Articulation

What is articulation? 
Articulation is how speech sounds are produced. 

What sounds should children have mastered according to their ages?
Here are some common tools and charts used to display the development and mastery of speech sounds by age.

Speech and Articulation Development Chart
In the chart below, each solid bar indicates when children generally MASTER the specified sounds.  This chart depicts
a range of development and should only be used as a general guide.  
** Notice that there is a  quite a bit of range in which children may (or may not) develop the sound. For example, some children
 may produce the /r/ sound at 3 years of age; however, other children may develop the sound at 8 years of age and this is still 
considered developmentally appropriate.

      Girls   Boys

birth1 year2 years3 years4 years5 years6 years7 years8 years
  p,m,h,w,b      
  p,m,h,w,b      
  n      
  n      
   k      
   k      
   g      
   g     
   d      
   d      
   t     
   t      
   ing 
   ing 
    f      
    f      
    y     
    y    
    r 
    r 
    l    
    l   
    blends (st, pl, gr, etc.)    
    blends (st, pl, gr, etc.)    
    s 
    s 
     sh, ch   
     sh, ch  
     z 
     z 
     j   
     j  
     v    
     v    
      th (thumb)   
      th (thumb) 
      th (that)   
      th (that)  
       zh (measure) 
       zh (measure) 
                  
* Adapted from Sander JSHD 1972; Smit, et al JSHD 1990 and the Nebraska-Iowa Articulation Norms Project

Resource: ©2003 Talking Child, LLC     http://www.talkingchild.com



Areas of the head/face involved in articulation:
This is a diagram of the mechanisms involved in articulation 



Articulation Practice:

I have created a variety of practice pictures for different articulation sounds using an iPad app called, Custom Boards.  Look below for the pdf's.  I will continue to add more as I create the 'boards'. To practice, have the child/student listen to your model of the word, then have the child produce the word. 

Clear Speech Strategies: Using a slower rate, saying all sounds in words (not omitting sounds), saying all words in sentences (not omitting words), using pauses between words, stopping/pausing between sentences, loud voice, etc.  All of these strategies can help increase overall speech clarity and intelligibility.  Here is one version of a cue card used in my therapy setting (can also be used in classrooms, lockers, at home, etc).
Look below to download this cue card.


Ċ
Jenny Callaway,
Oct 16, 2013, 1:39 PM
Ċ
Jenny Callaway,
Oct 16, 2013, 6:29 AM
Ċ
Jenny Callaway,
Oct 16, 2013, 6:29 AM
Ċ
Jenny Callaway,
Oct 16, 2013, 6:29 AM
Ċ
Jenny Callaway,
Oct 16, 2013, 6:29 AM
Ċ
Jenny Callaway,
Oct 16, 2013, 6:29 AM
Ċ
Jenny Callaway,
Oct 16, 2013, 6:29 AM
Ċ
Jenny Callaway,
Oct 16, 2013, 6:29 AM
Ċ
Jenny Callaway,
Oct 16, 2013, 6:29 AM
Ċ
Jenny Callaway,
Oct 16, 2013, 6:29 AM
Ċ
Jenny Callaway,
Oct 16, 2013, 6:30 AM
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