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By David R. Baker, San Francisco Chronicle. For GSS Energy Use chapter 4. Excerpt: Pacific Gas and Electric Co. announced Tuesday it will close California’s last nuclear plant, Diablo Canyon, in 2025, ending atomic energy’s more than a half-century history in the state. The move will shutter a plant whose construction on a seaside cliff surrounded by earthquake faults helped create the antinuclear movement. And yet, some conservationists have fought to keep Diablo Canyon open, arguing California needed its output of greenhouse gas-free electricity to not exacerbate global warming. ... PG&E CEO Tony Earley told The Chronicle that as the company looked into California’s energy needs for the coming decades, it didn’t see a place for Diablo Canyon. ...competition from power plants burning cheap natural gas has driven several older nuclear plants out of business. ...PG&E’s Earley, ...the former chairman of the Nuclear Energy Institute lobbying group, he is a longtime believer in nuclear power. But he says PG&E can find enough affordable renewable power and energy storage solutions to replace Diablo Canyon without significantly raising rates. ... Newsom ...“The idea that the economics — from PG&E’s perspective — work for renewables is a pretty profound moment in energy policy,” [Lt. Gov. Gavin] Newsom said. “We’ve been asserting it for decades. And here you have a major utility acknowledging a low-carbon, green future.”... http://www.sfgate.com/business/article/End-of-an-atomic-era-PG-E-to-close-Diablo-Canyon-8314258.php
By Coral Davenport, The New York Times. For GSS Energy Use chapter 10. Excerpt: ...In Wyoming, the country’s biggest coal-producing state, the energy landscape is transforming along with the nation’s, but in a state of 584,000 people, that change is happening at hyperspeed. ...The new positions and financial opportunities offered by wind and other new-energy industries are not replacing all the jobs going up in coal smoke. ...The thousands of coal workers who will probably lose their jobs do not necessarily have the technical skills to operate wind farms. In any case, new wind jobs will number in the hundreds, not the thousands. ...Today, about 66 percent of the electricity in the United States is produced by coal and natural gas, and just 7 percent is produced by renewable sources such as wind and solar. But market forces and government regulations are rapidly changing that picture. ...“There’s enough wind in Wyoming to power the entire country,” said Michael Goggin, the senior director of research at the American Wind Energy Association.... http://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/20/us/as-wind-power-lifts-wyomings-fortunes-coal-miners-are-left-in-the-dust.html
By Kathleen Maclay, UC Berkeley News. For GSS Climate Change chapter 8. Excerpt: Global warming by just 2 degrees Celsius is likely to force some tropical plant, animal and human populations to relocate hundreds of miles from their current homes this century, according to research published today in the journal Scientific Reports [http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep25697]. Solomon Hsiang, Chancellor’s Associate Professor of Public Policy at the University of California, Berkeley, and Adam Sobel, a professor of applied physics and math at Columbia University, foresee dramatic population declines in Mexico, Central America, Africa, India and other tropical locales if ecosystems or humans move due to climate change. In their analysis, the pair used a model to demonstrate how climate dynamics in the tropics can dramatically magnify the consequences of climate change as it is experienced on the ground. This means even small climate changes can have dramatic impacts.... http://news.berkeley.edu/2016/06/09/climate-change-could-trigger-tropical-evacuations-researchers-advise/
By Robert Sanders, UC Berkeley News. For GSS A Changing Cosmos chapters 4 and 9. Excerpt: Astronomers have obtained the most precise measurement yet of how fast the universe is expanding, and it doesn’t agree with predictions based on other data and our current understanding of the physics of the cosmos. The discrepancy — the universe is now expanding 9 percent faster than expected — means either that measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation are wrong, or that some unknown physical phenomenon is speeding up the expansion of space, the astronomers say. ...By measuring about 2,400 Cepheid stars in 19 nearby galaxies and comparing the apparent brightness of both types of stars, the researchers accurately determined the true brightness of the Type Ia supernovae. They then used this calibration to calculate distances to roughly 300 Type Ia supernovae in far-flung galaxies. “We needed both the nearby Cepheid distances for galaxies hosting Type Ia supernovae and the distances to the 300 more-distant Type Ia supernovae to determine the Hubble constant,” Filippenko said. “The paper focuses on the 19 galaxies and getting their distances really, really well, with small uncertainties, and thoroughly understanding those uncertainties.”... http://news.berkeley.edu/2016/06/02/universe-expanding-faster-than-expected/ 0
2016-06-17. Rising temperatures and humans were a deadly combo for ancient South American megafauna.
By Lizzie Wade, Science. For GSS Life and Climate chapter 12. Excerpt: If you’re fossil hunting in Patagonia you might find some weird creatures: giant jaguars, 3-meter-tall sloths, and bears 10 times the size of grizzlies. The southern part of South America was once crawling with these great beasts, collectively known as megafauna. But around 12,000 years ago, they suddenly disappeared from Patagonia and many other parts of the Americas. What caused the mass extinction? A new study suggests it was a one-two punch: rapid climate warming and humans. ...Alan Cooper, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Adelaide in Australia, radiocarbon dated nearly 100 fossils from Patagonia and sequenced their mitochondrial DNA, genes found in the power plants of cells and passed down only from the mother. When he lined up their ages with global climate records, he noticed a pattern: Many species of megafauna seemed to disappear during a period of extreme warming around 12,300 years ago, Cooper and his team write today in Science Advances. ...Patagonia warmed by about 2°C over 1000 years, and the effects were devastating: All but one of the species Cooper studied went extinct. ...Last year, Cooper spotted a similar pattern in North America, with megafauna going extinct during ancient warming events (which occurred at slightly different times in the Northern Hemisphere). The existence of complementary data from the two continents “is as close as you’re going to get to a replicated experiment,” he says.... http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/06/rising-temperatures-and-humans-were-deadly-combo-ancient-south-american-megafauna
2016-06-14. Australian Rodent Is First Mammal Made Extinct by Human-Driven Climate Change, Scientists Say.
