Biographical Index--Dissenters, 1700-1860

Biographical Index of Dissenters, 

1700-1860


 Compiled, with bibliography, by Timothy Whelan

 

Abbott, Thomas Fisher—Abbott, a member of the Particular Baptist church at Taunton, arrived in Jamaica in 1828 for reasons of health, not as a missionary. He soon joined William Knibb’s congregation at Falmouth, a decision that cost Abbott his job as a wharfinger. Shortly thereafter, Abbott applied to the BMS and was set apart as a missionary at Montego Bay in April 1831. The Montego church suffered considerable damage during the riots of 1832, and Abåbott was briefly imprisoned in 1833 and 1834. After his release, he established several new churches between 1835 and 1840. Abbott removed to Falmouth after Knibb’s death in 1845, but poor health forced his return to England in 1847, at which time he retired from the BMS. See Clarke, Memorials, 148-152.

Adam, William (1710-82)—Adam ministered to Independent congregations at Painswick (1734-50), Bedworth (1751-62), and Soham (1763-82). Josiah Thompson described Adam as “the best scholar and the most intelligent independent minister in the country.” He married a second time in old age to a young wife and had a second family, which greatly impoverished him, forcing him in his last years to obtain relief from several neighboring churches. At the time of his death, his congregation consisted of only three female members and a few hearers. See Josiah Thompson, “The State of the Dissenting Interest in the Several Counties of England and Wales . . . The First Part, c. 1774” (MS., Dr. Williams’s Library, London); “Statistical View,” 814 (the author incorrectly identifies him as Thomas Adam).

Addington, Stephen (1729-96)—After completing his studies at Philip Doddridge’s Independent academy at Northampton, Addington began ministering at Spaldwick, Huntingdonshire, in 1750, before removing to Market Harborough in 1752, where he remained until 1781. That year he became minister of the Independent congregation at Miles Lane in London (until 1795) as well as tutor at the Mile End Academy, 1783-1791. Among his works are A Dissertation on the Religious Knowledge of the Antient Jews and Patriarchs, Containing an Enquiry into the Evidences of their Belief and Expectation of a Future State (1757); The Christian Minister’s Reasons for Baptizing Infants (1771); The Life of Paul the Apostle (1784); and A Letter to the Deputies of Protestant Dissenting Congregations, in and about . . . London and Westminster on their Intended Application to Parliament, for the Repeal of the Corporation and Test Acts (1787). An affectionate history of Addington can be found in Wilson, History and Antiquities, 1:499-518.

Anderson, Christopher (1782-1852)—Anderson, a banker’s clerk, was converted through the ministry of James and Robert Haldane in 1799. He became a Baptist and planned to join Carey in India as a BMS missionary but poor health would not allow him to do so. He turned to the ministry instead, studying at Bristol Academy and with John Sutcliff at Olney. He eventually settled in Edinburgh where he organized a small congregation along Baptist lines in 1808. He would remain with that congregation until shortly before his death. He was a staunch supporter of the BMS, especially William Carey and the Serampore Mission. He helped to form an Itinerating Society of preachers, both in Scotland and Ireland, which later became a part of the Baptist Home Missionary Society. He founded the Edinburgh Bible Society and was involved in the formation of the Edinburgh Gaelic School Society. During the years of the split between the Serampore Mission and the BMS, Anderson served as one of the chief negotiators for Carey and Marshman. See Derek B. Murray, “Christopher Anderson (1782-1852),” ed. Haykin, in The British Particular Baptists, 3:171-179; Donald E. Meek, ed., A Mind for Mission: Essays in Appreciation of the Rev. Christopher Anderson (1782-1852) (Edinburgh: Scottish Baptist History Project, 1992); DEB.

Andrews, Mary (d. 1795)— Mary Andrews and her husband, William, were members of the Baptist congregation at Olney and were instrumental in bringing Sutcliff to Olney. William Andrews died on 8 February 1787. Sutcliff lived in the Andrews’s home until his marriage in 1795, just after Mrs. Andrews’s death on 9 March 1795 (see letter 42).  See Olney Church Book, ff. 17, 19; “Character and Death of Mrs. Andrews,” Evangelical Magazine 3 (1795): 292; and Haykin, One Heart, 87-91, 238-241.

Angas (Angus), George Fife (1789-1878)— Angas, along with his brother John Lindsey Angas (1776-1861) and John’s wife Mary (1775-1850), were all members of the Baptist church at Tuthill Stairs, Newcastle, where John served for many years as a deacon. Richard Pengilly arrived as pastor in 1807, the same year George Angas organized the church’s first Sunday school. A lifetime supporter of the BMS and other evangelical missionary societies, George moved to London in 1832 and was instrumental in the founding of the Colony of South Australia, serving as a initial director for both the South Australian Company and the South Australian Bank. He eventually emigrated to South Australia in 1851. Another George Angus (1725-1815) served as a deacon in the church at Hamsterley/Rowley, near Newcastle-on-Tyne, for many years. He farmed at Styford, on the north side of the Tyne, near Hexham; late in life he retired to Broomley, at which time his son-in-law, John Angus, took over the farm. These Anguses were relations of Joseph Angus, BMS secretary, as well as William Henry Angus (d. 1832), who served as a missionary with the BMS in the 1820s to seamen in seaports throughout Europe. See Walter D. Potts, “A Record of the Baptist Sunday School, Founded at Tuthill Stairs, Newcastle, April, 1807,” in Souvenir of the Sunday School Centenary Celebration 1807-1907 (Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Newcastle and Gateshead Baptist Council, 1907) 7; Angus Watson, The Angus Clan (Years 1588 to 1950) (Gateshead: Angus Watson, 1955) 93-106; John Bradburn, The History of Bewick Street Baptist Church (Newcastle-on-Tyne: n.p., 1883) 8; Richard Pengilly, with Henry Angus Wilkinson, “The Pedigree of the Angus Family” (MS., Angus Library, Regent’s Park College, Oxford); J. D. Bollen, “English-Australian Baptist Relations 1830-1860,” Baptist Quarterly 25 (1973-1974): 303-304, n. 63; David Douglass, History of the Baptist Churches in the North of England, from 1648 to 1845 (London: Houlston and Stoneman, 1846) 258-259, 272, 277-279.

Angus, Joseph (1816-1902)—Originally from Newcastle, Angus, after completing his studies at Stepney College and Edinburgh University, succeeded John Rippon as pastor at New Park Street, Southwark (formerly Carter Lane) in 1838. In 1840 he became co-secretary of the BMS, and in 1841, after the death John Dyer, sole secretary, a position he held for the next eight years. In 1841 he married Amelia Gurney, daughter of William B. Gurney, then treasurer of the BMS. He left the BMS in 1849 to become president of Stepney College, moving the college to Regent’s Park in 1856, where it became affiliated with the University of London. He remained with the college until his retirement in 1893. He served as editor of the Baptist newspaper, The Freeman, and authored numerous works in theology, biblical studies, and English literature. See Payne, First Generation, 13-25; R. E. Cooper, From Stepney to St Giles’: The Story of Regent’s Park College 1810-1960 (London: Carey Kingsgate Press, 1960) 60-80; Stanley, History, 212-214; DEB.

Armitage, William (1738-1794)—Armitage was born at Huddersfield, Yorkshire, and studied under James Scott at the Heckmondike Academy. He served as an Independent minister at Horton, Yorkshire (1765-1769), and Delph (1769-1772) before removing to the Independent meeting at Chester, where he served from 1772 until his death in 1794. He married the sister of Abraham Greenwood, Baptist minister at Oakham. See Miall, Congregationalism in Yorkshire, 251; notices of Armitage also appeared in the Evangelical Magazine 1 (1793): 255; and 2 (1794): 265-270.

