Virginia Resources SOL 4.8

Virginia Natural Resources Study Guide SOL 4.8
 
The student will investigate and understand important Virginia natural resources. Key concepts include a) watershed and water resources; b) animals and plants; c) minerals, rocks, ores, and energy sources; and d) forest, soil, and land.
 

 Vocabulary:

 

1. resource - something we need, want, and use (example: water, food)

 

2. natural resource - a resource that comes from the earth (made by nature) (example: tree, soil, water,

plants, animals, sun) It helps support life on earth

 

3. cultivated resource - a resource created by man (example: planting trees)(man-made)

 

4. renewable resource - a resource that can be replaced in a short period of time

 

5. non-renewable resource - a resource that cannot be replaced in a short period of time

 

6. agriculture - farming/raising (example: corn, pigs) Virginia’s largest industry

 

7. arable - good (as in soil), fertile

 

8. aggregates - rocks

 

9. ecosystem - living and nonliving things in an environment and all their interactions

 

10. niche - the role of an animal/plant in its environment

 

11. extinct species - animals/plants that have died out/ no more species of that kind are on earth

 

12. endangered species - animals/plants that are very close to becoming extinct/ only a few left

 

13. threatened species - animals/plants likely to become endangered/extinct

 

14. exotic species - a plant/animal new to an area

 

15. over-harvesting - taking more plants/animals than the population can withstand

 

16. habitat loss - animals/plants losing their homes (caused by pollution, destroying homes, over hunting)

 

17. watershed - an area of land where all water (H20) under it or draining off of it goes into a common

body of water

 

18. aquatic - having to do with plants/animals in the water

 

19. precipitation - water to the earth in the form of rain, snow, sleet, hail

 

20. drought - caused by below average precipitation (not enough water)

 

21. flood - too much water

 

22. estuary - a place where fresh water and salt water mixes

 

23. hydropower - electrical power produced when water is captured at a dam or created by falling water

 

24. reservoir - a human-made lake that stores water held back by a dam

 

25. surface water - water within the earth that supplies wells and springs

 

26. groundwater - water that comes from the ground

 

27. sediment - material, such as stones and sand, deposited by water

 

28. mineral - a naturally occurring substance, neither plant nor animal

 

29. ore - a mineral containing a useful substance that is mined from Earth

 

30. conservation - the act of saving, protecting, or using resources wisely

 

31. pollution - adding harmful substances to the air, water, and land

 

32. reduce - use smaller amounts of a natural resource (example: take showers, not baths)

 

33. reuse - use a resource over and over again (example: make a pencil holder from a can)

 

34. recycle - turn in plastic, glass, or cans to be used again

 

 

1.    Virginia is rich in a wide variety of natural resources.

 

Natural Resources

Man-Made Resources

forests

Forests are turned into:

-lumber and wood for building houses, furniture, and boats

-pulp for making paper

-wood for heating and cooking

arable land

(farmable land)

Arable land gives us:

-peanuts for peanut butter or peanut oil

-tobacco for tobacco products

-apples for applesauce, apple cider, or apple pie

-cotton for cloth to make clothing

 

Arable land also give us a place to raise:

  • poultry (chickens, turkeys) for food

coal

Coal is used to:

  • heat buildings
  • create electricity
  • make steel

sand and rocks (aggregates)

Sand and aggregates can be used in making:

  • roads
  • concrete
  • glass

wildlife organisms

(wild plants and animals)

Wildlife plants and animals provide us with:

  • meat to eat (deer, wild turkey)
  • wildflowers to enjoy throughout Virginia

aquatic organisms

(plants and animals in the water)

Aquatic organisms provide us with:

-seafood to eat (oysters, blue crabs, shrimp)

-fish to eat (menhaden, shad, blue fish, striped bass, perch, herring, trout, flounder)

-animals for pets (frogs, salamanders, turtles)

-underwater grasses (submerged aquatic vegetation) that protect shorelines from erosion

clean water and clean air

Clean water is used for:
-transporting goods by boat or ship

-drinking

-hydroelectric power

-crop irrigation

-recreational activities

beautiful scenery

Beautiful scenery is throughout Virginia’s flat lands, rolling hills, mountains, valleys, and plateaus.

