Kings of Assyria



783 - 773

Ashurdan III  773-755

Tiglah-pileser III    745  -  727

   Ashurnirari   755-745 Shalmaneser  727-722

Kings of Israel

(Northern Kingdom)


Jehoash             798 -  782

   ZechariaNorthern ten tribes taken captive by King Shalmaneser V of Assyria in 722 B.C 
    Shallum one month 

  793   Jeroboam II  753


732Hoshea 722


Jonah and His Contemporary Prophets              (Northern Kingdom)





784 -772


767- 755


755                               714


Kings of Judah

(Southern Kingdom)


 796         Amaziah         767


750   Jotham   731


790          Uzziah or Azariah           739

735 Ahaz 715


Prophets to Judah 

(Southern Kingdom)


825    809


739                  Isaiah                   681


733          Micah        701


What Jesus Said 

What Jesus Said
     Elijah was sent to the widow of Zarephath (see 1 Kin. 17:8) rather than to widows in Israel—an indication that he, like Jesus, tended to find greater openness outside Israel than within it (Luke 4:24–26).
     Elijah (John the Baptist) had already come (probably referring to the prophecy of Mal. 4:5–6), but was rejected by the Jewish leaders, just as Jesus would be rejected by them (Matt. 17:11–12).
     Elisha healed Naaman (see 2 Kin. 5:1) of leprosy, rather than lepers in Israel—an indication that Gentiles often responded to God in faith more than the Israelites did, which was also true in Jesus’ day (Luke 4:24, 27).
     Isaiah prophesied about the hypocritical religious leaders of Jesus’ day (Matt. 15:7).
     Jonah’s experience in the belly of the great fish was a sign of Jesus’ death, burial, and resurrection (Matt. 12:40–41; Luke 11:32).
     Responsibility for Zechariah’s death would be shared by the disbelieving Jewish leaders of Jesus’ day (Matt. 23:35). (This might not be the same Zechariah who wrote the book bearing his name. )
Word in life study Bible . 1997, c1996 (electronic ed.) (Jon 1.5). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

Jonah and the Sailors

The Sailors
A Hebrew who came from a rich heritage of the Lord’s faithfulness.
Gentiles with no known history of the Lord God.
A monotheist who believed in the one true God (Jon. 1:9).
Polytheists who worshiped many false gods (Jon. 1:5).
Was related to God as a member of Israel.
Had no relationship with the true God.
Was spiritually insensitive and headed in the wrong direction, away from God (Jon. 1:3, 5).
Were spiritually sensitive; for example, they prayed (Jon. 1:5), and later sacrificed and took vows (1:16).
Was indifferent toward God’s will despite knowing Him.
Were concerned before God in spite of little or no knowledge of Him.
Showed no compassion toward Nineveh (Jon. 1:3; 4:1–3).
Showed great compassion toward Jonah (Jon. 1:11–14).
Was rebellious and therefore disciplined, though not destroyed (Jon. 1:17).
Were brought to worship and commitment to the Lord (Jon. 1:16).
Word in life study Bible . 1997, c1996 (electronic ed.) (Jon 1.5). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

A Plant Teaches Jonah About People

Jonah and the Plant
God and the People of Nineveh
Jonah cared for a plant.
God cared for the people of Nineveh.
Jonah was concerned for himself.
God was concerned for the welfare of others.
Jonah did not create the plant.
God created all the people and animals in Nineveh.
Jonah did nothing for the plant.
God took care of Nineveh.
The plant had temporal value.
The people of Nineveh had both temporal and spiritual value.
Jonah’s primary concern was for his own personal comfort.
God’s primary concern was for human life—and spiritual sensitivity toward Him.
Jonah’s values displayed selfishness and an upside-down perspective on life.
God’s values displayed His love and a proper perspective on life.
Word in life study Bible . 1997, c1996 (electronic ed.) (Jon 4.9). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

Contrasting Jonah and the Mariners

The Mariners
He was a Hebrew with a rich history of yaweh God’s faithfulness
They were Gentiles with no history of yahweh God.
He was monotheistic, believing in the one true God. (v. 9)
They were polytheistic, worshiping many false gods.
He was rightly related to the true God.
They had no reationship with the true God.
He was spiritually insensitive, going in the wrong direction from God. (v. 5)
They were spiritually sensitive, moving in the right direction towards God. They prayed. (v. 5)
He was indifferent toward God’s will in spite of knowing Him.
They were concerned before God in spite little or no knowledge of Him.
He was uncompassionate toward Nineveh. (v. 3)
They were compassionate toward Jonah. (v. 11–14)
Jonah was rebellious and therefore disciplined, but not destroyed. (v. 17)
They were brought to worship and commitment. (v. 16)
New Geneva study Bible. 1997, c1995 (electronic ed.) (Jon 1.7). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

God and Nineveh vs. Jonah and the Plant

God and Nineveh
Jonah and the Plant
God cared for the people of Nineveh
Jonah cared for a plant
God was concerned for the welfare of others
Jonah was concerned for himself
God created all that was in Nineveh
Jonah did not create the plant
God tended Nineveh
Jonah did nothing for the plant
The people of Nineveh are of eternal significance
The plant was most temporal
God’s concern was and is for human life
Jonah’s concern was for personal comfort and selfish personal interest
God’s concern for Nineveh is proper and displays his love
Jonah’s concern for a plant rather than for people is improper; it displays selfishness and an improper perspective on life
New Geneva study Bible. 1997, c1995 (electronic ed.) (Jon 3.5). Nashville: Thomas Nelson.