2014-11-17. A Year In The Life Of Earth's CO2. NASA Goddard Media Studios.
2014-07-02. NASA Launches New Carbon-Sensing Mission to Monitor Earth’s Breathing. Excerpt: NASA successfully launched its first spacecraft dedicated to studying atmospheric carbon dioxide at 2:56 a.m. PDT.... The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) ... soon will begin a minimum two-year mission to locate Earth’s sources of and storage places for atmospheric carbon dioxide, the leading human-produced greenhouse gas responsible for warming our world and a critical component of the planet’s carbon cycle. ...OCO-2 will ... produce the most detailed picture to date of natural sources of carbon dioxide, as well as their "sinks" -- places on Earth’s surface where carbon dioxide is removed from the atmosphere. The observatory will study how these sources and sinks are distributed around the globe and how they change over time. ...Carbon dioxide sinks are at the heart of a longstanding scientific puzzle that has made it difficult for scientists to accurately predict how carbon dioxide levels will change in the future and how those changing concentrations will affect Earth's climate. ...OCO-2 science operations will begin about 45 days after launch. ...The observatory will uniformly sample the atmosphere above Earth's land and waters, collecting more than 100,000 precise individual measurements of carbon dioxide over Earth's entire sunlit hemisphere every day. ...OCO-2 also will measure a phenomenon called solar-induced fluorescence, an indicator of plant growth and health. As plants photosynthesize and take up carbon dioxide, they fluoresce and give off a tiny amount of light that is invisible to the naked eye. Because more photosynthesis translates into more fluorescence, fluorescence data from OCO-2 will help shed new light on the uptake of carbon dioxide by plants.... http://www.nasa.gov/press/2014/july/nasa-launches-new-carbon-sensing-mission-to-monitor-earth-s-breathing/#.U7RbQ6iPpr4. By NASA RELEASE 14-182.
2014-03-21. Key climate-change measurement imperiled. Excerpt: ...The "Keeling curve," the most famous measurement of the world's rising levels of carbon dioxide for the past six decades, is in jeopardy from funding shortfalls. ...run by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in San Diego, [it] is the longest continuous record of carbon dioxide measurements on the planet. The measurements were begun in 1958 by Scripps climate scientist Charles David Keeling and are taken near the top of Mauna Loa on the Big Island of Hawaii. Keeling died in 2005, and his son, Ralph, is now the keeper of the "curve." ....Carbon dioxide levels were around 280 "parts per million" (ppm) before the Industrial Revolution, when humans first began releasing large amounts into the atmosphere by burning fossil fuels. They're now near 400 ppm. ...Keeling said ... that the past year was especially difficult because several grants expired. ...All of this comes against the backdrop of last week's CO2 rise above 400 ppm at Mauna Loa for the second straight year. (CO2 levels peak in the spring when plants come alive, then decrease when the plants die in the autumn.) Keeling says that ... "It's just a matter of time before it stays over 400 forever," he said. Consistent levels above 400 ppm haven't been seen in human history and perhaps as long as millions of years. "We are living in extraordinary times," Keeling said.... http://www.usatoday.com/story/weather/2014/03/18/keeling-curve-mauna-loa-carbon-dioxide-scripps/6576803/. Doyle Rice, USA Today.
2013-05-01. Global CO2 Levels Approach Worrisome Milestone. Excerpt: ...Near the moonscape summit of the Mauna Loa volcano in Hawaii, an infrared analyzer will soon make history. Sometime in the next month, it is expected to record a daily concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of more than 400 parts per million (p.p.m.), a value not reached at this key surveillance point for a few million years. There will be no balloons or noisemakers to celebrate the event. Researchers who monitor greenhouse gases will regard it more as a disturbing marker of humanity’s power to alter the chemistry of the atmosphere and by extension, the climate of the planet. At 400 p.p.m., nations will have a difficult time keeping global warming in check, says Corinne Le Quéré, a climate researcher at the University of East Anglia in Norwich, UK, who says that the impact “is getting very dangerously close to reaching the 2 °C target that governments around the world have pledged not to exceed”.... http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=global-co2-levels-approach-worriesome-milestone. Richard Monastersky and Nature magazine, Scientific American.