Ashworth, James (d. 1802)—Ashworth was baptized by his uncle, Thomas Ashworth (see next entry) at Gildersome in 1759. In 1770 he succeeded his uncle as pastor at Gildersome, being ordained there on 8 August 1770. The church flourished and several men were called into the ministry as a result of his preaching, including Luke Heywood in 1776 and Joseph Asquith and John Ross in 1777. While at Gildersome, Ashworth helped found the Yorkshire and Lancashire Association of Baptist Churches in 1787. Along with John Fawcett, Ashworth preached the dedication service for Thomas Langdon’s chapel in Leeds in July 1781. Ashworth remained at Gildersome for 26 years, leaving in June 1797 to become pastor at Farsley. When the church split in 1801, he and some members formed a new meeting at Horsforth; he died there the next year. For more on Ashworth, see John Haslam, History of the Baptist Church at Gildersome, in the County of York (Leeds: Walker and Laycock, 1888); Baptists of Yorkshire, ed. Shipley, 41-77.

Ashworth, Richard—Ashworth ministered to the Cloughfold Baptist Church in Rossendale from 1705 to 1751. He was the father of Thomas Ashworth, who succeeded him as pastor at Rossendale in 1751 (Thomas would later serve as pastor at the Baptist church at Gildersome from 1755 until his death in 1769). Richard Ashworth’s grandson was James Ashworth (see previous entry), who succeeded his uncle Thomas at Gildersome from 1771 to 1797. Another son of Richard Ashworth was Caleb Ashworth (1722-1775), who studied under Philip Doddridge at Northampton and was a correspondent of the Baptist poet, Anne Steele. When Doddridge died in 1751, the academy moved to Daventry and was headed by Caleb Ashworth, who had become an Independent in 1746 and was then ministering to the Independent congregation in Daventry. According to Theo F. Valentine, Caleb Ashworth was “a man of outstanding ability and it seems a great pity that the Baptists of his day did not take advantage of his scholarship.” See Valentine, Concern for the Ministry, 37; James S. Hardman, “Caleb Ashworth of Cloughfold and Daventry,” Baptist Quarterly 8 (1936-1937): 200-206.

Aveline, George—Aveline was sent out from the church at Maidstone as a BMS missionary to Grahamstown (in what was then known as the Cape Colony) South Africa, in 1838. He opened a new chapel there in Bathurst Street on 14 March 1843 (an account of the service appeared in the Missionary Herald [August 1843]: 436-438). He returned to England later that year, however, ending his work as a missionary. During his time at Grahamstown, Aveline established two schools, educating some 150 scholars by the time he left. The Grahamstown church, though an anomaly for the BMS at that time, was nevertheless supportive of the work of the Society, contributing a sum of  £417 to the BMS Jubilee Fund in 1843. Letters from Aveline to friends in London concerning his Jubilee fundraising efforts appeared in the Missionary Herald (December 1842): 687-688, and (February 1843): 124-125. Writing to William Groser on 24 June 1842 (letter appeared in the Missionary Herald [October 1842]: 560), Aveline reminded his correspondent that he had always been supported by his congregation at Grahamstown or other private means, noting that “since I left England, I have never drawn sixpence form the Society’s funds, and I have now the animating hope of annually contributing to their increase.”  He added, “I seem to have led a sad idle life in England compared with my now constant and multiplied engagements.” See also Cox, History, 2:395, 400; Baptist Magazine 33 (1841): 73; Missionary Herald  (March 1843): 180; Sydney Hudson-Reed, By Taking Heed: The History of Baptists in Southern Africa 1820-1977 (Roodepoort, South Africa: Baptist Publishing House, 1983) 15-17; Stanley, History, 215.

Bagster, Samuel (1772-1851)—Educated at J. C. Ryland’s academy at Northampton in the early 1780s (when George Dyer, the Romantic poet and antiquarian, was an usher), Bagster began his bookselling and publishing business in the Strand, London, in 1794. In 1816 he moved to Paternoster Row. Bagster (along with his sons) became best known for his publication of a Polyglot Bible as well as many other Bibles of outstanding scholarship and detail in numerous languages, both biblical and European. He was a member of the Baptist church in Keppel Street, London. See Samuel Bagster, Samuel Bagster of London 1772-1851: An Autobiography (London: Samuel Bagster and Sons, 1972); Ernest A. Payne, “John Linnell, The World of Artists and the Baptists,” Baptist Quarterly 40 (2003): 24; DEB.

Baker, Charles—Baker removed from Boston, Lincolnshire, in December 1837 to begin working with the fledgling Particular Baptist congregation in Stockport. Not long after his arrival, many who attended the Stockport Sunday School began to attend his ministry, and by September 1838, the church had been formally organized and Baker ordained as minister. The congregation soon purchased a building from the Socialists of Stockport, and after considerable renovations, the chapel was opened in May 1840, seating 750. Baker remained as pastor of Zion Chapel until 1845, enjoying considerable success. See Urwick, Historical Sketches, 308-309.

Baker, Moses (1755-1822)—Baker came to Jamaica from New York in 1783 as free black and worked in Kingston as a barber. Converted under the ministry of George Liele (1750?-1828), he soon began preaching in a house in Kingston and formed the first Baptist church there. He would later found the second Baptist church in Jamaica at Crooked Spring, on the estate of I. L. Winn, a Quaker. Winn’s estate was later purchased by Samuel Vaughan, who was sympathetic to Baker’s ministry (see letter 107). Thomas N. Swigle (see biographical entry below), like Baker, a black preacher who ministered in Kingston for many years, described Baker’s work in a letter to John Rippon, published in the Baptist Annual Register in 1797:  “Moses Baker [is] a free brown man, who is also one of our brethren, and now resides on Stretch and Sett sugar estate, in the parish of Saint James, about 140 miles westward from Kingston; he is employed there by Isaac Lascelles Winn, Esquire, to preach to his negroes on that property; and another gentleman —Vaughan, Esq. of that parish, who has a great number of slaves on his estate, has also employed brother Baker for that purpose; and allows him a compensation. And on those sugar estates, where permission is not granted, their slaves hungering after the good word of God, come of their own accord to brother Baker, at his place of residence, to be instructed by him: so he has in number abut one thousand brethren there; and the greater part of the hearers are converted souls.”  In 1802 new regulations passed by the authorities in Jamaica prohibed Baker from preaching to the slaves on the plantations, a ban which lasted for several years. During that time Baker became a correspondent of Rippon and Ryland, pleading for the cause of the slaves and for a white preacher to come and minister to them. Ryland struggled for several years to find a candidate to assist Baker, finally sending John Rowe (1788-1816) to Jamaica in 1814. See John Ryland’s accounts of Baker in the Evangelical Magazine 11 (1803): 365, 550; and 12 (1804): 469; Christopher Brent Ballew, The Impact of African-American Antecedents on the Baptist Foreign Missionary Movement: 1782-1825 (Lewiston [NY]: Edwin Mellon Press, 2004); Baptist Annual Register, 3:212-214; Edward A. Holmes, “George Liele: Negro Slavery’s Prophet of Deliverance,” Baptist Quarterly 20 (1963-1964): 340-351; 361; Cox, History, vol. 2; Clarke, Memorials, 18-30; Brooke 13-14; DEB.

