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Common Herbs 常用草藥

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TCM editor
Chinese medicine (Chinese herbology, Traditional Materia Medica), refers to the traditional Chinese medicine theory to guide for the prevention, diagnosis, treatment or drugs regulate body functions. Process according to traditional Chinese medicine into medicine, Chinese herbal medicines. Medicine mainly originated in China, in addition to plants, animals, drugs such as gall bladder, bile, acutus, velvet, antlers, etc; shellfish such as pearls, sea clam shell; minerals such as keel, magnets, etc. are used to treat medicine. Chinese medicine derived from a small number of foreign countries, such as American ginseng. [1] 

Why use a casserole boil medicine

The main ingredient is silicate casserole, and traditional Chinese medicine ingredients will not react chemically destroy the medicinal properties. Iron, aluminum pot boiling process is easy and medicine in a chemical reaction to produce toxins. And casserole is heated evenly, heat slowly, medicine or water can not evaporate, is not easy to paste pot.
Chinese medicine decoction should pay attention to what more
Chinese medicine decoction decoction generally 2 to 3 times, at least should be fried twice. Usually not before boiling with high heat, simmer after boiling. General head boiled and then fried fry over low heat 20 to 30 minutes, two fried boiled and then fried low heat 10 to 20 minutes.
Medicine should not be taking more overnight
Air, temperature, time and other factors make bacterial contamination in liquid enzymatic decomposition reduction effect, bacteria breeding, starch, sugar and other ingredients nutrition fermentation hydrolysis, resulting in deterioration of liquid sour, after taking on human health.
Related terms:
Casserole Compendium of Materia Medica
Chinese name English name of Chinese medicine Chinese herbology, Traditional Chinese medicine alias herbs, crude drugs amount to about 2,000 kinds of famous books, "Compendium of Materia Medica", "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic"
Contents 1 words concept ▪ Basic Information ▪ ▪ cited to explain the history of the ancient 2 development ▪ development ▪ future development of modern 3 Clinical research ▪ ▪ food therapy drug efficacy 4 Cosmetics book Compendium of Materia Medica ▪ ▪ ▪ local pharmacy herbal medicine popular book ▪ Cosmetics ▪ ▪ medicine Reform and Development of writings 5 ​​6 7 tonic misunderstanding incompatibility Compatibility ▪ ▪ ▪ Contraindications ▪ side effects of this by boiling method 8 ▪ cleaning appliances ▪ ▪ ▪ boiling ▪ soaking 9 Other relevant dose Therapy ▪ ▪ four poison gas not "poison" ▪ monarch Philosophical concepts ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ general classification medicine Detection ▪ Notes ▪ scientific harvest
Term concept editor
Basic Information

Headwords: Chinese
Pinyin: zhōng yào
Phonetic: mi fa ㄨ ㄓ ㄧ ㄠ '
Similar words: medicine
Basic interpretation: [traditional Chinese medicine] medicine used drugs. [2] 
Cited explanation

1. peaceful drugs. San Guowei Ji Kang "health" theory: "So Shennong, saying: 'on drugs to support life, medicine cultivation' who know the honest reason for their lives, because the auxiliary support in order to pass too." Jin Zhanghua "Natural History" VII: " Chinese medicine cultivation, that Acacia Juan anger, day lily lotus "Song Xu Xuan" title Crane Temple "poem:." Sigh often too sick medicine, to be asked Scriptures beg little further. "
2. Chinese medicine used drugs, which most plants. [2] 
Development history Edit
Ancient Development

Traditional Chinese medicine
Traditional Chinese medicine
Chinese working people for thousands of years in the course of the fight against the disease, through practice, constant awareness, and gradually accumulated a wealth of medical knowledge. Since time immemorial the text did not interest, that knowledge can only rely modeled dictation, and later with the text, will gradually record, there have been medicine books. These books played a summary of previous experience and facilitate the spread and promotion of the role. Chinese medicine has a history of several thousand years, the Chinese people in their long struggle with the disease is extremely rich in lessons learned, for the prosperity of the Chinese nation has a huge contribution. Because the majority of drugs grass, so the drug will be recorded in books called "Materia Medica." According to research, Qin and Han Dynasty, herbal medicine has been more popular, but unfortunately these are herbal Wang Yi, no trace. Now the oldest known herbal book called "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic", author unknown, according to which according to geographical names, the Eastern Han Dynasty physicians may be revised from previous works.
"Shen Nong's Herbal Classic" The book is in three volumes, containing such drugs, including move, plant, mine three categories, a total of 365 kinds, each drug item download sexual taste, function and indications, ordered another example briefly describes the basic theory of medication , such as toxic, non-toxic, four gas flavors, compatibility testimonies, medication methods and pills, powder, cream, wine and other forms, can be said that the Chinese before summing up our knowledge of drugs and pharmaceutical development for the future of the foundation. To the Northern and Southern Dynasties, Liang Hongjing (AD 452 ~ 536 years) would "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic" finishing supplemented with a "Annotations of Materia Medica," a book, which adds 365 kinds of Han Wei and the following doctors used drugs called "doctors do not record ʱ?? [3]
Under each of the original drug not only the taste, function and indications have anything to add, and adds origin, acquisition time and processing methods, greatly enriched the "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic" content. In the Tang Dynasty, due to the development of productive forces and external transport increasingly frequent, should circumstances so require, government-appointed Li Ji, who presided over Upgrading Dow note Herbal Classic, called "Tang Materia Medica" life after Su Jing and other heavy plus amendments by 114 kinds of medicine, to significantly celebrate four years (AD 659 years) the enactment, called "Newly Revised Materia Medica" or foreign drugs have entered the drug varieties become increasingly increases. To fit "Tang new Materia Medica", the book by the then government revised and enacted, it can be regarded as the first country in the world is a pharmacopoeia. This 844 kinds of herbal drug, along with medication profiles, creating a graphic control of herbal books precedent, not only has a great influence on the development of pharmacology, and soon spread abroad; for the development of the world has made medicine important contribution. [3]
The above is my summary of ancient knowledge of drugs three times, after every certain period, due to the knowledge of the drug
Radix (18)
 Continuously enriched, there appears a new summary. As Song "Kai Bao Materia Medica", "Jiayou sidebar Materia Medica", are conclusive. By the late Northern Song Dynasty, Tang Shu Medical Shenwei compiled a "certified by the history of emergency preparedness class Materia Medica" (referred Syndrome of Materia Medica). He will "Jiayou sidebar Materia Medica" and "Maps of Materia Medica" merger, increasing more than 500 kinds of medicine, well collected many unilateral prescription medicine and the folk, supplemented by the history of literature, come a lot of drug information, making the book more substantial content, style 亦较 complete, revised by the government had sent three times, with the "grand", "governance", "Shaoxing" The reign, as the official line of books. Great Ming Dynasty medical scientist Li (AD 1518 ~ 1593), in the "Syndrome of Materia Medica" based on) a thorough revision, "the age of thirty calendar Nim, book test eight hundred, draft where Sany" compiled in line with the development needs of Materia Medica masterpiece - "Compendium of Materia Medica" in Li's death three years (1596) in Nanking (now Nanjing) print and publish for the first time. The book contained 1,892 kinds of drugs, more than 11,000 square attached. [3]
Modern development

