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Saga of AIED

 A Personalized Random Walk Through the History of AIED


By Gord McCalla


In the beginning
There is Scholar
“Socratic learning”
Carbonell hollers

Then John Self
Enters the fray
Student modelling
Will be the way

SOPHIE helps students
To diagnose
Bugs in circuits
From pillar to post

The BUGGY system
By Burton and Brown
Subtraction errors
In a library found

Goldstein proposes
The genetic graph
Knowledge evolves
Along learning paths

Programmers need
Advice momentous
Rich develops
The Programmer’s Apprentice

Sleeman and Brown
Raise the bar
Intelligent tutoring systems
From near and far

The first collection of
AIED techniques
And, some still say
This was the peak

The 70’s end
The 80’s begin
The domains expand
The techniques burgeon

Repair Theory
By VanLehn and Brown
Clancey’s Guidon
Will go to town

“Cognitive apprenticeship
Will have impact”
States Mr. Collins,
Allan, in fact

Programming
Is a hot domain
Johnson and Soloway’s
PROUST gains fame

Smithtown built by
Glaser and Shute
Macroeconomics through an
Inquiry-based route

Natural language
Interactions
Workplace training
Are new attractions

Language learning with
Carlo Tasso
Foreign languages
No longer a hassle

Winkels and Sandberg
And Breuker (Joost)
Build Euro-Help to aid
System use

“Learning companions”
Says Tak-Wai Chan
Peachey and McCalla
Say “instructional plan”

“Modelling”
Again that word
Intractable?
Don’t be absurd

Personalization
Helps learning gains
Rosegarden promises
Partially attained

AIED arrives as
A field of its own
Wenger’s book
A real capstone

Conferences come
As the field matures
The first AIED
Is actually the third

Frasson and Gauthier
ITS create
Schank’s Learning Sciences
AIED alternate?

The journal begins
Editor: John Self
The Society forms to
Stop decisions by stealth

Onto the scene
NATO cometh
25 workshops
One every month?

Workshop interaction
Is very intense
Can it be measured
By a breathalyzer test?

The 90’s dawn, the field
Getting serious
Intelligent tutors based on
Cognitive theories

Newell’s SOAR
Anderson’s ACT*
It’s all CMU
So go with ACT-R

Cognitive tutors
An approach pragmatic
For teaching programming
And mathematics

Mitrovic and Ohlsson
Propose constraints
Model tracing
It certainly ain’t

Maybe the field
Should all be formal?
Self’s mathetics never does
Become normal

But his call later on
For any who dare
Is to “Build learning systems …
Systems that care”

At LRDC
VanLehn builds Andes
Lesgold builds SHERLOCK
Helped by Sandy

And at ARIES
Vassileva and Greer
Explore learning systems
That are peer to peer

Impasses hit
Thoughts misaligned
So let’s help out
Just in time

Student modelling
With overlays?
Conati says
“Let’s use Bayes”

“Open modelling”
Say Pain and Bull
Judy Kay says
“Inscrutable”

Not just open
But interactive
To gain Dimitrova’s
Satisfaction

Gerhard Weber tries
Something exotic
ELM helps learners based
On rules episodic

Qualitative reasoning?
Bredeweg says “ja”
For Winkels and Muntjewerff
It’s also the law

Kevin Ashley takes
A case-based approach
Arguments legal that are
Beyond reproach

Building systems
Often seems like hell
Tom Murray asks
“Why not a shell?”