Balch, Lewis Penn Witherspoon (1814-1875)—After serving briefly as an assistant minister at St. Andrew’s Church, Philadelphia, Balch became the second rector at the newly-formed St. Bartholomew’s Church (Episcopal) in New York City in October 1838. Originally from Virginia, Balch graduated from Princeton in 1834; he then studied for two years at the General Theological Seminary in New York City. He was one of many evangelical ministers who formed a prominent group within the Episcopal Church in America in the 1830s. Upon his arrival at St. Bartholomew’s, however, Balch discovered that the diocese was markedly High Church. He maintained his evangelical position (as his letters in this collection on behalf of Low and the BMS suggests), even weathering the trial and suspension of his Bishop, Benjamin T. Onderdonk, for his Anglo-Catholic tendencies. Not long after his arrival at St. Batholomew’s, Balch organized a Sunday school, doubling the church’s membership in his first year; by 1844 the church had grown from 56 communicants to over 400. In 1839 Balch married the granddaughter of John Jay, first Chief Justice of the United States. He remained at St. Bartholomew’s until 1850, during which time he published several editions of Edward Bickersteth’s A Treatise on the Lord’s Supper (1845, 1849, and 1855), and at least one original work, God in the Storm: A Narrative . . . Prepared on Board the Great Western, after the Storm Encountered on her Recent Voyage (1846). See E. Clowes Chorley, The Centennial History of St. Bartholomew’s Church in the City of New York, 1835-1935 (New York: n.p., 1935) 69-82.

Bamford, Charles (1727-1804)—Bamford was born at Whitworth, near Rochdale, Lancashire, and was converted through the preaching of William Grimshaw of Haworth. He joined the Independent meeting at Whitworth under James Burgess (see letter 6) in 1748, but eventually adopted Baptist views and was baptized at Bacup in March 1755. He joined the church there and began preaching in homes. His first ministerial position was at Pellon Lane Church, Halifax (1755-1760), followed by a term at Machpelah, Oakenshaw, where he remained until 1774. In 1775, Bamford preached for a time to the congregation at Higher Lane, Haslingden, near Accrington, and then at Tottlebank. He returned to Haslingden, then came back once again to Tottlebank for a three year trial, “but the church did not accept him, it is supposed owing to his certifying the christening of an infant, which was contrary to Baptist doctrine.” Robert Wylie writes: “Leaving there, he declined preaching for a time until a newly-formed interest at Pole-Moor in Yorkshire again called him forth to labour, and there he preached with considerable success for several years.” Bamford served the Baptist church at Pole Moor, or Slaughwaite, near Huddersfield, Yorkshire, from 1793 to 1804. The Baptist Annual Register noted of the church at Pole Moor: “… the meeting-house is built on the common, a mile north of the village of Slaughwaite, six miles from Halifax, and three from Sallendine Nook. The number of members about sixty. A pleasing and an increasing congregation.—‘The good old pastor is more popular than ever.’” See Baptists of Yorkshire, ed. Shipley, 216, 233; Robert J. V. Wylie, The Baptist Churches of Accrington and District (Accrington: W. Shuttleworth, Wellington Press, 1923) 33, 34; Baptist Annual Register, 3:39.

Barclay, George (1774-1838)—Born into a dissenting family in Kilwinning, Ayrshire, Barclay was apprenticed at thirteen to a cabinet-maker. About 1790 he was converted and shortly thereafter was called to preach. He married in 1796 and left for Paisley, where he prepared for the Congregational ministry. Encouraged by Robert Haldane, Barclay entered an academy established by the Haldanes at Dundee in late 1799, but the next spring moved to Glasgow to study under Greville Ewing. In April 1802 he began ministering in Kilwinning as part of a mission effort to the outer areas of Scotland. During his first year at Kilwinning, he became an immersionist and in December 1803 formed a Baptist church, independent of all other Baptist churches in Scotland or England. Established as an “English” Baptist church (he did not follow the Scotch Baptist model), his church nevertheless reflected the influence of the Haldane congregational model. His interest in the Baptist movement and the missionary effort brought him into close contact with Andrew Fuller, John Ryland, John Sutcliff, and Christopher Anderson, becoming “their companion and aid when they visited the north on behalf of the Mission.”  As Hugh Anderson writes, “Their letters to him, of which there are many among his papers, breathe the warmth, and generous nature of their Christian friendship. He was also the correspondent of Carey, and Marshman, and Ward, and Judson; and in all the trials and triumphs of the Baptist Mission he ever took the deepest interest.” He played an important part in the reunification of the BMS and the Serampore Mission in 1837-1838 (his son, a BMS missionary, had died in Calcutta in 1837). Along with Christopher Anderson, Barclay helped establish an itinerant society for Scotland in 1807 and regularly conducted preaching tours of western Scotland, using the tour also as a means of promoting the work of the BMS. Barclay traveled to Ireland with John Saffery of Salisbury in July-August 1813 on behalf of the BMS. See Anderson, Letters, 48; John Leechman, “Memoir of the Late Rev. George Barclay,” Baptist Magazine 31 (1839): 1-5; Derek B. Murray, “Christopher Anderson and Scotland,” in A Mind for Mission: Essays in Appreciation of the Rev. Christopher Anderson (1782-1852), ed. Meek, 4, 6; D. W. Bebbington, ed., The Baptists in Scotland: A History (Glasgow: Baptist Union of Scotland, 1988) 33-35; Talbot, Search for a Common Identity, 109, 115, 123; DEB.

Barrett, William Garland—Barrett was one of six LMS missionaries who came to Jamaica in 1835, four settling in the south and two in the north.  Barrett was stationed at Four Paths, in Clarendon. According to Bryan Stanley, not long after their arrival, Barrett and other non-Baptist missionaries in Jamaica became critical of the BMS missionaries, alleging the phenomenal growth of the Baptist churches was at the expense of “spiritual discipline and purity.” Their chief complaint centered upon the practice by some of the Baptist missionaries of selling “tickets” each quarter to the communicant members of the various Baptist churches as a means of controlling current members and new communicants. The phenomenal growth of the Baptist churches in Jamaica in the 1830s required such a method (which the Baptists actually borrowed from the Methodists). Although subject to occasional abuse, the chief cause of the “breach” between the Baptist and non-Baptist missionaries in Jamaica may have been the overwhelming success of the Baptist interests in relation to the efforts made by the LMS missionaries. Samuel Green argued in 1842 that Barrett’s complaints were “purely retaliatory.” Patricia T. Rooke takes a similar line, describing Barrett as “a highly strung man, given to hysterical malice and suffering some personal and nervous strain not assuaged by the lack of success of his mission in Jamaica.” Barrett returned to England in 1848 due to poor health and settled in Hertfordshire, becoming pastor of an Independent chapel at Royston. His son, William Fletcher Barrett (1844-1925) became a pioneer in the area of psychical research. See Clarke, Memorials, 231; Stanley, History, 85; Samuel Green, Baptist Mission in Jamaica: A Review of W. G. Barrett’s Pamphlet entitled A Reply to the Circular of the BMS Committee (London: Houlston and Stoneman; and G. and J. Dyer, 1842) 5; Baptist Magazine 34 (1842): 586; Patricia T. Rooke, “Evangelical Missionary Rivalry in the British West Indies: A Study in Religious Altruism and Economic Reality,” Baptist Quarterly 29 (1981-1982): 348; Richard Noakes, “The ‘Bridge which is between Physical and Psychical Research’: William Fletcher Barrett, Sensitive Flames, and Spiritualism,” History of Science 42 (2004): 419-423.