Traditional Chinese medicine
Traditional Chinese medicine
The establishment of the Republic of China, ending two thousand years of feudal monarchy, but China has not changed the nature of semifeudal and semicolonial society. Besides, the government years of war, social unrest, economic recession, resulting in a slow and uneven development of Chinese science and technology far behind Europe, Japan, China lost 16 centuries ago in the world's leader in science and technology generally. In the case of a large influx of Western technology and culture, it appeared in Western coexist. Accordingly, society and the medical profession of traditional Chinese medicine gradually with "Chinese" medicine, "said the modern Western medicine has thus gradually called" Western medicine "medicine." Abolish the Kuomintang government adopted the policy of Chinese medicine, hindering the development of Chinese medicine, which sparked widespread protests in the pharmaceutical industry. In the academic medical workers struggling to forge ahead, despite the difficulties, herbal medicine or pharmacy still be developed. According to incomplete statistics, Chinese existing Republic of China has more than 260 kinds of books, mostly style novel, diverse, focus on practical. Because of their discussion range, style, language, etc. differ with the traditional herbal medicine, or for popular reasons are generally not to Herbal name. Meanwhile integrated traditional Chinese medicine books and handouts more, the majority of the contents are somewhat clinical utility. The former Jiang Yubo, "Chinese pharmacology Integration" more representative. The book has Subjects, the monograph of two parts. Subjects outlines the basic theoretical knowledge about the medicine; the effectiveness of classification according to the monograph were written more than 400 kinds of aliases drugs, smell, shape, function, system of law, toxic, non-toxic, dosage, contraindications, prescription and so on. Its style and content with the former similar, but more concise and practical. As Qinbo not "pharmaceutically stresses", divided into divergent, diuresis, qi, regulating blood, warm, cold medicine and other 12 categories to be introduced, such as Zhang Shan Lei "Herbal justice", belongs to the nature of traditional medicine theory. The book discusses the combination of personal experience medication medicine herbs, function and identification, processing, boiling method, there is a good influence.
Future Development

Domestic drug consumption market reality urban residents, rural is a huge potential market, pharmaceutical market capacity will be further expanded. Chinese medicine including Chinese medicine, Chinese herbal medicine, Chinese Herbal Medicine, Chinese medicine is its most important component. According to the "2013--2017 depth of China's medicine industry research and investment analysis Strategic Planning Report" statistics, China has more than 80 percent of urban residents had to buy their own medicine. Huge demand for the further development of traditional Chinese medicine industry provides a huge space.
Provinces medicine, Chinese medicine, bio-medicine "five" plan shows that most provinces and cities where the drug industry growth rate is expected to be between 20% -25%, some provinces and cities is expected to more than 30% lower than a small part of the provinces Fifteen%. In the planning forecast several key provinces and cities in Chinese medicine, Chinese medicine industry average growth rate of over 20%, of which Shandong Province with an average annual growth rate of more than 30% or, Sichuan, Jiangxi, respectively 25%, about 23%. Forecast, traditional Chinese medicine industry, "second Five-Year" period will maintain an average annual growth rate of 12 percent, the total output value of over 559 billion in 2015, but the comprehensive provinces of specific planning, medicine industry in China is expected higher than the overall growth of the pharmaceutical industry show prediction "Twelfth Five Year Plan", the annual growth rate, or up to 20% to 2015 total industrial output value of Chinese industry or will reach about 700 billion.
Clinical research editor
Drug efficacy

Many not only the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine has withstood the test of long-term medical practice, but also has been proven Institute of Modern Science. Some of the molecular structure of the active ingredients and herbs, also have wholly or partially understood. For example, the active ingredient ephedrine ephedra asthma, the active ingredient of antimalarial Changshan Changshan base, fumaric pain is the main component tetrahydro palm leaf tetradrine (tetrahydropalmatine), the main component of berberine and Cork Zhili berberine (berberine ), the main ingredient of antibacterial skullcap baicalein, the active ingredient purgative under sennoside like. In order to ensure the efficacy of drugs, Chinese working people in long-term practice, for the cultivation of drugs, harvesting, processing, processing, storage and storage, etc., have also accumulated very rich experience. Many facts prove that the ancient Han Chinese working people accumulated through long-term practice of medicine heritage is extremely rich, extremely valuable. We should cherish this great treasure house of the motherland medicine, and strive to explore, to be improved.
The Development of foreign pharmaceutical knowledge to Egypt and India earliest. Egypt around 1500 BC "papytus" (paper herb) and after India's "Ajur veda" (the life of the Vedas) have been recorded in drugs. Greek, Roman, Arab medicine in development also has a long history, such as the Greek physician Dioscorides's De Materia Medica "(pharmacy), the Roman Galen (AD 131 ~ 200 years) book" Materia Medica "(Pharmacology ), the Arab physician Avicenna (AD 980) book "Canon Mediclnae" (medicine Code) and the like are specifically pharmacological works, has a greater influence on the development of the ancient medicine.
Food Therapy

Record food therapy "Herbal" (Tang Meng milling), according to Famine plants "Shortage of Materia Medica" (Ming Zhu Jiu), focusing on the drug identification, "Ben Cao Yan Yi" (Song Kou were yellow), focusing on drugs gun Sunburn "on artillery Sunburn" (Northern and Southern Liu Song Lei Xiao), and easy to learn reading, rake Now or clinical disease sized reference herbal variety. The Qing Dynasty, the writings WU Chun's two monographs plant: "The plant name, map test" and "plant name, map compiled expertise" come out, the former record 1,714 kinds of plants, 838 kinds of plants which are described. For each plant form, color of taste, quite detailed description of the purpose and place of origin, along with precise illustrations, with particular emphasis on plants with medicinal value research homonym, so though the drug monographs, are also an important reference value. In addition, our knowledge of ancient people also received drugs planted in many medical writings and prescriptions. Such as the Eastern Han Dynasty Zhongjing book "Treatise on" and "Golden Chamber", the Eastern Jin Ge Hong's "elbow Emergencies", Don Sun Ssu "emergency preparedness daughter to party" and "Qian Jin Yi Fang", Song Chen Shih Wen etc. compiled by "Taiping Huimin and economic Bureau", Ming Zhu Xiao et al, "Universal Relief" and so many others. These books were contained drugs and prescriptions, it has also been widely used in a lot of, with good effect. [4]
Diet Diet can be divided into two major categories of traditional Chinese medicine and therapeutic herbs:
1. therapeutic medicine: therapeutic medicine refers to having eating disease prevention or health rehabilitation role, also known as "edible medicine", "Herbal" or "Food and medicine," and so on. Such therapeutic medicine including cereals, fruits, vegetables, spices, animals, fish and other categories.
2. Diet Diet: Diet is formulated from having a therapeutic effect of drugs, food and spices from the diet, generally speaking, herbs can be made solely by the consumption of traditional Chinese medicine processing, but also medicines and food as raw materials, according to certain Prescription, processing and cooking together. [4]
Dictionary book editor
Compendium of Materia Medica