By Michelle Innis, The New York Times. For GSS Climate Change chapter 8 and Losing Biodiversity chapter 8. Excerpt: SYDNEY, Australia — Australian researchers say rising sea levels have wiped out a rodent that lived on a tiny outcrop in the Great Barrier Reef, in what they say is the first documented extinction of a mammal species due to human-caused climate change. ...The long-tailed, whiskered creature, called the Bramble Cay melomys, was considered the only mammal endemic to the Great Barrier Reef. “The key factor responsible for the death of the Bramble Cay melomys is almost certainly high tides and surging seawater, which has traveled inland across the island,” Luke Leung, a scientist from the University of Queensland who was an author of a report on the species’ apparent disappearance, said by telephone. “The seawater has destroyed the animal’s habitat and food source. This is the first documented extinction of a mammal because of climate change,” he said. ...Accounts of the melomys’s presence on Bramble Cay date to 1845, when European sailors encountered what they described as large rats (and tried to kill them with bows and arrows). Researchers found hundreds of the creatures on the island during the 1970s. But within a few decades, their numbers had fallen drastically, with just 10 melomys captured during a 2002 survey and 12 in 2004. None at all were caught during a 2011 survey, but that expedition was cut short for fear of damaging green-turtle nests.... http://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/15/world/australia/climate-change-bramble-cay-rodent.html
By Robert F. Service, Science. For GSS Energy Use chapter 9. Excerpt: Yi Cui, a materials scientist at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California, is trying to take lithium-ion batteries to the next level. ...Cui—and his startup, Amprius—are marrying battery chemistry with nanotechnology. He is building intricately structured battery electrodes that can soak up and release charge-carrying ions in greater quantities, and faster, than standard electrodes can, without producing troublesome side reactions. The nanoscale architectures he is exploring have already led to phone batteries that store 10% more energy than the best conventional lithium-ion batteries on the market, and better ones are in the works. If the technologies live up to their promise, Amprius could one day supply car batteries able to store up to 10 times more energy than today's top performers.... http://science.sciencemag.org/content/352/6289/1046
By Eli Kintisch, Science. For GSS Energy Use chapter 4 and Climate Change chapter 10. Excerpt: Researchers working in Iceland say they have discovered a new way to trap the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) deep underground: by changing it into rock. Results published this week in Science show that injecting CO2 into volcanic rocks triggers a reaction that rapidly forms new carbonate minerals—potentially locking up the gas forever. The technique has to clear some high hurdles to become commercially viable. ...unlike sandstone, the basalt contains metals that react with CO2, forming carbonate minerals such as calcite—a process known as carbonation. But they thought the process might take many years. To find out, they launched the CarbFix experiment 25 kilometers east of Reykjavik, intending to dose Iceland’s abundant underground basalt with CO2 that bubbles from cooling magma underground and is collected at a nearby geothermal power plant. In 2012, the researchers injected 220 tons of CO2—spiked with heavy carbon for monitoring—into layers of basalt between 400 and 800 meters below the surface. ...What happened next startled the team. After about a year and a half, the pump inside a monitoring well kept breaking down. Frustrated, engineers hauled up the pump and found that it was coated with white and green scale. Tests identified it as calcite, bearing the heavy carbon tracer that marked it as a product of carbonation. Measurements of dissolved carbon in the groundwater suggested that more than 95% of the injected carbon had already been converted into calcite and other minerals. ... http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/06/underground-injections-turn-carbon-dioxide-stone
By Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). For GSS Climate Change chapter 8. Fact Sheets on Climate Change and the Health of Children, Indigenous Populations, Occupational Groups, Older Adults, People with Disabilities, People with Existing Medical Conditions, Pregnant Women. Also Climate Change, Health, and Environmental Justice.... https://www3.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts/health/factsheets/
By John King, San Francisco Chronicle. For GSS Climate Change chapter 8. Excerpt: An abundance of scientific studies says the bay’s average tide could climb several feet or more by 2100, with most change coming in the decades after 2050. It’s an inexorable shift that threatens low-lying neighborhoods as well as the fish, birds and wildlife that need tidal flats to survive. If sea levels were to rise 36 inches, the midrange increase through 2100 projected in the most recent study by the National Research Council, water would wash into San Francisco’s Ferry Building twice daily at high tide. With just 16 inches of sea-level rise, the tollbooths of the Bay Bridge could be flooded during storms. $35 billion worth of public property in San Francisco is at risk if sea-level rise by 2100 reaches 66 inches, the upper level forecast by the National Research Council. Already, lanes on the ramps connecting Highway 101 to the Shoreline Highway near Mill Valley are closed regularly — 30 times in 2015 — because of high tides, a small but vivid hint of how profoundly our region will be altered in coming decades unless the Bay Area starts making plans now.... http://projects.sfchronicle.com/2016/sea-level-rise/