Publications‎ > ‎Books‎ > ‎

Sustainable Traditional Buildings of Iran, a Climatic Analysis





Sustainable Traditional Buildings of Iran, a Climatic Analysis
By: Vahid Ghobadian, Ph.D.
  
Our present methods of construction are based on the maximum consumption of resources and maximum production of waste. Today, in spite of the new construction materials and the variety of technological means at our disposal, our buildings are very expensive to build and costly to maintain, and even worse, at times uncomfortable to live in. We can feel that human comfort is better provided in traditional houses, bazaars, and mosques than in new ones.
In the past the builders had to understand and consider environmental elements and factors and make the best use of them; otherwise, their buildings would have been very cold in winter and very hot in summer. In other words, since they had very limited resources and real choices to make, they had to make the best use of what was at their disposal.
If form follows function in modern architecture, in Iran’s traditional built environment, urban context, building form and construction materials followed climate. This means that in each climatic region, the three items mentioned were designed and built with regard to the climatic conditions of that particular region.
Chapter one of this book deals with climatic factors, and chapters two to six discuss the climatic conditions of each region of Iran and their effect on urban form, building form, and construction materials – in particular with regard to houses. In chapters seven to thirteen, the effects of climate on the form of different types of commercial and religious buildings and also bathhouses, water storage structures, ice-making structures, caravanserais and bridges is presented for each of the four climatic regions of Iran. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                                                    

FOREWORD                                                                                                           

INTRODUCTION                                                                                                   

PART ONE:

CLIMATIC REGIONS, URBAN FORM, BUILDING FORM, AND CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS                                                  


CHAPTER 1

CLIMATIC FACTORS                                                                       

1.1 Latitude                                                                                                          

1.2 Altitude                                                                                                          

1.3 Distances from Sea                                                                                       

 

CHAPTER 2

THE CLIMATIC REGIONS OF IRAN                                                

 

CHAPTER 3

THE NORTHERN COASTAL REGION – Temperate Climate                                              

3.1 Climatic Conditions                                                                                       

3.2 Urban Form                                                                                                    

3.3 Building Form                                                                                                

3.4 Building Materials                                                                                          

3.5 House Types and Building Materials                                                             

 

CHAPTER 4

THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REGION – Hot and Dry Climate           

4.1 Climatic Conditions                                                                                        

       4.1.1 Qanats                                                                                                   

4.2 Urban Form                                                                                                   

4.3 Building Form                                                                                                

      4.3.1 Houses for Four Seasons                                                                                            

       4.3.2 Vaults and Domes                                                                                                        

       4.3.3 Wind Towers                                                                                                                 

4.4 Building Materials                                                                                          

4.5 Case Study: Boroujerdiha House                                                                  

  

 

CHAPTER 5

THE MOUNTAINOUS AND HIGH PLATEAU REGION – Cold Climate                                                                                                                                

5.1 Climatic Conditions                                                                                        

5.2 Urban Form                                                                                                   

5.3 Building Form                                                                                                 

5.4 Building Materials                                                                                          

5.5 The Village of Masooleh                                                                               

5.6 The Village of Kandovan                                                                               

5.7 The village of Maymand                                                                                

 

CHAPTER 6

THE SOUTHERN COASTAL REGION – Hot and Humid Climate                                   

6.1 Climatic Conditions                                                                                       

6.2 Urban Form                                                                                                    

6.3 Building Form                                                                                                

      6.3.1 Wind Towers                                                                                                               

6.4 Building Materials                                                                                        

6.5 The Northern Plains of the Province of Khuzestan– Hot and Semi-Humid                                                                                                                                                   

                                                

 

PART TWO: 

BUIDING TYPES AND CLIMATE:                                                  

 

CHAPTER 7

COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

7.1 Bazaars                                                                                                       

7.2 The Form of Bazaars in Different Climatic Regions                                                

      7.2.1 Bazaars in the Northern Coastal Region                                                                   

       7.2.2 Bazaars in the Central Plateau Region                                                                      

       7.2.3 Bazaars in the Mountainous and High Plateau Region                                             

       7.2.4 Bazaars in the Southern Coastal Region                                                                   

7.3 Caravanserais, Saras, Teems and Teemchehs                                           

 