Traditional Chinese medicine
Traditional Chinese medicine
Li comprehensive finishing in this book and summarize the knowledge of the drugs before the sixteenth century of our people, and made great progress. He painted change drug map, revised error, according to the natural properties of the drug, divided into sixteen classes, sixty categories, under each drug, sub Shiming, Variorum, Shuji, indications, invention, with parties and related drugs term, full and clear style, with the word strict, is the history of our country's greatest works of Materia Medica, is extremely glorious history of scientific achievements. Li personally herbs in the mountains long-term, far poorer way place, over the exercise vulgar, traveled to the north and south of the drugs field visits and organize research, and with a realistic scientific attitude force provision Yu Ru's fallacy, denounced the heresy alchemist, the correct ancient Many herbal drugs in terms of variety and efficacy of error, only to "Compendium of Materia Medica," a book of all herbal reach levels far from the previous generation, the book in the early 1500s to spread the world over, has repeatedly engraved and translated into many languages, not only for the World Medical has made a great contribution to the study of animals and plants are also important minerals books. Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty Zhao Xuemin compiled "Compendium of Materia Medica", a book on the "Compendium of Materia Medica" made some positive error and added 716 kinds of medicine increased. From the Han to the Qing Dynasty, no less than a hundred kinds of herbal books, their own strengths, but it can be called a summary, only said a few books. Remaining as local "southern Yunnan Materia Medica" (Ming Lan Mao), foreign drugs specifically remember "sea medicine Materia Medica" (Don Lee martyrdom).
Local Herbal

Where there are a variety of traditional herbal belong to 肖步丹 "Lingnan herbs recorded" Gao Yue "Tarzan drug records" more features, but also enriched the variety of drugs. Herbal greater progress, most content-rich and practical. As Qinbo not "Dietary Guidelines), the traditional briefly characterized; Yang a, Chen Zhonggui" Food for curing diseases common sense ", Roger Leopard" edible herbal medicine ", is more the voice of experience. Other aspects, such as the late Qing Dynasty by Cao Bingzhang According to Zheng Xiao Yan relegated to "counterfeit drugs identified" patch set from the "update counterfeit drugs identified", contained 110 kinds of medicine, on origin, shape, smell, and so on to discuss or compare attending for Identification of the authenticity of the pros and cons of drugs provided valuable experience. Yang Huating "pharmaceutically map test", quote herbal literature, drug varieties made a scientific research, together with patterns, there is a great reference value.
Pharmaceutical Works

As Yang Shucheng "China Pharmaceuticals", Zhou Fusheng "updating Pharmaceutical Guide", about the content than those realistic. Then work in the pharmacy, in addition to the traditional expression, but also produced in Western medicine Huitong make. Huitong school of medicine, the use of natural science and some of the results of Western medicine and complementary medicine based sources expression, composition, efficacy and pharmacology, etc., or to explain to each other Western pharmacology; meantime depth, uneven gains and losses. In various writings, to Guo Wang, "Chinese medicine new feel," Wen Jing Xiu "Recent experimental drug study" and Ruan its hydrocarbons, Wang Yiren, Dong Keren's "Ben Cao Jing new note), and other more representative. Given the number of traditional Chinese medicine this period numerous, extensive knowledge, learning and dissemination of traditional Chinese medicine has a lot of inconvenience, so not only will read, including a class of medicine introductory song books a lot, and the new generation of Chinese medicine dictionaries. [5]

Greater impact in 1935, Chen Cunren compiled the "Chinese Medicine Dictionary." The book is 2.7 million words, to close drug eye 4300, naming each drug were introduced BOOKS aliases, basic, origin, morphology, properties, composition, efficacy, indications, ancient written research, forgeries, neighbor doctrine, with the application, dosage, administration Taboo, reference materials, etc. 21. Data-rich, comprehensive collection of ancient and modern about the discussion, and the accompanying drawings. It is the history of the development of Chinese medicine first large-scale dictionary. In addition to the above, is reflected in the herbal medicine or Chinese medicine academic progress, deserve special mention are: efficacy and indications are clearly open to respectively effect a more accurate representation, increasing the dose of Chinese medicine, as well as gradually with family, genus, species name represents traditional Chinese medicine group sources. During this period pharmaceutical botany, pharmacognosy has become a new interdisciplinary research plant-based medicine natural sources (classification), trait or identification, etc., and made outstanding achievements. As Zhao Yu - yellow "Chinese New this sketch Zhi", "Qi Zhou Chi medicine", "Modern Herbal pharmacognosy" and Pei Jian "Chinese Medicinal Flora", are very representative. [5]
The popularity of traditional Chinese medicine

Since 1927, the Chinese Communist Party leadership of the region, attaches great importance to the popularization and development of the pharmaceutical industry, in the development of drugs to combat the disease, the extensive use of Chinese medicine, has made a lot of experience and achievements. It laid the foundation for the establishment of People's Republic of China after the pharmaceutical industry. [5]
Traditional Chinese medicine
Traditional Chinese medicine
After the People's Republic of China was founded in 1949, since the Chinese Communist Party and the Chinese People's Government attached great importance to the pharmaceutical industry to develop a policy to unite in traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine as the core of Chinese medicine inheritance and take a series of effective measures for the development of the pharmaceutical industry ʱ?? With the rapid development of modern natural science and China's economic, cultural, education, pharmacy and therefore we have made considerable progress. From 1954 onwards, the state has planned to organize, published a number of important herbal books, including "The Classic", "Newly Revised Materia Medica", "Syndrome of Materia Medica", "outline" and dozens. Since the 1960s and a series of complex "Wu Pu Materia Medica", "Do not record", "Newly Revised Materia Medica", "Herbal Supplements" and more than a hundred species, the study and preservation of ancient herbal literature of great significance. [5]
Chinese medicine books