Bayley [Bailey], George¾Bayley was a Baptist layman living in Camberwell, London. Like Joseph Fletcher (see entry below), he was serving at various times on the Committee of the Baptist Building Fund and the Baptist Theological Education Society. Bayley collected £1.9 for the BMS in November 1840, and paid £1.1 for his annual subscription to the BMS in February 1841 and March 1842. He may be the same Mr. Bailey who, along with a Miss Bailey, contributed £5 each to the Jubilee Fund in December 1842 as part of the donations from members of the Baptist church in Eagle Street, London. By trade he was a ship inspector for Lloyd’s Register (the title page for his 1844 book listed him as “surveyor to Lloyd’s Register of Shipping”), a company founded in 1760 to examine merchant ships and classify them according to the sea-worthiness (Lloyd’s Register should not be confused with Lloyd’s of London, the famous insurance company, though both originated from the same coffee house). Because of his expertise, Bayley played an important role for the BMS Committee in the acquisition of the Dove between 1842 and 1844. When John Clarke first proposed the purchase of a steam vessel for the BMS work at Fernando Po, a subcommittee was formed and was immediately asked “to confer with Mr Bayley, of Lloyd’s, more specially in reference to the probable annual cost of such vessel” (f. 27). Bayley proposed that the cost of a steamer would be between £800 and £1000 a year; he thus recommended instead that the Committee purchase a 70-ton schooner, which would only cost between £300 and £400 per year. Bayley would continue to serve as the advisor to the subcommittee that would eventually opt for a sailing schooner equipped both with a steam engine and an Archimedes screw. Bayley was involved in making judgments about the Chilmark, as well as the second version of the Dove, which was purchased in late summer 1844 and finally sailed for Africa in 1845. Bayley granted the ship a Certificate of Lloyds, describing it to the BMS Committee as “the first description of the First Class.”  He authored Tables Showing the Progress of the Shipping Interest of the British Empire, United States, and France (London: Smith, Elder, and Co., 1844). See Baptist Magazine 33 (1841): 59; 35 (1843): 535; 36 (1844): 656, 663; Missionary Herald (January 1841): 45; (April 1841): 207; (May 1842): 270; (January 1843): 52; BMS Committee Minutes, Vol. I (Jan. 1843-May 1844), ff. 27, 29-30, 33, 94; Vol. J (May 1844-July 1847), ff. 40, 43, 74.

Baynes, Joseph (1795-1875)—Baynes first came under the influence of Thomas Spencer, Independent minister in Liverpool, when he was fourteen; at sixteen, however, he was baptized and joined the Baptist church in Lime Street, Liverpool, led by James Lister. In 1815 Baynes entered Bristol Academy and later studied at Glasgow. In 1818 he became William Winterbotham’s assistant at Shortwood, Gloucestershire, and in 1820 pastor of the church in South Street, Wellington, Somerset, where he remained for 41 years. He retired in 1861, occasionally preaching in and around Bristol.

Beatson, John (1743-1798)—Born into an Anglican family near Leeds, as a young man Beatson joined the Independent church at White-Chapel in Leeds. His first pastorate was at the Independent church at Cleck-heaton, but during his year there he became a Baptist. He was baptized by William Crabtree at Bradford in December 1767, and shortly thereafter accepted a call to the Baptist church at Sutton-in-Craven, where he remained until 1770. Beatson ministered to the Baptist meeting at Salt-house Lane, Hull, from 1771 to 1794. He had a very successful ministry at Hull; besides the two works mentioned in letter 20, Beatson also published a political sermon, On the Duty and Interest of Men as Members of Civil Society ([Hull], 1778); a sermon on the slave trade, Compassion the Duty and Dignity of Man, and Cruelty the Disgrace of his Nature (1789); and a posthumous work titled The Divine Right of a Christian to Freedom of Enquiry and Practice in Religious Matters. To which are prefixed Brief Memoirs of the Life, Character and Writings of the Author (Hull, 1799). John Hindle succeeded Beatson at Hull. See Baptists of Yorkshire, ed. Shipley, 67, 95; John Beatson, The Divine Right of a Christian to Freedom of Enquiry and Practice in Religious Matters, 2nd ed. (Hull: W. Cowley, [1799]) iii-xvi.

Beck, Thomas (1755?-1844)—Beck was born at Southwark and ministered at Whitefield’s Tabernacle, Moorfields, and in Kennington before serving as pastor at Hermitage Street in Wapping, 1776-1777. He then supplied at various places before ministering at Princes Street, Gravesend, 1780-1788. He returned to London and pastored the Independent congregation at Bury Street, St. Mary Axe, London, from 1788 to 1825, living in Deptford.

Beddome, Benjamin (1717-1795)—Beddome, the son of John Beddome (see below), was a well known Baptist minister and hymnodist. After studying at Bristol Academy and in London, he was baptized at Goodman Fields in 1739 and admitted to the Baptist Board in 1740. He began supplying at Bourton-on-the-Water that same year and was ordained there in September 1743, where he remained until his death. He composed some 800 hymns in his lifetime, most of which were published posthumously in 1817 in Hymns Adapted to Public Worship. See Michael A. G. Haykin, “Benjamin Beddome (1717-1795),” ed. Haykin, in The British Particular Baptists, 1:167-182; Hayden, Continuity and Change, 224; DEB.

Beddome, John (1674-1757)—In 1697 Beddome, a member of the Baptist meeting in Horsleydown, Southwark, moved to Alcester, Warwickshire, where he assisted John Willis, pastor of the Alcester Baptist church. While in Alcester, Beddome founded a school at nearby Henley. He took over as pastor in Alcester upon Willis’s death in 1705, and in 1711 invited Bernard Foskett, then living in London, to become his assistant; the two men thereafter remained lifelong friends and colleagues. Foskett left Alcester in 1720 to become pastor at Broadmead in Bristol and Principal of the Bristol Academy. In 1724 Beddome followed his friend to Bristol, succeeding Emmanuel Gifford at the Baptist meeting in the Pithay, first as assistant pastor to William Bazley from 1725 to 1736, and then as pastor until his death in 1757, when he was replaced by John Tommas. Foskett would live in Beddome’s home in Bristol for nearly 40 years. See Jacqui Snowdon, The Alcester Baptist Story 1640-1990 (Alcester: Warwick, 1990) 18-19; Robert W. Oliver, The Strict Baptist Chapels of England:  The Chapels of Wiltshire and the West (London: Fauconberg Press, 1968) 100; Hayden, Continuity and Change, 64-67.

Belcher, Joseph (1794-1859)—Originally from Birmingham, Belcher was a prolific author, producing numerous biographies of evangelical figures from the late 18th and early 19th centuries. An active leader within the Baptist Home Missionary Society, he ministered to churches at Somersham, Folkestone, Chelsea, and Greenwich from 1818 to 1842. From 1832 to 1840 he served as Secretary to the Baptist Union. He emigrated to America in 1844 and died in Philadelphia in 1859. He published brief biographies of George Whitefield, Isaac Mann, and William Carey, as well as a history of the Baptist Irish Society in 1845. See DEB.

Belsham, Thomas (1750-1829)—After completing his studies at the Independent Academy at Daventry, Belsham remained for the next seven years as an assistant tutor (see letter 11) before beginning his pastoral career at Worcester. He returned to Daventry three years later to become Headmaster of the Academy. He remained there until 1789, when he resigned to become a Unitarian minister. He assisted Joseph Priestley in the formation of a Unitarian college at Hackney, and then, after Priestley’s emigration to America in 1794, became pastor of the Unitarian congregation at Gravel-Pit in Hackney. In 1805 he succeeded John Disney at Essex Street (Unitarian) Chapel, London, where he remained until his death in 1829. His first work, Review of Mr. Wilberforce’s Treatise Entitled Practical View (1798), created considerable controversy. His most popular work was A Summary View of the Evidence and Practical Importance of the Christian Revelation (1807). He was a frequent contributor to the Quarterly Review, Gentleman’s Magazine, and the Monthly Repository.

