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This page is a compilation of the resources found within the psychology learning module.

Race and Ethnicity
A Project of the American Anthropological Association

From Race- The Power of an Illusion

Fox, Helen. (2004). Insider’s guide, Part I: Race, ethnicity, and identity. In H. Fox, When race breaks out (pp. 19 – 34). New York: Peter Lang.  

Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism

Waller, J. (1998). The foundations of “isms”: Stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination. In J. Waller, Face to face: The changing state of racism across America (pp. 21 – 42). New York: Insight Books.

See the chapter entitled "The Foundation of 'Isms,'" view the entire book 

Stereotype Threat

Stereotype Threat

This website explains stereotype threat, its consequences, and offers summaries of research on stereotype threat.

Steele, Claude M. and Joshua Aronson, "Stereotype Threat and the Intellectual Test Performance of African Americans," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 69 (5), Nov 1995, 797-811.

Steele, C. (2003) Stereotype Threat and African-American Student Achievement. In T. Perry, C. Steele, and A. G. Hilliard III, Young, Gifted, and Black (pp. 109 – 130). Boston: Beacon Press.


Bonilla-Silva, E. (2003). The central frames of color-blind racism. In E. Bonilla-Silva, Racism without racists (pp. 25 – 52). Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield

An article published in 2002 in The Tech, MIT's newspaper.

John F. Dovidio and Samuel L. Gaertner, Color Blind or Just Plain Blind?: The Pernicious Nature of Contemporary Racism, 12(4) The NonProfit Quarterly (Winter 2005).  Click here for a link to the article.

Aversive Racism
Gaertner, S.L., and J.F. Dovidio. 1986. The aversive form of racism. In: J.F. Dovidio and S.L. Gaertner (Eds.), Prejudice, Discrimination and Racism: Theory and Research. Orlando, FL: Academic Press, pp. 61-89.  

Dovidio, J. F. and Gaertner, S. L. (1998). On the Nature of Contemporary Prejudice.” In J.L. Eberhardt and S.T. Fiske (Eds.), Confronting racism: The problem and the response (pp. 3 – 32). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Discussion Questions
"White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack," by Peggy McIntosh
Excerpt from "White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspondences Through Work in Women’s Studies Wellesley College." Center for Research on Women, Working Paper Series No. 189, 1998.