2.    natural resources: a material found in nature that is useful to people

 

3.    man-made resource: things made by people out of materials that began as natural resources

 

4.    Virginia’s water resources include

    1. groundwater              4. rivers
    2. lakes                      5. bays
    3. reservoirs                6. the Atlantic Ocean

 

 

5.    Virginia has many rivers, lakes, and bays.

 

 

Rivers

Lakes

Bays

Characteristics

a long, narrow body of water that flows through the land

a body of water with land all around it

a part of a large body of water that reaches into the land

Examples in Virginia

·         Potomac River

·         Rappahannock River

·         James River

·         York River

·         Lake Drummond

·         Smith Mountain Lake

·         Lake Anna

·         John H. Kerr Reservoir (Buggs Island Lake)

·         Chesapeake Bay

 

6.    A watershed is an area over which surface water (and the materials
it carries) flows to a single collection place.  There are 14 watersheds
in Virginia; 9 of them are major ones.

1.    The Chesapeake Bay watershed covers half (50%) of Virginia’s land area.

2.    The other two major watershed systems are the Gulf of Mexico and the North Carolina Sounds.

 

7.    The nine major watershed “addresses” in Virginia are the:

 


1.    Potomac-Shenandoah Rivers Watershed

2.    Rappahannock River Watershed

3.    York River Watershed

4.    James River Watershed

5.    Eastern Shore of Chesapeake Bay &

          Coastal Rivers

6.    Chowan River Watershed

7.    Roanoke River Watershed

8.    New River Watershed

9.    Tennessee-Big Sandy Watershed

 

8.    Virginia has a great variety of plant and animal resources.

 

PLANTS

WILD ANIMALS

DOMESTICATED ANIMALS

apple trees

black bear

cats

tobacco

white-tailed deer

dogs

peanuts

squirrels

birds in cages

cotton

turkeys

cattle (dairy and beef)

corn

bald eagles

poultry (turkeys and chickens)

wheat

wild rabbits

 

peach trees

beavers

 

 

cardinals and other birds

 

 

opossum

 

 

foxes

 

 

 

9.    Natural and cultivated forests are a widespread resource in Virginia.

 

 

 

Why are these forests important?

NATURAL

FORESTS

grow in the wild without any help from man

 

·   Protect stream banks and soil from erosion

 

·   Protect watersheds

 

·   Provide food and habitat for fish and wildlife

 

·   Clean the air

 

·   Supply raw materials for fuel, lumber, and paper

 

·   Give people opportunities for outdoor recreation (hiking, biking, camping, wildlife-watching)

CULTIVATED

FORESTS

planted by man for a specific purpose

  • timbering
  •    TREES

    pine

    spruce

    fir

    oak

    maple

    hickory

    beech

    reclamation of land

 

 10.           Virginia contains several important mineral resources.

 

MINERAL RESOURCE

DEFINITION

WHY IS IT IMPORTANT?

 
 
 
 
 
coal 

 a black or brownish black solid substance that takes thousands of years to be created; it is a natural resource widely used as a fuel

 

 burned to heat buildings

 

  • used to make electricity

 

  • used for making steel

 

 

 

 

 

limestone

 

 

 

a rock that is formed chiefly from animal remains (shells or coral)

 

  • statues

 

  • buildings

 

  • roofing materials

 

  • blackboards

 

      granite

(a type of stone)

 a very hard rock that can be polished

 used in buildings

 used in monuments

    crushed and used to   build roads

    used to make bricks

 

 sand and gravels

sand:

loose material in grains produced by the natural breaking up of rocks

gravel:

small pieces of rock and pebbles larger than grains of sand

 

  • used to build roads

 

  • used to make concrete

 

  • used in making glass

 

 

11.           Virginia’s soil and land…

 

SUPPORT A GREAT VARIETY OF LIFE

PROVIDE SPACE FOR MANY ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES

OFFER A VARIETY OF RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES

 

·         people

·         domesticated animals

·         domesticated plants

·         wild animals

·         wild plants

 

·   farming

·   recreation

·   manufacturing industries

o       mining

o       transportation equipment

o       printing

o       food processing

o       chemicals

o       industrial machinery

o       electronics

o       furniture

o       lumber and wood products

o       metal products

 

 

  • tourism
  • boating
  • waterskiing
  • fishing
  • swimming
  • picnics
  • hiking
  • camping
  • bird-watching
  • nature photography

 

 

 

 

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