Bevan, Joseph Gurney (1753-1814)—The son of a chemist/druggist in Lombard Street, London, Bevan was the cousin of Joseph John Gurney and Elizabeth Gurney Fry, both well known Quaker activists. He took over his father’s business in 1784, and retired ten years later. He became a Quaker at seventeen, and remained a steadfast follower, refusing to supply armed ships with drugs from his firm. He began writing for an almanac published by the Quaker printer, James Phillips, in 1794, and wrote for four years, contributing numerous poems. He moved to Stoke Newington in 1796, where he published Refutation of the Misrepresentations of the Society of Friends, Commonly called Quakers, with a Life of James Nayler; also a Summary of the History, Doctrine, and Discipline of Friends (1800). In 1802 he published his Appeal to the Society of Friends, in which he showed that Quakers were not and had never been Unitarians. Thoughts on Reason and Revelation appeared in 1805. He was considered by many to be one of the ablest of the Quaker apologists. See DEB.

Bicheno, James (1752-1831)—As a teenager, Bicheno joined the Baptist congregation at St. Andrew’s Street in Cambridge. He entered Bristol Academy in 1776, and began his pastoral ministry at Falmouth in 1778. Between 1780 and 1807, Bicheno ministered to the Baptist congregation at Newbury, where he also operated a school. He continued as a schoolmaster in Newbury until 1811, when he removed to Coate [Cote]. He returned to Newbury in 1819 and served once again as pastor of the Baptist church from 1820 to 1824. He suffered from paralysis after 1824, being unable to speak or move. His chief concern was biblical prophecy (as letter 109 demonstrates), especially in regard to European events from 1789 through the Napoleonic Wars, as evidenced in such publications as Signs of the Times (1793); A Word in Season: Or, a Call to the Inhabitants of Great Britain, to Stand Prepared for the Consequences of the Present War (1795); and The Probable Progress and Issue of the Commotions which have Agitated Europe since the French Revolution, argued from the Aspect of Things, and the Writings of the Prophets (1797). See John Oddy, “Bicheno and Tyso on the Prophecies,” Baptist Quarterly 35 (1993-1994): 81-89; Church Book: St. Andrew’s Street, 52-53, 56-57, 134-135; Hayden, Continuity and Change, 225; DEB.

Biddulph, Thomas Tregenna (1763-1838)—An evangelical Anglican, Biddulph graduated from Queen’s College, Oxford, with a B.A. in 1784 and an M.A. in 1787. After a series of curacies in Padstow, Ditcheat, St. Mary-le-Port, Wansborough and Bengeworth (1793-1803), he became curate of St. James, Bristol, and Dauston in 1799, positions he held until his death in 1838. He was active in the Sunday school movement, the Tract Society, and the Church Missionary Society from their inceptions, as well as the British and Foreign Bible Society. He helped found the periodical Zion’s Trumpet (later The Christian Guardian) in 1795. He was a strong Church and State man, opposed to Roman dogma and Catholic Emancipation as well as parliamentary reform. See DEB.

Birley, George—Birley was raised in the General Baptist congregation at Ashford, Derbyshire. In 1765 he removed to Birchcliff, Yorkshire, to assist Dan Taylor as a tutor in his academy there. In 1768 he left Taylor’s school and became a tutor at J. C. Ryland’s academy in Northampton, although he retained his membership in Taylor’s church at Birchcliff. While at Northampton, Birley preached frequently to Baptist congregations in Moulton, Spratton, Burton-Latimer, and Stony-Stratford. The General Baptist meeting at St. Ives, which had long been without a stated minister, invited Birley to preach for them in the early 1770s, and he supplied regularly for several years before moving there in 1777, at which time he commenced regular preaching duties. Birley was not officially ordained as pastor of the congregation at St. Ive’s until 1786; Dan Taylor of London, his close friend, and Robert Robinson of Cambridge performed the service. In 1789 Birley led the congregation into membership in the New Connection of General Baptists. Birley’s wife died in 1782, with Taylor preaching her funeral sermon. Birley was still ministering at St. Ive’s in 1818, subscribing that year to Adam Taylor’s The History of the English General Baptists (2 vols; 1818). A collection of letters between Birley and Dan Taylor, composed between 1771 and 1808, resides at the Angus Library, Regent’s Park College, Oxford (D/Hus 1/6), as well as letters between Birley and the Rev. William Thompson of Boston, Leicestershire (D/Hus 1/7).

Birt, Caleb Evans (1795-1854)—The son of Isaiah Birt (see below), C. E. Birt studied law at Cambridge but did not graduate (due to his dissenting status and refusal to subscribe to the Thirty-Nine Articles). In 1813, he was baptized by his brother, John Birt, at that time the Baptist minister at Hull. Shortly thereafter he entered Bristol Academy, and later (1816) completed an A.M. in theology at Edinburgh University. He served as pastor of the Baptist congregation at Agard Street, Derby, for the next ten years before removing to the church in Meeting-house Alley, Portsea, Hampshire, where he ministered from 1827 to 1837. He was President of the Baptist Union in 1836 and in 1837 became pastor at Broadmead, Bristol, where he remained until 1844. His final ministry was at Wantage in Berkshire, 1844-1854.

Birt, Isaiah (1758-1837)—After completing his studies at Bristol Academy, where he became a lifelong friend of Robert Hall, Birt became co-pastor of the Baptist congregation at Plymouth in 1781, preaching in the meeting house at Liberty Fields, now Pembroke Street, Dock. Samuel Pearce was converted in 1783 through the preaching of Birt. In 1789 the meeting at Dock organized as an autonomous church, with Birt as pastor. He remained there until 1813, first at Liberty Fields and then in the new chapel at Morice Square, Dock.  Birt also preached in Saltash, where a separate church would eventually be formed. In 1798 William Steadman became his assistant pastor. Steadman would later become pastor of the congregation at Liberty Fields, with Birt remaining at Morice Square. During the early 1790s, Birt, like many Baptists, was an active supporter of the French Revolution and an opponent of the war with France, especially Pitt’s policies that seemed to infringe on the constitutional rights of Britons. Birt’s aggressive church planting in neighboring villages created enough clerical hostility that he was forced to defend himself in his Vindication of the Baptists, in Three Letters, Addressed to a Friend in Saltash (Bristol, 1793).  In 1813 he accepted the pastorate of the Baptist congregation at Cannon Street in Birmingham, where he served until 1827, at which time he retired to Hackney. See Henry M. Nicholson, A History of the Baptist Church Now Meeting in George Street Chapel, Plymouth, from 1620 (London: Baptist Union Publications, 1904) 83-85; Hayden, Continuity and Change, 225; DEB.

Biss, John (d. 1807)—The Bisses, along with their daughter, Mary, were members of the Baptist church at Plymouth Dock under Isaiah Birt. Biss studied for the ministry under John Sutcliff at Olney. The Bisses, along with Joshua Rowe, Richard Mardon, William Moore, and their families, sailed from Bristol for Serampore (via America) in December 1803. Biss’s health deteriorated quickly upon his arrival in Bengal in 1804; he was forced to return to England, but never arrived, dying on board the Bremen in February 1807. Hannah Biss later married her fellow traveler William Moore (now a widower himself) in 1813. She died in 1843. See Cox, History, 2:151, 168; “Sutcliff’s Academy at Olney,” Baptist Quarterly 4 (1928-1929): 277; DEB.

Bland, Francis—Bland ministered to the Baptist congregation at Soham, where Andrew Fuller had formerly served as pastor. Bland was originally a member of the Soham church and studied at Bristol Academy from January 1787 until July 1788, at which time he was called to the Soham church, where he remained until 1802. See Baptist Annual Register, 1:4.