. ① Institute of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences preparation of the "Chinese Medicine Chi", the original book is divided in four volumes, the revised book is divided into six volumes, one of two volumes of roots and tubers, collection contains 206 kinds of drugs; three volumes of seed Fruit class collection contains 138 kinds of drugs; four for the whole grasses collection contains 135 kinds of drugs; five for the leaves, flowers, bark, rattan wood, resin, algae bacteria, other classes, 148 kinds of drugs were contained; six of animals, minerals, to be out. Each volume drugs are accompanied by ink drawings, photos and color graphics shine. Each pharmaceutical introduces the history, the original plant (dynamic) objects, plucking, medicine and marketing, chemical composition, identification herbs, the taste and efficacy, pharmacological effects and clinical applications, notes and so on.
②. 70's by the "National Herbal Compendium) prepared by the writing group" National Herbal Compendium "collection contains a total of 2288 kinds of Chinese herbal medicine, with more than 2,100 pieces of ink drawings. Introduced the drug sources, morphology, habitat distribution, cultivation or raising points, acquisition processing, processing, chemical constituents, pharmacological effects of taste functions, attending usage, prescriptions, etc., comprehensive, brief. Compare widely reflected the national Chinese herbal medicine resources and applications.
③. After a long effort by the Jiangsu New Medical College preparation of the "Chinese Dictionary", received a total of 5,767 kinds of Chinese carrier. Each drug was given name of the drug, sexual taste, Meridian, Indications, election party, "clinical reports, each to be discussed until 19 written. It contains ancient Chinese medicine contained in the content.
④. The primary Chinese Herbal illustrations Codification Committee compiled the "primary Chinese herbal medicine field guide," The book is 25, were contained in the 5000 kinds of Chinese painting, along with text commentary, including the base of the original plant (animal) forms, collection and processing, chemical composition, pharmacology, efficacy of taste, attending usage, dosage, notes and so on.
⑤. By the Ministry of Health, Pharmaceutical and Biological Products, Yunnan Institute for Drug and other compiled "Chinese folk medicine records," first introduced the drug more than 1200 kinds of Chinese multi-ethnic. Each pharmaceutical sub-national drug name, origin, national pharmaceutical experience, medicine testing, research and other items of information, specific description of the base of the original drug, the scientific name, medicinal part, shape and drawings, historical situation, function, and composition, pharmacology, clinical applications. In addition, Xu Guojun "pharmacognosy", Xie Zong ten thousand "Chinese herbal varieties discussed," Liu Shou "Chinese research literature summary" etc from different angles reflect the traditional Chinese medicine research, have a greater impact at home and abroad.
Since the founding of New China, the government has organized a large scale power resources survey and collect data. Most of these results are reflected in the country and throughout the history of Chinese medicine or medicinal flora, fauna and other works. It is known that there are 12,807 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine resources total, of which 11,146 kinds of plants, 1,581 kinds of medicinal plants, 80 kinds of medicinal minerals. In traditional Chinese medicine resources survey, based on a number of domestic resources development and utilization of imported medicine has made remarkable achievements, such as Rauwolfia, benzoin, incense, etc., have in domestic production. Chinese medicine resources protection, offsite introduction herbal medicinal domesticated animals and medicinal plants and comprehensive utilization of traditional Chinese medicine is also quite effective. American ginseng, Tianma, velvet, bear bile and ginseng, and so on Uncaria are typical examples of these aspects. [5]
Reform and Development Editor
March 1987, the Ministry of Health, the State Drug Administration jointly issued "on the strengthening of the development of Chinese medicine formulations Work", called for "Pieces of Chinese medicine commonly used to study and reform." After years of exploration, modern medicine has to take easy, absorb fast, accurate, safe, clean, easy to carry, without boiling direction. The Chinese cultural legacy in combination with modern science and technology, and Jiang Yin Tianjiang who pioneered the "single herb concentrate particles (now named: Chinese medicine formulations particles)", the Chinese Herbal Medicine by extraction, concentration, drying and other processes refined The single herb products. Chinese Herbal Medicine maintains the taste and effect, used in traditional Chinese medicine clinical diagnosis prescription formulation, adaptation syndrome differentiation, prescription changing needs, Chinese medicine is a model of innovation.
Most modern research of Chinese medicine has made noteworthy progress: ① the basic theory of traditional Chinese medicine has been systematic and comprehensive consolidation of herbs, go through, made a lot of research and other anti-eighteen, eighteen anti experimental study to achieve greater results. But difficult to study aspects of larger, there are many issues to be resolved. ② Pharmacognosy identification of science and Chinese medicine, Chinese medicine in the identification of sources in addition to general, character identification, but also widely used microscopic, physical and chemical means. And identification techniques has been to achieve rapid, accurate direction with a small amount of seized goods. ③ by modern research technologies and principles of traditional Chinese medicine, traditional Chinese medicine school has been great development. Accordingly, many Chinese medicine processing, has been improved and standardized, and use a lot of advanced equipment and technology to improve the quality Pieces. ④ established pharmaceutical chemistry, the chemical composition of traditional Chinese medicine have been extensively studied. Most commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine defined the main active ingredient, in part to clarify the chemical structure. ⑤ established Pharmacology. For most commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine has been systematically studied pharmacology; antibacterial, anti-viral, anti-tumor, antipyretic, diuretic, blood pressure and other aspects of a large drug screening. Past unnoticed polysaccharides, tannins, amino acids, peptides, etc., has been found to have a variety of biological activity. It played an important role in elucidating the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine terms. ③ With the development of Chinese medicine, the new formulation increases, as well as improve the quality of testing and control methods, the proprietary Chinese medicine production has been toward modernization. In order to develop a unified drug standards, the Ministry of Health set up an early pharmacopoeia Compilation Committee, later renamed the Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission, in 1953, 1963, 1977, 1985, 1990, 1995 and 2010 has published a version of the seven " People's Republic of China Pharmacopoeia. " Since 1963, USP minute "one", "two" Writing. "A" is part of traditional Chinese medicine, the main collection contains herbs, traditional Chinese medicine prescription preparations, and another legend preparations Appendix General, medicine verification methods. The collection contains herbal each edition are adjusted. 2010 edition of "Chinese Pharmacopoeia" published by three points, a collection contains herbs and Pieces, plant oils and extracts, prescription and single herb preparations, a total of 2136 kinds of species, 612 kinds of amendments. Chinese medicines content, depending on the variety and dosage forms were successively columns are: Determination of Chinese name, Pinyin and Latin name, source, prescription, production method, character, identification, inspection, extract, content, nature and owned by, function and indications, usage and dosage, attention, specifications, storage, preparation and so on. Appendix content and advanced detection methods greatly increased. At the same time, the state has always attached importance drug OF POLITICAL construction work, we have developed a number of related management practices traditional Chinese medicine, and so in 1984 the State passed the "Drug Administration Law of People's Republic of China." Enacted for the protection of people's health, development of Chinese medicine and health services, improve the competitiveness of Chinese medicines in the international market has an important significance of the Drug Administration Law.
Tonic misunderstanding editor
Myth # 1, more expensive, more fill
Some people think that the more expensive medicine more fill, often willing to spend a higher price antler, ginseng and the like traditional Chinese medicine, in fact, may not be enough tonic effect. "What is missing, make up what is" is the basic principle of tonic, Chinese medicine should not be used to divide the price of high or low level of effectiveness, the key is to select the appropriate according to their own constitution tonic, especially the elderly, should be practical as a tonic principle.
Myth # 2: The more fill
"Multi-tonic, cure, disease-free physical" argument is very scientific. Lot winter tonic, will suddenly increase the burden on the stomach and liver, making long-term weakness of the digestive organs unbearable, leading to digestive disorders.
Regardless of the actual situation
Treatment principles of Chinese medicine is "virtual who tonic ', not a deficiency, people should not tonic. Even the deficiency, there deficiency, blood deficiency, yang, yin points, but also guilty of human organs, lung, liver deficiency, spleen, kidney and so different, people in front of tonic, should check with a professional medical advice, combined with the performance characteristics of various tonic, symptomatic administration, such as hot body who is not suitable for taking ginseng, deer horn, hippocampus and other hot property drugs.
Incompatibility editor

Compatibility refers to purposefully and potency characteristics required by the disease, selectively with two flavor with the use of these drugs. The occurrence and development of the disease is often complex and ever-changing, usually the actual situation and see, mixed cold and heat, and the number of disease phase, so a drug alone is difficult to balance the parties. Therefore, when using two or more drugs flavor, it must have a choice, which is proposed drug compatibility relations.
The previous application compatibility with the single herb relationship between drugs and medicine drugs called "impassioned", "impassioned" among those who in addition to a single line, the other six are talking about the relationship compatibility. It is described below:
1. The single line: the single herb that can exert the desired effect without the other is called a single-line drug aid. Such as Ginseng alone, with only the big blind ginseng treatment vitality off the card that is valid.
2. phase shall be: that the performance of the efficacy of the drug with a similar application, you can enhance the efficacy of its original. Such as gypsum with altogether can enhance the effectiveness of heat purging fire.
3. Phase make: that there is something in common with the use of drugs in terms of performance and effectiveness, and to a drug-based, supplemented by another drug that can improve the efficacy of the main drug.
4. Phase fear & kill one: that one toxicity or side effects of the drug, another drug can be reduced or eliminated. Such as toxicity raw Pinellia ginger can reduce or eliminate, so say Pinellia fear ginger. Also known as a drug can reduce or eliminate the toxic or side effects of another drug. Such as ginger can reduce or eliminate raw Pinellia toxicity, Gu Yun ginger Pinellia killing poison.
6. Phase evil: the combination of two drugs, one drug with another drug caused the original phase separation effect reduced, or even loss of efficacy.
7. On the contrary: that the two drugs in combination can produce toxicity or side effects. As "Eighteen against" Several drugs.
In addition to the above-mentioned six areas outside a single line, which can be summarized as four changes in the relationship, that with
Traditional Chinese medicine
Traditional Chinese medicine
The case of Wu applications: ① some drugs due to synergies and enhance the efficacy of clinical medicine is to take full advantage of; ② Some drugs may be offset against each other, weakening the original effect, medication should take note; ③... Some drugs are due to the interaction, and can reduce or eliminate existing toxicity or side effects, drug toxicity in the application or potent drug must be considered optional;. ④ some drugs because of interactions generated or enhanced side effects, belonging to incompatibility, in principle, should be avoided with the use.
Based on the above, we can see from a single herb medicine to application compatibility is achieved by long practice and understanding of the process up gradually accumulated wealth. Application compatibility is the main form of Chinese medicine drug medication. Drugs are combined according to certain testimonies, and determine a certain weight ratio, made the appropriate dosage forms, namely prescription. The development of prescription drugs combined, also higher forms of drug compatibility applications.
This by

