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2. Why was Julius Caesar significant to Roman civilization?

Julius Caesar defined the very essence of leadership for the Roman civilization. He never became emperor himself, though he craftily had himself offered the crown, but refused it - twice! The name Caesar became synonymous with emperor, the title of all emperors that ruled Rome after him. Caesar became Kaiser (German) and Czar (Russian), titles for the kings of kings and lasting until the 20th century CE. 

Here's a few things you might not know about Julius Caesar. 

1. He was kidnapped by pirates ... and when they set his ransom he thought the amount was insultingly low and so he demanded they raise his ransom. (He later hunted down the buccaneers and had them executed). 

2. He was a "ladies man" (call it what you like) ... and married 3 times. Cornelia, Pompeia, and then Calpurnia became his wives (he divorced the first two). Of course we also know he had mistresses, most notably Cleopatra VII of Egypt and Servilia, whose son Marcus Brutus was a key player in Caesars' later assassination.  

3. Caesar and Cleopatra had a son... named Caesarion. After Caesar died, Cleopatra took him back to Egypt. She is said to have had her "brother-husband", Ptolemy XIV, killed so that she could place Caesarion on the throne as her co-ruler. He did rule briefly as Ptolemy XV, pharaoh of Egypt, before Octavian (Augustus), Caesar's nephew and adopted heir, ordered his death to secure his claim to rule in Rome. 

4. Julius Caesar invented the Leap Year... when he devised a 365 day a year calendar (the Julian calendar) which came into effect in 45 BCE (The Roman's had previously used a 355 day a year calendar). Caesar quickly realized that the actual solar year is 365 and a quarter days long so he implemented a "Leap Day" every 4 years. 
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