2012-06-27. The Berkeley Atmospheric CO2 Observation Network (BEACO2N). http://beacon.berkeley.edu/News.aspx For GSS Climate Change chapter 5. BERKELEY — The City of Oakland will be ground zero for the first urban sensor network to provide real-time, neighborhood-by-neighborhood measurements of carbon dioxide – a greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming – and other air pollutants. The prototype network, being installed by chemists at the University of California, Berkeley, will employ 40 sensors spread over a 27 square-mile grid, most of them mounted atop local schools to engage students in the project. The information the network will provide could be used to monitor local carbon dioxide emissions to check on the effectiveness of carbon-reduction strategies now mandated by the state, but hard to verify.... The state has committed to a cap and trade strategy as an attempt to lower carbon emissions, and the Bay Area Air Quality Management District instituted a carbon fee on regional businesses in 2008. But carbon taxes rely on reports by local agencies and businesses that estimate their emissions based on assumptions that may be wrong.... UC Berkeley graduate student Virginia (Jill) Teige, who designed the sensors, said “no one is actually measuring CO2 at a fine enough resolution to confirm whether the reports are right or not. The idea of putting up a network to monitor emissions is like measuring how fast everyone is driving in order to confirm that people are abiding by the speed limit.” http://newscenter.berkeley.edu/2012/06/27/uc-berkeley-installing-first-co2-sensor-network-in-oakland/ . By Robert Sanders, UC Berkeley News Center.
2010 December 21. A Scientist, His Work, and a Climate Reckoning. By Justin Gillis, NYTimes. Excerpt:
MAUNA LOA OBSERVATORY, Hawaii — Two gray machines sit inside a pair of
utilitarian buildings here, sniffing the fresh breezes that blow across
thousands of miles of ocean....
...The first machine of this type was installed on Mauna Loa in the
1950s at the behest of Charles David Keeling, a scientist from San
Diego. His resulting discovery, of the increasing level of carbon
dioxide in the atmosphere, transformed the scientific understanding of
humanity’s relationship with the earth. A graph of his findings is
inscribed on a wall in Washington as one of the great achievements of
Yet, five years after Dr. Keeling’s death, his discovery is a focus not
of celebration but of conflict. It has become the touchstone of a
worldwide political debate over global warming...
2009 October 8. Last time carbon dioxide levels were this high: 15 million years ago, scientists report. EurekAlert. Excerpt:
You would have to go back at least 15 million years to find carbon
dioxide levels on Earth as high as they are today, a UCLA scientist and
colleagues report Oct. 8 in the online edition of the journal Science.
"The last time carbon dioxide levels were apparently as high as they
are today — and were sustained at those levels — global temperatures
were 5 to 10 degrees Fahrenheit higher than they are today, the sea
level was approximately 75 to 120 feet higher than today, there was no
permanent sea ice cap in the Arctic and very little ice on Antarctica
and Greenland," said the paper's lead author, Aradhna Tripati, a UCLA
assistant professor in the department of Earth and space sciences and
the department of atmospheric and oceanic sciences.
...By analyzing the chemistry of bubbles of ancient air trapped in
Antarctic ice, scientists have been able to determine the composition
of Earth's atmosphere going back as far as 800,000 years, and they have
developed a good understanding of how carbon dioxide levels have varied
in the atmosphere since that time. But there has been little agreement
before this study on how to reconstruct carbon dioxide levels prior to
800,000 years ago.
..."A slightly shocking finding," Tripati said, "is that the only time
in the last 20 million years that we find evidence for carbon dioxide
levels similar to the modern level of 387 parts per million was 15 to
20 million years ago, when the planet was dramatically different."