"The Classic Preface example," pointed out: "Do not use with the evil, the opposite person." But with the evil and the consequences caused by the opposite is not the same. Compatibility with evil drugs can decrease the effectiveness of certain aspects, but is a relationship of compatibility can be utilized, not an absolute contraindication. And "On the contrary damage, deep in phase vicious" may endanger the patient's health, and even life-threatening. Therefore, application compatibility prohibited drugs on opposite principles. Pharmaceutical industry commonly recognized incompatibility, there are "Eighteen anti" and "19 fear."
Eighte: Licorice by anti-Gan, spurge, seaweed, Daphne; Aconitum anti Fritillaria, Trichosanthes, Breit, Ampelopsis, white and; Veratryl anti ginseng, Radix, Salvia, Scrophulariaceae, Asarum , peony.
19 fear: fear Puxiao sulfur, mercury arsenic fear, Euphorbia fear litharge, croton fear cows, cloves fear turmeric, Aconitum, Aconitum fear rhino horn, teeth nitrate fear triangular, Guangui fear vaseline, the ginseng Wulingzhi fear.
Five Shu Han Baosheng Amendment "Shu Materia Medica", the first statistics on the number impassioned reference to "phase sixty kinds of evil, on the contrary are eighteen", most people called "Eighteen against" in the name of the cover from this. Phase one of the traditional Chinese medicine impassioned fear, content is as described above. But the Song Dynasty some medicine works, appear to fear, evil, anti names used chaotic situation, and the "Classic" "with fear" contrary to the original meaning. As the incompatibility of "19 fear" is presented in this case.
For Eighte, 19 fear as incompatibility, history of medicine, although compliance believe the majority, but there are dissidents, some people think Eighte, 19 fear is not an absolute contraindication; Some medical experts also believe that, In contrast with drug use, can produce a strong effect opposite and complementary. Yet, if used properly, can be more chronic ills.
Modern anti-eighteen, nineteen fear experimentally study pharmacology, we made a lot of achievements. However, due to the anti-eighteen, nineteen fear many problems involved, there are differences across the experimental conditions and methods, so that results vary widely. Most simple toxicity tests negative result or conflicting results. Early findings tend to negate; observe the gradual deepening "should not be denied," the voice getting high. In addition, experiments show that the anti-eighteen, nineteen fear side effects of drugs on the human body size, and the absolute dose and relative dose inter-related.
Overall, since the eighth anti-experimental study 19 fear is still in its early stages, it is too early to determine their choice, pending further study. Where it Eighte, 19 fear of drugs on, without sufficient basis and application experience, generally should not be used.

Contraindication to taking the medicine can be divided into five categories:
1. Chinese medicine Incompatibility: certain drugs because after formulation may have the opposite, evil phase relationship, so that they reduce the efficacy or cause adverse reactions, contraindications with the use.
2. Pregnant drug contraindications: mainly to avoid moving tires, abortion, because most of the women after pregnancy Big Chill, heat, steep profits slip diarrhea, expelling blood stasis and toxic drugs and poor tolerance, and therefore must be related drugs hanged.
3. During medication diet taboos: commonly known as diet, medication main factors in order to avoid interference when, in order to improve the efficacy, diet can be divided into two categories corresponding to a particular drug under different disease conditions diet medication, the former such as ginseng bogey radish, turtle bogey amaranth, licorice avoid chub, Changshan bogey onions, Poria bogey vinegar. The latter is required to avoid cold chronic medication, avoid sexually transmitted diseases during the heat treatment of spicy, greasy, sore carbuncle ulcers, skin disorders avoid fish, goose and spicy stimulation products.
4. decoction taboo overnight taking: Because medicine contains a variety of ingredients starches, sugars, protein, vitamins, essential oils, amino acids and various enzymes, trace elements, when most of these ingredients are dissolved in boiling soup concoction inside. Dosage is generally the first to take advantage of warm clothes half, 4 to 6 hours before serving half.

Side effect
Traditional Chinese medicine
Traditional Chinese medicine
General classification
Reference material

Home        Common Herbs 常用草藥

清热药 Antipyretic herbs

炒苏子 炒莱菔子 炙百部 前胡 白前 桑白皮 葶苈子 炙紫菀 炙冬花 鱼腥草 炒白芥子 桔梗 浮海石 制远志

平肝熄风药:天麻 勾藤 炒僵蚕 炒地龙 蜈蚣 全蝎

祛风湿药:羌活 独活 木瓜 威灵仙 仙灵脾 海风藤 青风藤 制狗脊 骨碎补 防风 虎杖 香加皮 稀莶草 秦艽 鸡血藤 忍冬藤 续断槲寄生 制南星 制川乌 制草乌 泽兰

活血化瘀药:当归 川芎 制元胡 郁金 丹参 桃仁 红花 炒地必虫 怀牛膝 川牛膝 制乳香 制没药 炙甲片 牡丹皮

行气药:陈皮 木香 炒枳壳 制香附 姜黄 制元胡

止血药:白及 茜草 蒲黄炭

芳香化湿药:藿香 佩兰壳 砂仁 炒苍术 制川朴

消食药:炙鸡金 炒莱菔子
利水渗湿药:茯苓 泽泻 茵陈 炒车前子 米仁 金钱草 扁蓄 瞿麦 滑石 海金沙

安神药:炒酸枣仁 制远志 制五味子

补虚药:紫河车粉 鹿角片 炒杜仲 制山茱萸 枸杞子 党参 炒白术 黄芪 甘草 当归 炒白芍 熟地黄 麦冬 北沙参

泻下药:生大黄 火麻仁 郁李仁 大戟 牵牛子 甘遂 芒硝

乾薑Dry Ginger

靈芝Ganoderma (Red Reishi Mushroom)

山藥Chinese yam
苦瓜bitter melon

荷叶Lotus leaf

冬虫夏草Cordyceps sinensis

逍遙散 - 疏肝解鬱 Xiaoyaosan - Relieving the Depressed Liver
升陷湯 - 治大氣下陷 rise depression soup - cure Large qi Subsidence
歸脾湯 - 養心益氣又健脾 normalized Spleen soup - nourishing the heart Supplementing Qi healthy spleen
交泰丸 - 治心腎不交失眠Jiao Tai Wan - cure insomnia of heart and kidney fight

四君子湯 - 補氣健脾Four Gentlemen Decoction - Complement qi Healthy Spleen
小柴胡湯 - 外感良方Xiao Chai Hu Tang - flu Recipe

