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Not all copyrighted material will have these symbols or information on the copyright. Unless the material specifically gives permission to copy/download and use, you must assume that you cannot.
Copyright Guidelines at a Glance (pdf) provides an easy to read chart describing the usage rights for images, websites, music, video, etc...
UNDERSTANDING COPYRIGHT TERMS
Copyright: Copyright is the law that protects authors or creators of "original works of authorship," including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic and other intellectual works. It allows the author to decide how, when, and where their work can be reproduced and used.
Fair Use: Fair Use is one means by which copyrighted works can be used under certain circumstances without first obtaining permission of the copyright holder. Fair Use is limited, but flexible, and is commonly used in educational settings. The "fair use" provision of copyright law isn't a simple yes or no. There are four factors you should use to evaluate whether a use qualifies as fair:
Public Domain: Works in the public domain are not protected by copyright, so you can use them freely. This includes
Piracy: Piracy includes downloading music, copying software, downloading games, downloading and/or copying movies and much more. It is anytime you download or copy copyrighted materials without the author's/creator's permission and it is ILLEGAL. Piracy is stealing. It is that simple. The Internet has made it very easy to take these things, but just because you you can doesn't make it right (or legal).
PROTECTING YOUR ORIGINAL WORK
Your work (research papers, poetry, stories, lyrics, photos, artwork, music, website, etc.) is copyright protected as soon as it is created and in a tangible form of expression. It does not have to be published or registered with the copyright office to be protected.
With that being said, the links below will give you more information on how to protect your work. Note: Copyright laws vary by country; however, they are quite similar with very few differences.