Levels of carbon dioxide have varied only between 180 and 300 parts per
million over the last 800,000 years — until recent decades, said
Tripati, who is also a member of UCLA's Institute of Geophysics and
Planetary Physics. It has been known that modern-day levels of carbon
dioxide are unprecedented over the last 800,000 years, but the finding
that modern levels have not been reached in the last 15 million years
2009 February 24. NASA Satellite Fails to Reach Orbit. By Kenneth Chang, the NY Times. Excerpt:
A NASA satellite to track carbon dioxide in the Earth’s atmosphere
failed to reach its orbit during launching Tuesday morning, scuttling
the $278 million mission.
...The Orbiting Carbon Observatory lifted off on schedule at 1:55 a.m.
Pacific time from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California aboard a
four-stage Taurus XL rocket.
But three minutes later, during the burning of the third stage, the
payload fairing — a clamshell nose cone that protects the satellite as
it rises through the atmosphere — failed to separate as commanded.
The third and fourth stages burned properly, but because of the added
weight of the nose cone, the satellite did not reach orbit.
...The satellite fell back to Earth, landing in the ocean just short of Antarctica.
...The carbon observatory was to precisely measure levels of carbon
dioxide — the heat-trapping gas that is driving global warming — in the
air. Scientists had hoped the new data, covering the entire planet,
would help them improve climate models and better understand the
“carbon sinks” like oceans and forests and that absorb much of the
2009 February 23. NASA-Funded Carbon Dioxide Map Of U.S. Released On Google Earth. ScienceDaily. Excerpt:
Interactive maps that detail carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel
combustion are now available on the popular Google Earth platform. The
maps, funded by NASA and the U.S. Department of Energy through the
joint North American Carbon Program, can display fossil fuel emissions
by the hour, geographic region, and fuel type.
...Researchers from the project, named "Vulcan" for the Roman god of
fire, constructed an unprecedented inventory of the carbon dioxide that
results from the burning of 48 different types of fossil fuel. The
data-based maps show estimates of the hourly carbon dioxide outputs of
factories, power plants, vehicle traffic and residential and commercial
...“The release of the Vulcan inventory on Google Earth brings this
information into the living room of anyone with an Internet
connection," said Kevin Gurney, an assistant professor of Earth and
atmospheric sciences at Purdue and leader of the Vulcan Project. "From
a societal perspective, Vulcan provides a description of where and when
society influences climate change through fossil-fuel carbon dioxide
2009 January 29. NASA RELEASE: 09-021. NASA Mission to Help Unravel Key Carbon, Climate Mysteries. Excerpt:
WASHINGTON -- NASA's first spacecraft dedicated to studying atmospheric
carbon dioxide is in final preparations for a Feb. 23 launch from
Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. Carbon dioxide is the leading
human-produced greenhouse gas driving changes in Earth's climate.
The Orbiting Carbon Observatory will provide the first complete picture
of human and natural carbon dioxide sources as well as their "sinks,"
the places where carbon dioxide is pulled out of the atmosphere and
stored. It will map the global geographic distribution of these sources
and sinks and study their changes over time. The measurements will be
combined with data from ground stations, aircraft and other satellites
to help answer questions about the processes that regulate atmospheric
carbon dioxide and its role in Earth's climate and carbon cycle.
..."It's critical that we understand the processes controlling carbon
dioxide in our atmosphere today so we can predict how fast it will
build up in the future and how quickly we'll have to adapt to climate
change caused by carbon dioxide buildup," said David Crisp, principal
investigator for the Orbiting Carbon Observatory at NASA's Jet
Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif.
...The new observatory will dramatically improve global carbon dioxide
measurements, collecting about 8 million measurements every 16 days for
at least two years.... Scientists need these precise measurements
because carbon dioxide varies by just 10 parts per million throughout
the year on regional to continental scales....