Blundel, Thomas, Sr. (1752-1824)—Blundel was admitted to Bristol Academy from Andrew Fuller’s church at Kettering in 1790. He left Bristol in 1791 and began supplying for the Baptist meeting at Arnsby, where Robert Hall, Sr. had ministered. After a year and a half of trial ministry, Blundel was ordained at Arnsby on 3 April 1793, remaining there until the spring of 1804, when he removed to Luton. During his tenure at Luton, he published a volume of sermons as well as An Essay on Revelations (1810).  He was excluded at Luton for adultery, but remained in the ministry. His final pastorate was at Keighley (1812-1823), after which, due to ill health, he returned to Luton, where he died in 1824. Like his father, Thomas Blundel, Jr. (1786-1861), also studied at Bristol Academy (1804-1809). Upon leaving there in 1810, he became pastor at College Lane in Northampton, where he remained until 1824. He formed the College Lane Sunday School in 1810. The younger Blundel was a member of the BMS committee (1815-1828), secretary of Stepney College (1827-1828), and chaplain of Mill Hill School (1821-1831). He later opened his own school at Totteridge and ended his days, strangely enough, as an Anglican clergyman. See Fuller to Ward, 4 February 1812 (BMS Archives, I); Baptists of Yorkshire, ed. Shipley, 188; John T. Godfrey and James Ward, The History of Friar Lane Baptist Church, Nottingham (Nottingham:  H. B. Saxton, 1903) 177-179; Hayden, Continuity and Change, 226; Payne, College Street Church, Northampton; DEB.

Booth, Abraham (1734-1806)—Booth was born at Blackwell, near Alfreton, Derbyshire, where he worked as a farm laborer throughout his youth. Though he never received a formal education, he acquired enough learning to open his own school at Sutton-in-Ashfield in 1758, shortly after his marriage. He had been baptized in 1755 and became associated with the Baptists in Nottinghamshire. He switched from an Arminian position to a strict Calvinistic one, and in 1768 published his famous work, The Reign of Grace. Shortly after this, the church at Little Prescot Street, Goodman’s Fields, London, called Booth to be their pastor, and he was ordained on 16 February 1769, remaining there until his death in 1806. Among his other published works are An Apology for the Baptists (1778), Paedobaptism Examined (1784), Essay on the Kingdom of Christ (1788), Commerce in the Human Species (1792), Glad Tidings to Perishing Sinners (1796), and Pastoral Cautions (1805). See Ernest A. Payne, “Abraham Booth, 1734-1806,” Baptist Quarterly 26 (1975-1976): 28-42; Robert W. Oliver, “Abraham Booth (1734-1806), ed. Haykin, in The British Particular Baptists, 2:31-55; DEB.

Bosworth, Newton (1778-1848)—Bosworth arrived in Cambridge in 1799 as Olinthus Gregory’s assistant in his day school. Shortly thereafter he joined St. Andrew’s Street, commencing a lifelong friendship with Robert Hall. When Gregory left for Woolwich in January 1803, Bosworth took over as headmaster of the school, a position he maintained for the next twenty years. He married Catherine Paul of Cambridge in July 1805, and two years later moved to Northampton Street, where he opened a boarding school. In 1811, Bosworth was elected a deacon at St. Andrew’s Street. In the summer of 1823, he moved to London, settling at Tottenham, where he opened another boarding school (see letter 147). In 1834 he left England for Canada, where his family had emigrated the year before. While in Canada, Bosworth was instrumental in the formation of the Canada Baptist College in 1838; he also ministered to several congregations in Upper Canada, helping to form the Canada Baptist Union in 1843. He authored several works, including articles in Pantologia (1808-1813); The Accidents of Human Life (1813); Hochelaga Depicta (1839), and a history of Montreal. See Church Book: St. Andrew’s Street, 166-167.

Botsford, Edmund (1745-1819)—Botsford was born in Woburn, Bedfordshire, and grew up in the local Baptist church. In 1765 he immigrated to Charleston, South Carolina, and was baptized into the Baptist church there in March 1767. In 1769 he began studying for the ministry, receiving his license to preach in 1771. He ministered to a group of Baptists at Tuckseeking, Georgia (about 40 miles from Savannah), and was ordained by the Charleston church in March 1772, but by the end of 1772 he had left Tuckseeking. At that time Botsford and Daniel Marshall were the only two ordained Baptist ministers in Georgia. In 1773 he organized a Baptist church in Burke County, Georgia, the second Baptist church to be established in that state. He ministered there until 1779, when he returned to South Carolina as a result of the British control of Georgia during the Revolutionary War (Botsford, like most Baptists in America, was a strong supporter of the American cause). He soon became minister of the Baptist church at Welsh Neck in Orange County, South Carolina, a part of the Bethel Baptist Association. In 1780, however, he was forced to flee once again, this time to Virginia, returning to South Carolina in December 1781. While ministering at Welsh Neck, he began preaching often in Charleston, rebuilding the pastorless church there. In 1786 the church was restored to a sufficient capacity to call Richard Furman as pastor. Botsford’s congregation at Welsh Neck was a large one, numbering some 167 members in 1790, according to John Asplund. Botsford corresponded with a number of English Baptists, sending Sutcliff an account of his wife’s death in 1790 and of his church’s efforts in joining with Sutcliff and the English Baptists in forming a regular monthly prayer meeting (Botsford’s sister married a Mr. Hinton of Upton, a relation of James Hinton, Baptist minister at Oxford). See John Asplund, The Annual Register of the Baptist Denomination, in North-America; to the First of November, 1790 (Southampton County VA:  J. Asplund, 1791) 43; Baptist Annual Register, 1:104-108; Charles D. Mallary, Memoirs of Elder Edmund Botsford (Charleston: W. Riley, 1832); also James Hinton to Edmund Botsford, 8 November 1787 (MS., copy at Bristol Baptist College, Misc. Letters, G96, Box 7).

Bradburn, Samuel (1751-1816)—Born in Gilbralter, Bradburn became one of the leading Methodist ministers of his day. He was called the “Methodist Demosthenes” for his oratorical skills. He began itinerating in 1774 in the Liverpool circuit and was a close friend of John and Charles Wesley. He came under fire in Bristol for disturbing the peace of the society by favoring ordination and opening the Portland chapel during regular church hours and administering the sacraments. He usually supported the people against the “High Church bigots.” He was ordained in 1792 and published shortly thereafter a pamphlet, The Question, Are the Methodists Dissenters? He was one of the nine who drew up the compromise Plan of Pacification in 1795 and was elected Methodist Conference President in 1799. See DEB.

Brine, John (1703-1765)—Brine was originally from Kettering (as was his close friend and fellow High Calvinist, John Gill). He served as pastor of the Baptist congregation at Curriers’ Hall, Cripplegate, London, 1730-1765. Gill, Brine, and other High Calvinists refrained from offering their hearers an open invitation to accept Christ. Fuller, Ryland, Sutcliff and other Baptist ministers would eventually reject this position in favor of a more moderate, evangelical Calvinism; the writings of Gill and Brine, nevertheless, remained highly influential in their defense of Calvinism and Baptist distinctives. Brine’s major works include A Defence of the Doctrine of Eternal Justification (1732); Remarks upon a Pamphlet, intitled, Some Doctrines in the Superlapsarian Scheme Impartially Examin’d by the Word of God (1736); The Certain Efficacy of the Death of Christ (1743); An Antidote Against a Spreading Antinomian Principle (1750); and A Vindication of Divine Justice (1754). See Hayden, Continuity and Change, 175-194; DEB.

