilometres (12 mi)

11 November: Observations indicated the eruptive activities continued but at a level of decreased intensity. 17 Avalanches were recorded, 1 hot ash eruption and 1 volcanic earthquake. The volcano remained a level 4 alert but with a recommendation of "Caution" level being adopted with refugees to remain at a distance of greater than 20 kilometres (12 mi).

At Risk Infrastructure, Agriculture, Food/Water Supply, Homes, Wildlife.
Additional Material OVERVIEW by Gayatri Indah Marliyani
San Diego State University

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Mt. Merapi has been spewing volcanic ash clouds into the air. Satellite data are crucial for assessing the eruption’s danger to air traffic and public safety. Numerous international flights in and out of the Indonesia area have been cancelled due to ash clouds. Flying through such clouds is a threat to safety because the damaging particles can lead to engine failure.

©2010 European Space Agency