2008 December 4. The Ins and Outs of the Global Carbon Cycle. By Jeremy Jacquot, Science Progress. Excerpt:
...Having spent the last few decades piecing together the different
components of the global carbon puzzle, scientists now have a good idea
of how the planet’s natural carbon sinks (or reservoirs) work—primarily
these sinks are plants and the oceans. But when it comes to pinpointing
the locations of all the sources (areas or organisms which release
carbon dioxide to the atmosphere), there remains a lot of
ambiguity—mostly because climate change is constantly changing the
picture of how the sources work (and it’s usually changing for the
worse). ...What many scientists are now worried about is the degree to
which carbon sinks could shrink, or carbon sources could grow, in
response to the rapid increase in anthropogenic CO2 emissions.
The easiest way to think of the global carbon cycle is as the sum total
of different reactions...between and within the planet’s major carbon
repositories: the ocean and terrestrial biosphere. The ocean is by far
the larger one—estimated to hold about 38,000 petagrams (1 petagram
equals one trillion grams); the land plants and soils that make up the
terrestrial biosphere store only about 2,000.
...These sinks currently absorb around half of all the carbon dioxide
emitted through fossil fuel combustion. Around 85 percent of new
anthropogenic CO2 ends up in the ocean... Almost half of the total
amount of anthropogenic CO2 that has been added to the atmosphere since
pre-industrial times has gone into the ocean.
...scientists are beginning to come to grips with the realization that
many erstwhile sinks, primarily plants and soils, could lose their
ability to draw down CO2 in a warming world—with a worst-case scenario
being that they would turn into sources....
2008 December 1. Carbon Detectives Are Tracking Gases in Colorado. By Susan Moran, The New York Times. Excerpt:
BOULDER, Colo. — As she squeezed herself into a telephone-booth-size
elevator to ascend a 984-foot tower in Colorado’s eastern plains, Arlyn
Andrews said with a grin, “This makes me want to go rock climbing.”
It’s a good thing she loves climbing tall structures. Dr. Andrews, an
atmospheric scientist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration in Boulder, climbs the tower periodically to make sure
the narrow tubes running from the tower to analyzers nearby are
properly taking continuous samples of carbon dioxide, methane and a
cocktail of other greenhouse gases.
...“We’re able to detect the whole mix of emissions here — what comes
from automobile traffic, from industry, from residential development
and from agriculture,” Dr. Andrews said.
She is one of many carbon sleuths, scientists who track and analyze
where greenhouse gases come from and where they go over time. Think of
it like personal finances. To plan for a sound financial future, it
helps to create a budget and keep track of how one is spending money.
Similarly, atmospheric scientists need to develop a “budget” for
...The key task is measuring the sources, or emissions, of these
planet-warming gases, and the “sinks” — forests, cropland and oceans
that absorb carbon. This budget can then inform intelligent
climate-control policy, whether it be managing one forest or shaping
national emissions regulations.
...But uncertainty remains high — often as high as estimates
themselves. For instance, researchers think about half of the CO2
emitted into the atmosphere gets absorbed by oceans and land, but they
do not know precisely where the gases come from and where they end up.
This knowledge gap has serious policy implications; until it becomes
clear where emissions are going, it will remain difficult to have
verifiable credits for sequestering carbon....
2008 November 12. NASA'S Carbon-Sniffing Satellite Sleuth Arrives at Launch Site. NASA RELEASE : 08-285. Excerpt:
WASHINGTON -- NASA's first spacecraft dedicated to studying carbon
dioxide, the leading human-produced greenhouse gas driving changes in
Earth's climate, has arrived at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., to
begin final launch preparations.