CHAPTER 8

RELIGIOUS BUILDINGS                                                                

8.1 Mosques                                                                                                     

8.2 The Form of Mosques in Different Climatic Regions                                             

      8.2.1 Mosques in the Northern Coastal Region                                                                

       8.2.2 Mosques in the Central Plateau Region                                                                   

       8.2.3 Mosques in the Mountainous and High Plateau Region                                           

      

8.2.4 Mosques in the Southern Coastal Region                                                          

8.3 Madrassas                                                                                                  

8.4 The Form of Madrassas in Different Climatic Regions                                             

     8.4.1 Madrassas in the Northern Coastal Region                                                                

      8.4.2 Madrassas in the Central Plateau Region                                                                  

      8.4.3 Madrassas in the Mountainous and High Plateau Region                                                                                                             

      8.4.4 Madrassas in the Southern Coastal Region

                                                               

CHAPTER 9

BATHHOUSES                                                                                

9.1 The Hammam’s Internal Microclimate                                                        

9.2 Heating System                                                                                           

9.3 Water                                                                                                          

9.4 Lighting System                                                                                           

9.5 Fresh Air                                                                                                     

9.6 Building Materials                                                                                        

9.7 Customs                                                                                                     

 

CHAPTER 10

WATER STORAGE STRUCTURES                                               

10.1 Water Storage in Different Climatic Regions                                            

10.2 Ab-anbars                                                                                                 

        10.2.1 Water                                                                                                                     

         10.2.2 Ventilation                                                                                                              

         10.2.3 Building Types and Materials                                                                                 

10.3 Berkehs                                                                                                     

        10.3.1 Water                                                                                                                     

         10.3.2 Building Types and Materials                                                                                 

 

CHAPTER 11

ICE-MAKING STRUCTURES                                                         

11.1 Making Ice                                                                                                                         

11.2 Storing Ice                                                                                                  

        11.2.1 Domed Yakh-Chals                                                                                              

         11.2.2 Vaulted Yakh-Chals                                                                                              

         11.2.3 Roofless Yakh-Chals                                                                                            

 

CHAPTER 12

CARAVANSERAIS

12.1 The Form of Caravanserais in Different Climatic Regions                                                                          

        12.1.1 Caravanserais in the Northern Coastal Region                                                    

         12.1.2 Caravanserais in the Central Plateau Region                                                       

         12.1.3 Caravanserais in the Mountainous and High Plateau Region                                                                                            

         12.1.4 Caravanserais in the Southern Coastal Region                                                    

12.2 Urban Caravanserais                                                                                

12.3 Courier Buildings

 

                

CHAPTER 13

BRIDGES

13.1 The Functions of Bridges                                                                                                                                             

13.2 The Form of Bridges in Different Climatic Regions                                            13.2.1 Bridges in the Northern Coastal Region                                                               

         13.2.2 Bridges in the Central Plateau Region                                                                  

         13.2.3 Bridges in the Mountainous and high Plateau Region                                                                                                                        

         13.2.4 Bridges in the Southern Coastal Region                                                               

13.3 Dams                                                                                                         

 

 

        Dynastic Periods in Iran                                                                            

        Glossary of Persian Terms                                                                           

        Notes                                                                                                          

        Picture Credits                                                                                              

        Related Sources                                                                                         

        About the Author                                                                                           

        Persian Introduction   

2

 

3

 

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15

16

18

19

 

 

 

23

 

 

35

 

36

38

40

43

45

 

 

 

49

 

50

50

52

56

58

59

63

65

66

 

 

 

73

 

74

76

78

82

84

85

88

 

 

 

91

 

92

94

96

101

102

103

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

113

114

118

118

119

121

125

126

 

 

135

136

136

138

141

148

149

153

154

156

156

161

164

 

167

171

172

173

175

176

176

177

 

 

183

184

184

186

189

189

192

192

194

 

 

201

202  

204

204

206

209

 

215

219  

219

220

226 

229

230        

232

 

 

 

 

235

238

238

240

244

245

247           

 

251

 

255 

 

254

255

258 

261 

263


Comments