Systems designed by
Chee-Kit Looi
Show learning is helped
By inquiry

Verdejo and Cerri
Tend to agree
Dialogues at a distance
Will help learners to see

It’s a tall order to rhyme
Wouter van Joolingen
Must find a word better
Suited than hooligan

Discovery learning in
Scientific domains
Brings Wouter van Joolingen
His share of fame

Moving towards
New domains
Ill-defined
Un-contained

Motivation
A big concern
Tracking affect
Helps to learn

Not just one person
In the loop
Learning happens in
Pairs and groups

“Situate” say
Wenger and Lave
“Communities of Practice”
The coming wave

“Networked learning”
Says Daniel Suthers
People in one place
Support those in others

Dillenbourg’s thing
Distributed cognition
Moves to Suisse
Climbing ambition

Learning on-line
Is a stunner
But even so
Games are funner

The decade ends on notes
High and low
99 conference
A really good show

Martial Vivet directs
A spectacular fling
But dies right after
A terrible thing

Y2K holds
No surprise
AIED continues
To rise

Cognitive tutors
Go to school
Koedinger, Corbett
And Ritter rule

Gautam Biswas
With Betty’s Brain
Learner as teacher
Brings great gain

AutoTutor
By Arthur Graesser
LSA
To make things better

Authentic environments
Are hard they say
Sue Lajoie’s ATLAS
Will find the way

Jack Mostow
With Project Listen
A coloured jacket that
Brightly glistens

Just down the street
There’s Diane Litman
Who’s investigating language
Both spoken and written

Lester interactive with
His narrative
For Rosé dialogue’s
The imperative

Collaboration stops
Learners from flopping
That’s the gospel
Of Ulrich Hoppe

Heffernan prefers
Supportive assistment
It’s much better than
Standard assessment

Help needed?
Errors glaring?
“Tutor help seeking” say
Aleven and McLaren

Many representations are
DeFT-ly juggled
By Shaaron Ainsworth
So learners don’t struggle

The world wide web
A great resource
So let’s use it
To augment a course

Brusilovsky says “da”
To hypermedia adaptive
So now the learner is
No longer held captive

And we’ll also need
Ontology
At least according to
Mizoguchi

“Participate”
Says Rosemary Luckin
“Any one discipline we
Should not get stuck in”

On learning cultural
And also social
Barb Wasson along with
Others are vocal

Baker and Beck
Data mine
Gaming’s good
Some of the time

New specializations
Now emerge
With EDM
Leading the surge

Metacognition and
Self reflection
Beyond just thinking
An upward projection

Simulated learners
Will play their part
In evaluating systems
For a start

But also used in
Other roles
To help achieve
Broader goals

Pedagogical agents
Environments immersive
Johnson moves on
From teaching recursion

Evaluation
Would be nice
Smiling faces
No more suffice

Now in order for
Research to thrive
Must always be better
Than point oh five

Who’s running the field?
The authoritarians?
Turns out that the power lies
In former Bulgarians

Julita and Lora
And also Vania
And right next door
There is Tanja

John Self retires
What of the journal?
No worries there
Thanks to Paul Brna

The conference goes on
Through dust clouds volcanic
Despite Marksian ploys
And earthquakes tectonic

A new book written
By Beverly Woolf
One stop shopping
To find the truth

Journals, conferences
A proliferation
Important to publish
Or end up perishin’

Your talk is done
There’s no more tension
Then Ben du Boulay
Asks a question

Worse, sometimes an idiot
Dares to opine
Rogatien “G.” Cumberbatch
Springs to mind

What comes next?
What are the trends?
Here is what McCalla
Recommends

Environments evolve
With their data growth
So I propose
The ecological approach

Everybody with a
Portable device
Mobile learning
Would be nice

Learning not
Just virtual
Integrate it
With the real world

And lifelong learning
Gains in traction
The next hot spot?
The next big action?

Or, maybe it’s MOOCs
A brand new idea
Trust you can draw on
AIED’s 40 years

And, how about bringing us all
Back together?
ITS, ICALT
And even better

CSCL
Could join the fray
Even Learning Sciences
At the end of the day

When all is done
At the end of the dance
We’re all looking at parts
Of the same elephants

My saga ends
And none too soon
Even Elvis
Has left the room

So let’s raise a glass
To our Memphis hosts
And say “thank you very much!”
With a well earned toast!