Brock, William (1807-1875)—After serving an apprenticeship to a watchmaker, Brock worked as a journeyman tradesman before becoming a ministerial student at Stepney College in 1830. He began his pastoral career at the Baptist church at St. Mary’s, Norwich (1833-1848), before removing to the newly established Bloomsbury Chapel in London, where he remained as pastor until 1872. Brock became one of the most prominent Baptists of his day, noted for his outreach programs to young people and the disadvantaged, as well as his support for foreign and home missions, including the YMCA. He was actively involved in youth and adult education during his time in Norwich (which may explain the reference to a “Literary” Institution in letter 244). He served as president of the Baptist Union in 1869. For more on Brock, see Birrell, Life of William Brock; Faith Bowers, A Bold Experiment: The Story of Bloomsbury Chapel and Bloomsbury Central Baptist Church 1848-1999 (London: Bloomsbury Central Baptist Church, 1999); DEB.

Brook, Benjamin (1776-1848)—Born near Huddersfield, Yorkshire, Brook spent his early years attending the Independent congregation at Holmfield, under the ministry of Robert Gallond. In 1797 Brook entered Rotherham College as a ministerial student, leaving in 1801 to assume the pastorate of the Independent congregation at Tutbury, where he would remain until 1830.  He then retired to Birmingham, and spent his remaining years in literary and historical endeavors. His major academic interest was Puritan and nonconformist history, which led to his most important publication, The Lives of the Puritans: Containing a Biographical Account of Those Divines who Distinguished Themselves in the Cause of Religious Liberty, from the Reformation under Queen Elizabeth, to the Act of Uniformity in 1662 (3 vols,  (1813). He also published Appeal to Facts to Justify Dissenters in their Separation from the Established Church (1806; 3rd ed. 1815) and Memoir of the Life and Writings of Thomas Cartwright (1845). At his death he was working on a history of the Puritans in New England.

Brooksbank, Joseph (1762-1825)—Originally from Yorkshire, Brooksbank was educated at Homerton Academy, 1780-1785. He preached at Haberdashers’ Hall, London, from 1785 to 1825, eventually uniting his Independent church with the Baptist congregation at Broad Street. In 1801 he served on the committee of the Religious Tract Society. See Baptist Annual Register, 3:543.

Brown, James Baldwin (1785-1843)—Brown began practicing law at the Inner Temple in 1816, traveling for a time on the northern circuit and the Lancashire sessions. His wife was the sister of Thomas Raffles, Independent minister in Liverpool. Brown’s son was the Rev. James Baldwin Brown (1820-1884), a leading nineteenth-century Congregationalist minister. Brown was widely known for his Memoirs of the Public and Private Life of John Howard, the Philanthropist (1823).  Previously, along with Thomas Raffles and Jeremiah Holmes Wiffen, he contributed to a work entitled Poems by Three Friends (1813).

Brown, John (d. 1800)—Brown began his ministry at the Baptist meeting at Kettering in 1751 and was involved in the formation of the Northamptonshire Association. After a dispute over the church’s management of a friendly society for poor people, Brown left the church on 24 January 1771 and formed a new meeting in Kettering, which survived until 1786. He died in London in 1800. See Gladys M. Barrett, A Brief History of Fuller Church, Kettering (St. Albans: Parker Bros., 1946) 5.

Brown, William—Brown was a founding member in 1827 of the Baptist church at Wigan, which first met at Commercial Hall under Benjamin Millard. The church moved to King Street in 1854. Brown became the first superintendent of the church’s Sunday school, formed in September 1826. By the mid-1830s, the school was instructing over 300 pupils. However, the church remained small for many years. A David Brown, probably a relation, was also a founding member of the church. See J. H. Malins Johnson and James Starr, One Hundred Years: A Brief History of King Street Baptist Church, Wigan. 1826-1926 (Wigan: J. Starr and Sons, 1926) 8-11; Ian Sellers, Pathways to Faith: A History of Wigan Baptist Church 1796-1996 (Wigan: n.p., 1996).

Brunsdon, Daniel (1777-1801)—Originally from Pershore, Brunsdon was baptized by John Ryland, Jr., and trained for the ministry by John Sutcliff at Olney. John Chamberlain was his fellow student at that time. Brunsdon sailed for India in 1799 with his new wife (a Miss Hirons of Fairford, Gloucestershire), the Marshmans, William Grant, and William Ward. His ministry in Serampore was short-lived, unfortunately, for he died of an enlarged spleen and mercury poisoning in July 1801. His wife later married James Rolt, a builder and lay worker in India in 1803; she returned to England in 1810. See Cox, History, 2:76; DEB.

Bull, William (1738-1814)—Born near Wellingborough, Northamptonshire, Bull entered Daventry Academy in 1760, where many students had already adopted Arianism. He remained a decided Calvinist his entire life, however. In 1764 he succeeded James Belsham as pastor of the Independent congregation at Newport Pagnell. Shortly after his arrival there, he opened a small academy and soon became friends with John Newton, then vicar at Olney. With the help of Newton and some of his Evangelical friends, such as William Wilberforce and Henry Thornton, Bull expanded his small school into an Academy for training ministers in 1783. His circle of Anglican Evangelicals expanded to include Zachary Macaulay, Thomas Babington, and many others, a group that later became known as the “Clapham Sect.” Bull served from 1797 to 1814 as the first President of the Bedfordshire Union of Christians.  His wife, Hannah (d. 1814), was the sister of Mrs. Mary Andrews of Olney, in whose house John Sutcliff lived between 1775 and 1795. See Josiah Bull, Memorials of the Rev. William Bull of Newport Pagnell (London: Nisbet, 1865); Haykin, One Heart, 115.

Bunting, Jabez (1779-1858)—The son of a Manchester tailor, Bunting was originally trained to be a doctor. In 1794, however, he underwent a Methodist conversion and by 1799 had become a Wesleyan itinerant preacher. After a couple of short ministries, he came to London in 1803 and began working with foreign missions and publishing for the Methodists. He would remain a key player in the Wesleyan hierarchy thereafter, helping to form the Methodist Missionary Society in 1813. He was keen on administration, which eventually led to his decline in preaching. He served as President of the Methodist Conference in 1820, 1828, 1836, and 1844, as well as Conference Secretary on many occasions. See DEB.

Burchell, Thomas (1799-1846)—Burchell was converted in the Baptist church at Nailsworth in 1816. After his marriage in 1822 and completion of his studies at Bristol Academy, he sailed for Jamaica, settling at Montego Bay early in 1824. Ill health forced his return to England in 1826, at which time he made known his views on slavery in a public letter. When he returned to Jamaica in 1827 he was sent to court because of the letter. He traveled to England for a short visit in 1831, but returned to Jamaica during the middle of the slave revolt in early 1832. He was arrested, but escaped to England, still advocating abolition. He returned once again to Jamaica in 1834 and continued to be an important leader for the BMS. Numerous references to Burchell appear in Cox, History, vol. 2, and in Clarke, Memorials; see also Gordon A. Catherall, “Thomas Burchell, Gentle Rebel,” Baptist Quarterly 21 (1965-1966): 349-363; Catherine Hall, Civilizing Subjects, Metropole and Colony in English Imagination, 1830-1867 (Cambridge UK: Polity, 2002) 84-209; DEB.