血府逐瘀湯 - 活血化瘀 Xue Fu Zhu Yu Tang - Promoting blood circulation stasis
補陽還五湯 - 擅治中風後遺症Bu Yang Huan Wu Tang - good at cure stroke sequelae
金匱腎氣丸 - 補腎溫陽 Jinkuishenqiwan - complement Kidney warm Yang
六味地黃丸 - 治腎陰虛 Liu Wei Di Huang Wan - cure kidney yin deficiency
藿香正氣散 - 解暑化濕理腸胃Huo Xiang Zheng Qi San - dispel summer heat dampness management stomach

中藥名就是中藥作用 - 朱壁修講解Chinese herbs Name is the effect of traditional Chinese medicine


中药(Chinese herbology、Traditional Materia Medica),是指在中医学理论指导下用于预防、诊断、治疗或调节人体机能的药物。中药按加工工艺分为中成药、中药材。中药主要起源于中国,除了植物药以外,动物药如蛇胆,熊胆,五步蛇,鹿茸鹿角等;介壳类如珍珠,海蛤壳;矿物类如龙骨磁石等都是用来治病的中药。少数中药源于外国,如西洋参[1] 
Chinese herbology、Traditional Chinese medicine
别    名
数    量




拼音: zhōng yào
注音: ㄓㄨㄙ ㄧㄠˋ
同类词: 西药
基本解释:[traditional Chinese medicine] 中药所用的药物。[2] 


1.平和的药物。 三国 魏 嵇康 《养生论》:“故 神农 曰:‘上药养命,中药养性’者,诚知性命之理,因辅养以通也。” 晋 张华 《博物志》卷七:“中药养性,谓合欢蠲忿,萱草忘忧。” 宋 徐铉 《题白鹤庙》诗:“常嗟多病嫌中药,拟问真经乞小还。”



首乌 (18张)


中华民国的建立,结束了两千多年的封建君主统治,但是中国仍未改变半封建半殖民地的社会性质。加之国家连年战争,社会动荡,经济衰退,致使中国科技发展缓慢而不平衡,远远落后于欧美、日本等,失去了16世纪以前中国在世界科技上普遍领先地位。在西方科技文化大量涌入的情况下,出现了中西药并存的局面。与此相应,社会和医药界对传统的中国医药逐渐有了“中医”、中药”之称,对现代西方医药也因此逐渐称为“西医”、西药”。由于国民党政府采取废止中医的政策,阻碍了中医药的发展,因而引发了中医药界的普遍抗争。在学术医药工作者奋发进取,尽管困难重重,本草学或中药学仍然有所发展。 据不完全统计,现存民国时期的中药专著有260多种,大多体例新颖、类型多样、注重实用。由于它们的论述范围、体例、用语等与传统本草有所不同,或为了通俗的原因,一般都不以本草命名。其间综合性中药著作和讲义较多,内容多数偏于临床实用。前者以蒋玉柏《中国药物学集成》较有代表性。该书有总论、各论两大部分。总论概述了中药有关基本理论知识;各论按功效分类,分别记述了400余种药物的别名、气味、形状、功用、制法、有毒无毒、用量、禁忌、处方等。其体例和内容与前者基本相似,但更简明实用。如秦伯未《药物学讲》,分为发散、利尿理气理血、温热、寒凉药等12类加以介绍,如张山雷本草正义》,属于传统药论性质。该书结合个人用药体验论述了中药的药性、功用以及鉴别炮制煎煮法等,有较好的影响。





反观国外药物知识的发展,以埃及和印度为最早。公元前1500年左右埃及的“papytus”(纸草本)及其后印度的“Ajur veda”(寿命吠陀经)中均已有药物的记载。希腊、古罗马、阿拉伯在医药的发展中也有悠久的历史,如希腊医生Dioscorides的De Materia Medica”(药物学),古罗马的Galen(公元131~200年)所著“Materia Medica”(药物学),阿拉伯医生Avicenna (公元980年)所著“Canon Mediclnae”(医药典)等都是专门的药物学著作,对古代医药学的发展都有较大的影响。


记载食物疗法的《食疗本草》(唐·孟铣)、记载救荒植物的《救荒本草》(明·朱橚)、侧重药物鉴别的《本草衍义》(宋·寇宗黄)、侧重药物炮炙的《炮炙论》(南北朝刘宋·雷敩)以及便于学习诵读、翻检查阅或临症参考的中小型本草多种。 清代道光年间,吴其浚的两部专论植物的著作:《植物名实图考》和《植物名实图专长编》问世,前者记载植物1714种,后者描述了植物838种。对于每种植物的形色性味、用途和产地叙述颇详,并附有精确插图,尤其着重植物的药用价值与同名异物的考证,所以虽非药物专著,亦有重要的参考价值。此外,我国古代人民关于药物的知识还收栽在许多医学和方剂学的著作中。例如东汉张仲景所著的《伤寒论》和《金匮要略》、东晋葛洪的《肘后备急方》、唐·孙思邈的《备急千金要方》和《千金翼方》、宋·陈师文等所编的《太平惠民和济局方》、明·朱橚等的《普济方》等等,不胜枚举。 这些书籍中收载的药物和方剂,很多至今还被广泛地应用着,具有很好的疗效。[4] 









影响较大的是1935年陈存仁编著的《中国药学大辞典》。全书270万字,收药目4300条,每药分别介绍命名、古籍别名、基本、产地、形态、性质、成分、效能、主治、历代记述考证、辨伪、近人学说、配合应用、用量、施用宜忌、参考资料等21项。资料丰富、全面,汇集了古今有关论述,并有附图。它是中药发展史上第一部大型辞典。除上述外,反映在本草或中药学术的进步,值得特别提出的是:功效和主治已明确分别开来,功效表述较准确,增加了中药剂量,以及逐渐用科、属、种名表示中药基源等。 这一时期药用植物学、生药学已成为研究植物类中药的自然来源(分类)、性状或鉴别等新兴的学科,并取得了突出的成就。如赵燏黄《中国新本草图志》、《祁州药志》、《现代本草生药学》和裴鉴《中国药用植物志》等,均很有代表性。[5] 


1949年中华人民共和国成立以后,由于中国共产党和中国人民政府对中医药事业的高度重视,制定了以团结中西医和继承中医药学为核心的中医政策,并采取了一系列有力措施发展中医药事业。随着现代自然科学和中国经济、文化、教育事业的迅速发展,中药学也因此取得了长足进步。 从1954年起,国家有计划地整理、出版了一批重要的本草古籍,计有《本经》、《新修本草》、《证类本草》、《纲目》等数十种。60年代以来又辑复了《吴普本草》、《别录》、《新修本草》、《本草拾遗》等百十余种,对研究和保存古本草文献有重大意义。[5] 