The Orbiting Carbon Observatory arrived Nov. 11 at its launch site on
California's central coast after completing a cross-country trip by
truck from its manufacturer, Orbital Sciences Corp. in Dulles,
Va....After final tests, the spacecraft will be integrated onto an
Orbital Sciences Taurus rocket in preparation for its planned January
The observatory will help solve some of the lingering mysteries in our
understanding of Earth's carbon cycle and its primary atmospheric
component, carbon dioxide, a chemical compound that is produced both
naturally and through human activities....
...The observatory's space-based measurements of atmospheric carbon
dioxide will have the precision, resolution and coverage needed to
provide the first complete picture of both human and natural sources of
carbon dioxide emissions. It will show the places where they are
absorbed, known as "sinks," at regional scales everywhere on Earth. Its
data will reduce uncertainties in forecasts of how much carbon dioxide
is in the atmosphere and improve the accuracy of global climate change
2008 April 7,Breath of a Nation - Animated CO2 Map. By ANDREW C. REVKIN. Scientists
have come up with a new way to precisely track daily and local patterns
of carbon dioxide emissions from the burning of fossil fuels by power
plants, factories, and vehicle traffic. The resulting database and maps
provide a view of the "industrial metabolism" of our combustion-powered
lives, Kevin Gurney, the leader in the project and an atmospheric
scientist at Purdue, told me today.
A YouTube video produced by the team, which did the work with funding
from NASA and the Department of Energy, includes fascinating animations
showing the daily burst of emissions as industry and traffic kick into
gear, and also reveals regional patterns showing that the Southeast is
a bigger contributor to emissions than researchers realized. For more
info, see article at Purdue website.
2007 December 16. Climate
Plan Looks Beyond Bush's Tenure.
FULLER and ANDREW C. REVKIN, NY
NUSA DUA, Indonesia -
The world's faltering effort to
cut greenhouse gas emissions got
new lease on life on Saturday,
as delegates from 187 countries
to negotiate a new accord over
the next two years....
Many officials and environmental
campaigners said American
negotiators had remained obstructionist
until the final hour of the
two-week convention and had changed
their stance only after public
rebukes that included boos and
hisses from other delegates.
The resulting "Bali Action
Plan" contains no binding
which European countries had sought
and the United States fended off.
The plan concludes that "deep
cuts in global emissions will be
required" and provides a timetable
for two years of talks to shape
the first formal addendum to the
1992 Framework Convention on Climate
Change treaty since the Kyoto Protocol
10 years ago.
... in the final tumultuous plenary,
when the American team was booed
for trying to block a proposal
Kevin Conrad, the negotiator from
Papua New Guinea, rebuked the
American delegation. "If for
some reason you are not killing
leave it to the rest of us," he
said. "Please, get out of
He was alluding to remarks made
by an American official, James
Connaughton, chairman of the White
House Council on Environmental
Quality, last week to a Reuters
reporter, who quoted him as saying,"The
U.S. will lead, and we will continue
to lead, but leadership also requires
others to fall in line and follow."
That statement had become a sore
point to many delegations.
A few more statements were made,
but none of America's traditional
allies came to its defense.
Finally, Paula Dobriansky, the
lead American negotiator, spoke."We
came here to Bali because we want
to go forward as part of a new
framework," said Ms. Dobriansky,
the under secretary of state for
democracy and global affairs. "We
believe we have a shared vision
we want to move that forward. We
want a success here in Bali. We
go forward and join consensus."
The delegates erupted in lengthy
applause, realizing that a deal
finally at hand.
2007 November 1. Is
the ocean carbon sink sinking? RealClimate
website. --David. Excerpt:
The past few weeks and years
have seen a bushel of papers
finding that the natural world,
in particular perhaps the ocean,
is getting fed up with absorbing
our CO2... evidence that the hypothesized
carbon cycle positive feedback has begun.
...If changing climate were to
cause the natural world to slow
down its carbon uptake, or even
begin to release carbon, that would
exacerbate the climate forcing
from fossil fuels: a positive feedback.
