Historical Thinking Skills
  1. The historical thinking skills provide opportunities for students to learn to think like historians, most notably to analyze evidence about the past and to create persuasive historical arguments. 
Chronological Reasoning
  1. Compare causes and/or effects, including between short-term and long-term effects 
  2. Analyze and evaluate historical patterns of continuity and change over time 
  3. Connect patterns of continuity and change over time to larger historical processes or themes 
  4. Analyze and evaluate competing models of periodization of world history 
Causation 
    1. Describe causes or effects of a specific historical development or process.
    2. Explain the relationship between causes and effects of a specific historical development or process.
    3. Explain the difference between primary and secondary causes, and between short- and long-term effects.
    4. Explain the relative historical significance of different causes and/or effects.
Causation: Underlying Questions
    1. What were the reasons for this event? What factors contributed to a specific pattern or trend? What prompted this person/group to act/react this way? 
    2. What resulted from this event, pattern, or action? What were the short-term effects? What were the long-term effects? 
    3. What cause seemed to be the most significant? What effect seemed to be the most significant and why? 
    4. How do the assessments of historians concerning causation differ from those who experienced the even, pattern, or action? 
    5. How might the chain of cause and effect have changed and at what point? What causes were contingent on previous effects? What individual choice(s) made a significant difference in the lead up to a particular event or trend? Was there a moment of chance that influenced the chain of events? 
Continuity and Change Over Time 
    1. Describe patterns of continuity and/or change over time.
    2. Explain patterns of continuity and/or change over time.
    3. Explain the relative historical significance of specific historical developments in relation to a larger pattern of continuity and/or change.
Continuity and Change Over Time: Underlying Questions
    1. What has changed within a specific time period? 
    2. What has remained the same within a specific time period? 
    3. What can explain why some things have changed and other have not? 
    4. How are continuity and change represented in different types of sources; for example, in graphs, charts, political cartoons, and texts? What might be the reasons behind different depictions of continuity and change?
Comparison and Contextualization 
  1. Compare related historical developments and processes across place, time, and/or different societies, or within one society 
  2. Explain and evaluate multiple and differing perspectives on a given historical phenomenon 
  3. Explain and evaluate ways in which specific historical phenomena, events, or processes connect to broader regional, national, or global processes occurring at the same time 
Comparison 
    1. Describe similarities and/or differences between different historical developments or processes.
    2. Explain relevant similarities and/or differences between specific historical developments and processes.
    3. Explain the relative historical significance of similarities and/or differences between different historical developments or processes.
Comparison: Underlying Questions
    1. How is one development like/unlike another development from the same time/a different time? 
    2. Why did an event or development affect different groups in different ways? 
    3. How does a viewpoint (form a historical actor or historian) compare with another when discussing the same event or historical development?
Contextualization 
    1. Describe an accurate historical context for a specific historical development or process.
    2. Explain how a relevant context influenced a specific historical development or process.
    3. Use context to explain the relative historical significance of a specific historical development or process.
Contextualization: Underlying Questions
    1. What was happening at the time the event happened or the document was created that might have had an influence? 
    2. What was happening at the specific place where an event occurred? In the country as a whole? In the larger region? In the world? 
    3. How does a specific event relate to larger processes? How do larger processes shape a specific event? 
    4. How does the context in which a source is read or viewed inform how it is understood? 
Crafting Historical Arguments from Historical Evidence

  1. Analyze commonly accepted historical arguments and explain how an argument has been constructed from historical evidence 
  2. Construct convincing interpretations through analysis of disparate, relevant historical evidence 
  3. Evaluate and synthesize conflicting historical evidence to construct persuasive historical arguments 
  4. Analyze features of historical evidence such as audience, purpose, point of view, format, argument, limitations, and context germane to the evidence considered 
  5. Based on analysis and evaluation of historical evidence, make supportable inferences and draw appropriate conclusions 
Historical Interpretation and Synthesis 
  1. Analyze diverse historical interpretations 
  2. Evaluate how historians’ perspectives influence their interpretations and how models of historical interpretation change over time 
  3. Draw appropriately on ideas and methods from different fields of inquiry or disciplines 
  4. Apply insights about the past to other historical contexts or circumstances, including the present