中药的现代研究大多取得了瞩目进展:①中药的基本理论得到了系统、全面整理,对药性、归经、十八反等作了大量研究,十八反的实验研究取得较大成果。但这方面的研究难度较大,有不少问题有待解决。②生药学和中药鉴定学,在中药鉴定方面除一般来源、性状鉴定外,还普遍采用显微、理化等手段。而且鉴定技术已向用少量检品达到迅速、准确的方向发展。③通过中药炮制技术与原理的现代研究,中药炮制学得到了较大的发展。与此相应,对许多中药的炮制、作了改进和规范,并采用了许多先进的设备与技术,提高了饮片质量。④建立了中药化学,对中药的化学成分进行了广泛的研究。多数常用中药明确了主要有效成分,部分弄清了化学结构。⑤建立了中药药理学。对多数常用中药的药理进行了系统研究;抗菌、抗病毒、抗肿瘤、解热、利尿、降压等方面进行了大量药物筛选。过去不被注意的多糖类、鞣质、氨基酸、多肽等,现已发现有多种生物活性。它在阐明中药功效方面发挥了重要作用。③随着中药制剂的发展,新剂型的增多,以及质量检测控制手段的提高,中成药生产已走向现代化。 为了统一制定药品标准,卫生部及早成立了药典编纂委员会,后改为中国药典委员会,于1953年、1963年、1977年、1985年、1990年、1995年和2010年先后出版发行了七版《中华人民共和国药典》。从1963年开始,药典分“一部”、“二部”编写。“一部”为中药部分,主要收载中药材、中药成方制剂,另有凡例与附录的制剂通则、中药检定方法等。所收载的中药各版均有调整。2010年版《中国药典》分三部出版,一部收载药材及饮片、植物油脂和提取物、成方和单味制剂等,品种共计2136种、修订612种。有关中药内容,根据品种和剂型的不同分别依次列有:中文名、汉语拼音与拉丁名、来源、处方、制法、性状、鉴别、检查、浸出物、含量测定、性味与归经、功能与主治、用法与用量、注意、规格、贮藏、制剂等。附录的内容以及先进的检测方法等大为增加。与此同时,国家一直重视药政法的建设工作,先后制定了多个有关中药的管理办法,并于是1984年国家通过了《中华人民共和国药品管理法》。药品管理法的颁布对保护人民健康,发展中国医药卫生事业,提高中国药品在国际市场的竞争力有着重要意义。







五代后蜀韩保升修订《蜀本草》时,首先统计七情数目,提到“相恶者六十种,相反者十八种”,今人所谓“十八反 ”之名,盖源于此。相畏为中药七情之一,内容已如前述。但从宋代开始,一些医药著作中,出现畏、恶、反名称使用混乱的状况,与《本经》“相畏”的原义相悖。作为配伍禁忌的“十九畏”就是在这种情况下提出的。
总的说来,由于对十八反、十九畏的实验研究尚处在初期阶段,决定其取舍还为时过早,有待进一步深入研究。故凡属十八反、十九畏的药对,若无充分根据和应用经验, 一般不应使用。


















中药有“气”,“气”是什么?它能治病?我们的回答都是肯定的。在《神农本草经》中说:“药又有寒、热、温、凉四气。”“疗寒以热药,疗热以寒药。”药之“四气”便由此而来。中医药理论中说到“气”,居然有 27个义项。这个“气”,不是我们日常生活中的概念,而是特指“药性”。我们的先祖用寒、热、温、凉来诠释药的特性,比“毒”要具体、科学多了,这中药的补,不仅内容丰富,而且别具文化情趣。有补气、补心、补血、补肾、补脾、补肝、补肺补阴、补阳等等,与之相应的方药有“补心丹、补肝散、补肺散、四物汤、归脾汤、补阴丸、补血荣筋丸、补中益气汤四君子汤杞菊地黄丸六味地黄丸、百合固金汤、补阳还五汤、补肾磁石丸、补肺阿胶汤等等,有以上功能的单味药,不下数十种,举不胜举。此类补法多是补脏气。这个“补”,是调理、增强的意思;这个“气”,是指生理功能,即用药物来调理增强五脏六腑的生理功能,使之发挥正常作用,充分体现中药对人体功能器官治本的作用。《神农本草经》中把药分为上、中、下三品 (即“类”),并说:“上药养命,中药养性,下药治病。”又说:“上药……为君,主养命以应天”,“中药……为臣,主养性以应人”,“下药……为佐使,主治病以应地”。 所谓养命、养性,都是突出了中药调养人体的功效,从而保证机体、各个器官组织的功能正常,这就是许多人信奉中药的原因之一。这是中药学的进步,也是它的特色,这其中也充满了文化意味。中药的这种特性,被一一体现在每一味药中,因为它对于疗疾治病十分重要。对于寒病就要用热性药,对于热病就要用寒性药,这里药性与病性是相逆的,所谓相反相成,这就是药文化的一种具体表现。若非如此,如果“以热益热 (用热药治热病,下句仿此),以寒增寒”,就会导致“精气内伤,不见(现)于外”,这是治疗上的严重失误(《汉书·艺文志·文技略》)。孙思邈在《大医精诚》中严肃地批判了那些“寒而冷之(是寒病,却用寒使病症更寒,下句仿此 ),热而温之”的医生,“是重加(即加重)其病”,必导致死亡。中医药学上称这种用药方法为“正治”,即常规治法。由此可见,运用药的“四气”来治病,是多么重要,许多服用过中药的人,或许对此知之甚少。


追溯到远古神农时代,《淮南子·修务训》中这样记载:“神农……尝百草之滋味,水泉之甘苦,令民知所避就。当此之时,一日而遇七十二毒。”由此,古代把所有治病的药物泛称“毒药”。《素问·异法方宜论》说:“其病生于内,其治宜毒药。”在古人看来,是药三分毒,实际上是指药物的特性;后来才用以专指毒性较大的药物。《医学问答》对此有解释:“夫药本毒药,故神农辨百草谓之‘尝毒'。药之治病,无非以毒拔毒,以毒解毒。”医圣张仲景更有精辟之论:“药,谓草、木、虫、鱼、禽、兽之类,以能治病,皆谓之毒”,“大凡可避邪安正者,均可称之为毒药。”神农一日而遇七十二毒,是说他一日之中,辨别了 70余种药物的特性。药之特性,用对了可以治病救人,用错了就会伤人害命。对中药,一言以敝之,就是用毒药治病。神农尝百草的本草,是一种勇于探索的伟大义举,是一种舍生忘死的高尚行为。无怪对起步于先秦、成书于东汉、历经几百年、融汇了几代医药学家的辛勤劳动与智慧的第一部中药学巨著,作者们宁肯要隐去自己的姓名,而冠以“神农”之名——《神农本草经》,除了受托古之风的影响之外,恐怕也是对这位中华民族药物学的圣祖的一种纪念吧 ! 由此不难看出,“毒药”一词的丰富文化内涵。正是这毒药,为中华民族的繁衍生息、疗病保健做出了不可磨灭的贡献。


君臣本是一个政治术语,古代天子、诸侯都称君,辅佐君者称为臣,君臣有着严格的等级之分。古代药学家将它引入药物配伍组方中,成为方剂组成的基本原则。早在西汉初年成书的《素问·至真要大论》中,岐伯回答黄帝关于“方制君臣”时说:“主病之谓君,佐君之谓臣,应臣之谓使”,《神农本草经》说:“药有君、臣、佐、使,以相宣欇”。明代的何伯斋更进一步阐释说:“大抵药之治病,各有所主,主治者,君也;辅治者,臣也;与君药相反而相助者,佐也;引经使治病之药至病所者,使也”。十分清楚地讲明了君、臣、佐、使之药的功能。更详尽一点说,君药是针对主病或主证,起主要作用的药物,按需要可用一味或几味;臣药是辅助君药加强治疗主病或主证作用的药物,或者是对兼病或兼证起主要治疗作用的药物;佐药是辅助君臣药起治疗作用,或治疗次要症状,或消除 (减轻)君、臣药的毒性,或用于反佐药,使药是起引经或调和作用的药物。以《伤寒论》中第一方“麻黄汤”为例,主治外感风寒的表实证。君药——麻黄(3两),辛温,发汗解表以散风寒,宣发肺气以平喘逆。臣药——桂枝(2两),辛甘温,温经和营,助麻黄发汗解表。佐药——杏仁(70个),苦温,降肺气助麻黄平喘。使药——炙甘草(1两),苦温,调和诸药又制约麻、桂发汗太过。麻、桂、杏皆入肺,有引经之效,故不再用引经的使药。麻黄、桂枝、杏仁、炙甘草的药性有有次,相互制约又相互补充,协调作用,形成一股强大的药力,去攻克外感风寒这一堡垒,临床疗效十分显著,成为千古名方、经方。中药方剂的组成不是几种药物的简单组合,而是在丰富的临床实践基本上形成的一个有机的整体。其中文化内涵的核心就是儒家所强调的“和”。