The ocean has a tendency to take
up more carbon as the CO2 concentration
in the air rises, because of Henry's
Law, which states that in equilibrium,
more in the air means more dissolved
in the water. Stratification of
the waters in the ocean, due to
warming at the surface for example,
tends to oppose CO2 invasion, by
slowing the rate of replenishing
surface waters by deep waters which
haven't taken up fossil fuel CO2
... Le Quere et al.  ...
find that the Southern Ocean has
begun to release carbon since about
A decrease in ocean uptake is more
clearly documented in the North
Atlantic by Schuster and Watson
. They show surface ocean
CO2 measurements ... rose by about
...The warming at the end of the
last ice age was prompted by changes
in Earth's orbit around the sun,
but it was greatly amplified by
the rising CO2 concentration in
the atmosphere. The orbits pushed
on ice sheets, which pushed on
climate. The climate changes triggered
a strong positive carbon cycle
feedback which is, yes, still poorly
Now industrial activity is pushing
on atmospheric CO2 directly. The
question is when and how strongly
the carbon cycle will push back.
... I'd like to prompt interested
teachers to examine (online) some
of the buoy's collecting data on
CO2 exchange between air and ocean.
(pertinent web links can be found
in attachment) [See also the] BUOY
DATA WORKSHEET - for HS students
that might provide them with an
interesting classroom exercise
on this topic. This is an activity
I recently put together at a Teacher
Insitute on CC and Oceans as an
educational assignment. I think
it's pretty interesting.
Would love to hear feedback on
the exercise and how it works in
the classroom. I believe I shared
a really neat carbon cycle classroom
activity with this group a few
months back, but if you did get
it - feel free to inquire further.
2007 October 9. Scientist:
Greenhouse Gas Levels Grave.
By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS. Excerpt:
SYDNEY, Australia (AP) -- Strong
worldwide economic growth has
accelerated the level of greenhouse
gas emissions in the atmosphere
to a dangerous threshold scientists
had not expected for another decade,
according to a leading Australian
climate change expert.
Scientist Tim Flannery told Australian
Broadcasting Corp. that an upcoming
report by the U.N. Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change will contain
new data showing that the level
of climate-changing gases in the
atmosphere has already reached
Flannery is not a member of the
IPCC, but said he based his comments
on a thorough review of the technical
data included in the panel's three
working group reports published
earlier this year. The IPCC is
due to release its final report
synthesizing the data in November.
''What the report establishes is
that the amount of greenhouse gas
in the atmosphere is already above
the threshold that can potentially
cause dangerous climate change,''
Flannery told the broadcaster late
Monday. ''We are already at great
risk of dangerous climate change,
that's what these figures say.
It's not next year or next decade,
it's now.'' ...The new data could
add urgency to the next round of
U.N. climate change talks on the
Indonesian island of Bali in December,
which will aim to start negotiations
on a replacement for the 1997 Kyoto
Protocol, which expires in 2012....
2007 May 8. Sale
of Carbon Credits Helping Land-Rich,
but Cash-Poor, Tribes. By
JIM ROBBINS, The New York Times. Excerpt:
LAPWAI, Idaho - On the Nez Perce
reservation here, land that was
cleared in the 19th century for
farming is being converted back
to forest, in part to sell the
trees' ability to sequester carbon.... "These
forests are a carbon crop," Brian
Kummett, a forester for the Nez
Perce tribal forestry division,
said as he surveyed a vast field
studded with recently planted ponderosa
pine, Douglas fir and larch saplings. "We
can sell the rights from the time
the forest is planted to the time
it's harvested, 80 or 120 years
down the road."...The Nez
Perce are participating in an Indian
portfolio" being created by
the National Carbon Offset Coalition
in Butte, Mont., an organization
supported largely by the Energy
Department....An acre of pine forest
captures and holds one to two metric
tons of carbon dioxide per year,
which it uses for photosynthesis.