前些年当世界兴起“天然药物”热的时候,我们自己业内的人也主张用“天然药物”来取代“中药”,并说这是与世界接轨,是让西方人接受中药的一个重要举措。此举曾在药界掀起了不小的浪潮,一直延续至今。稍有知识的人都知道,“天然药物”的提出和兴起,是西方医药界针对西方人惧怕化学合成药物的毒副作用,从而转向自然界寻找新的药物途径,通过研究,从某些含有特殊药用成分的动植物身上,运用科技提取一种或(几种)药用成分,制成药物,用于临床,这无疑是当代制药学的一个新的领域、一种新的发展。令人不可思议的是:为什么有些人竟以接受新事物为幌子,一下子就联系上中药了,认为中药汤剂西方人说它是“一锅浓浓的草根树皮黑汤,既不卫生,又难喝,还说不清它的成分,实在可怕”;中药丸剂西方人说它是“一团黑乎乎的药丸,难以接受”。于是就下了这样的结论:中药落后,成分讲不清,应该赶紧改成“天然药物”,否则就会在国际上没有市场、没有前途。难道“中药”真的面临绝境,惨到要改名换姓才能生存的地步吗?我们的观点是明确的:“天然药物”不等同于“中药”,务请诸君保持清醒头脑。对于“天然药物”的概念与内涵,上文已做简述;而“中药”的概念与内涵,与之决不相同。尽管中药材大都取自“自然界”,有些也可以直接药用,但这还不是真正意义上的“中药”,我们称之为“中药”的,也不是可以笼统而言的,首先,是指经过炮制的各类饮片。炮制的作用,除了清除杂质,便于制剂和服用外,更重要的是消除或减低药物的毒性和副作用,改变药物的性能,加强疗效。以地黄为例,生地黄清热凉血,经用酒蒸晒成熟地黄之后,就具有温性而滋肾补血的功效。炮制总分为水制、火制、水火合制等。水制有洗、漂、泡、渍、水飞等;火制有煅、炮、煨、炒、烘、焙、炙等;水火合制有蒸、煮、淬等。而每一种方法中又细含若干种具体方法,其内涵是极其丰富的。而这些炮制方法,已成为我们国宝级的机密。其次,中药是指按照四气五味、君臣佐使等特性与法则配比而成的方剂药物,而不是随心所欲的杂合物,然后根据需要,或汤、或丸、或散、或膏……由此可见,“中药”与“天然药物”,既不可混为一谈,又不可相互取代。有着几千年历史的中药,有什么必要因“天然药物”的兴起,就乱了阵营,自动退避,主动靠拢,甚至要宣告投降呢?中药,就是中华民族的药,只有首先是民族的,才是世界的。它的四气五味、君臣佐使、正治反治等一系列独特法则与文化内涵,是不可轻意弃置,更不可随意取代的。不能西方人说它是“一锅浓浓的黑汤”、“一团黑黑的药丸”,我们就自觉中药落后,没了底气。如果放弃了汤药,中医的特色(辨证论治)也就失去了光彩,后果严重。 有模糊数学、模糊逻辑,无疑都是高深的科学门类。由此我联想到了一锅汤药、一团药丸,对它们经过配比后的药物成分暂时说不清,那么,何不将它称之为“模糊药学”呢?由此我又联想到世界无论是自然界或是科学界不是有着许许多多的“模糊”难题在困惑着人类,等待我们去考察、研究、揭秘吗?对宇宙,我们知道了多少,又有多少模糊未知的,但是,我们不是有综合宇宙学吗?对人类居住的地球,我们依然存在许多模糊与未知,不是有综合地球学吗?就说对人体自身,我们到底还有多少模糊与未知,人类基因图谱的问世,无疑是大大向前迈进了一步,而综合性的人体科学还面临着多少有待探索的课题。人类不会因为对某种自然现象处于模糊之中,而去指责它;人类不会因为对金字塔等许多古代建筑处于模糊之中,而去指责它们;人类更不会对自身的器官、组织、功能模糊不解,而去责怪它们……同理,人类暂时对一锅药汤、一个药丸的成分处于模糊之中,又有什么了不起呢?何况它们已存在了几千年,救治和保养的人数以亿计,仅这一条就足以证明中药的科学性与实效性。我不相信把这些道理告诉西方人,他们还要跟中药较劲 !要让世人都知道中药的内涵、中药的文化,其底蕴是何其丰富!我们的任务,在把中药推向世界的同时,要加大药文化宣传的力度。我主张“中药”与“天然药物”应该相互并存、相互借鉴、友善共存、各谋发展。世界如此辽阔,人类如此之多,不可能容不下这两种事物同生共存。它们各有特色,各有优势,完全不必“合二为一”。是金子总在闪光。西方人不是照样吃上了中国的煎饼、油条、豆汁和菜肴吗?照样唱上了中国的歌曲、京剧,说上了中国的相声,穿上了中国的旗袍、布鞋吗?如果真有需要,外国人照样会喝中药汤、吃中药丸的。


解表药细辛 桂枝 防风 羌活 蔓荆子 葛根 柴胡 炒牛蒡子 蝉衣 荆芥 薄荷 桑叶 菊花 升麻
平肝熄风药:天麻 勾藤 炒僵蚕 炒地龙 蜈蚣 全蝎
行气药:陈皮 木香 炒枳壳 制香附 姜黄 制元胡
芳香化湿药:藿香 佩兰壳 砂仁 炒苍术 制川朴
消食药:炙鸡金 炒莱菔子
利水渗湿药:茯苓 泽泻 茵陈 炒车前子 米仁 金钱草 扁蓄 瞿麦 滑石 海金沙
补虚药紫河车粉 鹿角片 炒杜仲 制山茱萸 枸杞子 党参 炒白术 黄芪 甘草 当归 炒白芍 熟地黄 麦冬 北沙参






科学的采收应包括:药用植物的药用部分中有效成分积累动态和生长发育阶段这两个指标,既要考虑有效成分含量,又要注意产量。如薄荷的采收,一年两次,第一次在小暑后大暑前(七月中下旬),主要供提取薄荷脑用,第二次在霜降之前(十月中下旬),主要作药材用。实验证明,薄荷在花蕾期叶片中含油量为最高,原油中薄荷脑的含量则以盛花期为最高。而叶的产量又在花后期为最高。槐米是植物槐树Sophora japonicaL.的花蕾,主含芦丁,可达28%,如已开花,结果,则芦丁含量急剧下降。


 天然药物 天然药物资源 天然药物资源学 天然药物资源化学
 天然药物资源管理学 天然药物资源地理学 药材 传统中药
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 药用动物种质资源 [天然]药物资源调查 [天然]药物种类调查 [天然]药物资源蕴藏量
 [天然]药物资源经济量 [天然]药物资源年允收量 药用植物生产量 药用动物生产量
 天然药物资源更新调查 器官更新 药用动植物种群更新




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