Untilled cropland holds a third
of a ton of carbon per acre, and
rangeland holds up to a fifth of
a ton. The sequestered carbon dioxide
is measured by soil tests before
and after the planting. The market
for carbon sequestration in the
United States is voluntary. As
a result, the demand has been low
compared with Europe, where emissions
are now restricted by law. ...Tribal
carbon sales have had mixed results
since the first such sale in the
1990s, when the Confederated Tribes
of the Colville Reservation in
Washington sold rights to its land
for 25 cents a metric ton. ...Carbon
dioxide credits now sell for about
$4 a metric ton. Mandatory restrictions,
experts say, could increase the
price to $12 or higher. In Europe,
the cost of a credit sold for sequestering
carbon dioxide has reached $20,
and even $30, a ton....The sale
of carbon sequestration rights
has enhanced land conservation.
Plants on rangeland where carbon
rights have been sold, for example,
have to be kept healthy to assure
that they hold carbon. That means
that they have to be grazed by
a specific number of cows in a
certain way. Forests have to be
2007 April 12. Hot Topic, Cool
Science: The Greenhouse Effect
and the Orbiting Carbon Observatory.
Talk by Dr. Charles "Chip" E.
Miller, Deputy Principal Investigator,
Orbiting Carbon Observatory. Carbon
dioxide is the primary greenhouse
gas released into the atmosphere
by fossil fuel combustion and
other human activities. The year
2005 saw atmospheric carbon dioxide
climb to its highest level in
the last 500,000 years - raising
concerns about increased greenhouse
forcing of Earth's climate. NASA's
Orbiting Carbon Observatory [OCO]
mission, scheduled for launch
in 2008 will address these concerns
by collecting precise global
measurements of carbon dioxide
in Earth's atmosphere and revolutionizing
our understanding of the global
carbon cycle. Come learn how
the Orbiting Carbon Observatory
will measure your carbon footprint. http://oco.jpl.nasa.gov/
2007 January 22. Scientists
Analyze Corn To Map North American
Carbon Dioxide. NASA Earth
Observatory. Scientists have
developed a novel way of mapping
carbon dioxide levels in various
parts of North America, by analyzing
corn grown in those regions.
Diana Hsueh at the University
of California, Irvine, and colleagues
collected corn from nearly 70 locations
in the United States and Canada.
They found that the Ohio Valley
and California had the most fossil-fuel-emitted
carbon dioxide, while the Colorado
region had the least. ...The scientists
had expected carbon dioxide from
California and other western coastal
states to drift eastward, but they
found that the Rocky Mountains
appeared to provide a barrier....
13 December 2004. NASA RELEASE: 04-395. NASA
Scientists Link Greenhouse Gases to Insects
and Tree. Insect
control and tree planting could greatly
affect Earth's greenhouse gases, according
to NASA scientists. Greenhouse gasses are
in Earth's atmosphere and warm the planet.
The scientists presented their findings
today during the fall meeting of the American
Geophysical Union in San Francisco. Their
research showed how human control of insects,
tree planting and other factors could affect
Earth's greenhouse gases. "Planting
trees on marginal agricultural lands could
sequester carbon and offset at least one-fifth
of the annual fossil fuel emission of carbon
in the United States," said Christopher
Potter, a scientist at NASA's Ames Research
Center, Moffett Field, Calif. "Scientists
also have found outbreaks of plant-eating
insects may be linked with periodic droughts
and heat waves in North America, which can
trigger large seasonal losses of carbon
dioxide back to the atmosphere." Potter
Articles from 2005–present
Carbon cycle activities and games:
- 19 multimedia resources from Teachers' Domain Earth
and Space Science.
for Investigation "Sampling
Carbon Dioxide" showing:
Bubbling Gas Through Straw; Low
Res (788K)-|- Hi
Generating Pure CO2 Sample; Low
Res (643K) -|- Hi
Capturing Car Exhaust; Low
Res (3.3M) (629K) -|-