Burder, George (1752-1832)—During his time as Independent minister at Coventry (1783-1803), Burder became a leader in the Sunday School movement, assisting also in the founding of the London Missionary Society (1795), the Religious Tract Society (1799), and the British and Foreign Bible Society (1804). He moved to Islington in 1803 to become secretary of the London Missionary Society, a post he held until 1827. During this time he ministered to the Independent congregation at Fetter Lane, London. He authored several works of note during the last quarter of the eighteenth century, including Early Piety, or, Memoirs of Children Eminently Serious Interspersed with Familiar Dialogues, Emblematical Pictures, Prayers, Graces, and Hymns (1776), A Collection of Hymns, from Various Authors, Intended as a Supplement to Dr. Watts's Hymns and Imitation of the Psalms (1784), and his most famous work, Village Sermons; Or ... Plain and Short Discourses on the Principal Doctrines of the Gospel; Intended for the Use of Families, Sunday Schools, or Companies Assembled for Religious Instruction in Country Villages (7 vols, 1798). See DEB.

Burgess, James (d. 1804)—Burgess ministered to a small Independent congregation at Whitworth, Lancashire, for many years. Powicke notes that by 1770 Burgess was preaching at Hatherlow, but returned to Whitworth in 1776 because of “his opposition to those who were for introducing musical instruments, and to those that were of the free will.” He was best known for his sermon Beelzebuub Driving and Drowning his Hogs (London, 1770), delivered while serving as minister of Haugh-Fold chapel in Lancashire. He also authored The Reconciler (Manchester, 1794). Other works attributed to Burgess include A Proverbial Catechism for Youth, The Pilgrim’s Travels from Mount Sinai to Mount Zion, and Exposition and Select Meditations, although I have not been able to locate any extant copies of these three works. See Powicke, History, 191; Urwick, Historical Sketches, 328.

Burls, William (1763-1837)—A wealthy London merchant from Lothbury, Burls joined John Rippon’s congregation at Carter Lane, Southwark, on 1 March 1795, and became a deacon in 1802. He was a significant supporter of the BMS, serving as a trustee and the Society’s London agent and treasurer for many years, often allowing the missionaries to draw their bills on his own name and account. He personally collected over  £1000 for the Serampore Mission after the 1812 fire. He presided at the Birmingham meeting when the BMS was reorganized after Andrew Fuller’s death in 1815. Among the other Londoners who were BMS committee members at various times with Burls were Joseph Gutteridge (1752-1844) (deacon at Little Prescot Street, Goodman’s Fields), Benjamin Shaw, M.P., F. A. Cox of Hackney, Joseph Ivimey of Eagle Street, and William Newman of Stepney. Burls was also the first treasurer of the Baptist Union. See Horsleydown and Carter Lane Church Book, f. 67; “Calendar of Letters,” Baptist Quarterly 7 (1934-1935): 40; Ernest A. Payne, The Excellent Mr. Burls (London: Kingsgate Press, 1943).

Burton, Richard (d. 1828)—Originally a member of Joseph Ivimey’s congregation at Eagle Street, London, Burton was appointed as a BMS missionary in 1820 and sailed that year with Charles Evans (of the Pithay church in Bristol) to Sumatra  (both men had been Bristol Academy students). They were joined the next year by William Robinson (1784-1853) of Olney, who had been working in Java since 1812. Evans and Burton had been asked by Sir Thomas Raffles, then governor of Sumatra, to open a station at Fort Marlborough, assisted by Nathaniel Ward, William Ward’s nephew. Burton began his work in Sebolga, a Batta village in the bay of Tappanooli, learning the language and working with an orphan institution. During the insurrection in Sumatra in 1825, the Burtons, along with a number of girls from the orphanage, fled to Calcutta.  They then took over the mission at Digah, where Joshua Rowe had laboured, assisting now in the education of over 250 children. Burton’s wife died in 1826, and he followed not long afterwards, in September 1828. As Cox writes of Burton, “He was a diligent and faithful missionary, and he had many seals to his ministry among the European soldiers and others. He had applied himself zealously to the acquisition of the language, but he was not permitted to realise his devout expectations of labour and usefulness.”  See Cox, History, 2:353; 1:416.

Butfield, William (d. 1776)—Butfield served for many years as the Baptist minister at Thorn, Bedfordshire, where he was succeeded by Robert Faulkner (see letter 34). Butfield was a boyhood friend of Edmund Botsford (see entry above). See Mallary, Memoirs, 15-17.

Butler, William (d. 1794) – He ministered at Sutton, Leicestershire, before removing to Gretton, Northamptonshire, where he served between 1787 and 1794.

Butterworth, John (1727-1803)—Butterworth served as minister of the Particular Baptist church at Cow Lane, Coventry, 1753-1803. He was originally from a prominent Baptist family in Rossendale, Lancashire. His Serious Address (1790), signed “Christophilus,” was written in opposition to the Unitarianism of Priestley. He also produced a concordance and Bible dictionary. Three of his brothers were Baptist ministers as well:  James at Bromsgrove, Henry at Bridgnorth, and Lawrence (1740-1828) at Evesham. John’s son, Joseph (1770-1826), became a Methodist and a significant publisher (primarily works of law) in London; he also served as M.P. for Coventry (1812-1818) and later for Dover, and was a leading prominent Evangelical and friend of Wilberforce. See Clyde Binfield, Pastors and People: The Biography of a Baptist Church, Queens’ Road Coventry (Coventry: Queens’ Road Baptist Church, 1984) 20-28; DEB.

Button, William (1754-1821)—Button was raised in London and attended the Baptist meeting at Unicorn Yard, where William Clarke (1732-1795) preached from 1762 to 1784. After completing his studies at J. C. Ryland’s academy in Northampton, Button returned to London for further study under Clarke and was called to the ministry by the congregation at Unicorn Yard on 15 August 1773. In May 1775 he became the initial pastor for the newly formed Baptist meeting at Dean Street, Southwark, where he remained until 1815. Besides his pastoral duties, Button also operated a successful printing business (and later with his son, Samuel). His major publications were Remarks on a Treatise, entitled, The Gospel of Christ Worthy of All Acceptation; or, The Obligations of Men Fully to Credit and Cordially to Approve Whatever God Makes Known, by Andrew Fuller. Wherein the Nature of Special Faith in Christ is Considered, and Several of Mr. F.'s Mistakes Pointed Out, in a Series of Letters to a Friend (1785); and National Calamities Tokens of the Divine Displeasure: A Sermon Preached at the Meeting House Dean Street, Tooley Street, Southwark, on February 28, being the Day Appointed for a General Fast (1794). See Unicorn Yard and Carter Lane Church Book, ff. 219, 224, and 230.

Campbell, John (1766-1840)—One of Scotland’s most notable missionaries in the early years of the nineteenth century, Campbell was born in Edinburgh and became active in evangelistic efforts while working as a hardware merchant; he organized several Sunday schools in Edinburgh in the late 1780s and early 1790s. He began his ministry as a Congregationalist, working with James Haldane and others in forming an itinerant preaching society across Scotland. In the late 1790s he became director of the Scottish branch of the London Missionary Society. He was involved with bringing 24 children from Sierra Leone to Scotland to receive an education, but due to certain difficulties, the children were educated at Battersea, London, with Joseph Hughes superintending the work and John Foster serving as a tutor. Campbell removed to Hackney in 1804 to begin his ministry at the Independent Chapel, Kingsland Road. For a time he served as editor of the Youth’s Magazine. In June 1812 he was sent by the London Missionary Society to tour portions of South Africa on behalf of the Society, returning in 1814 and publishing Travels in South Africa, Undertaken at the Request of the Missionary Society (1815). He made a second tour of the same region between 1818 and 1821. He was also the founder of the Tract Society of Scotland. See Robert Philip, The Life, Times and Missionary Enterprises of the Rev. John Campbell (London: Snow, 1841); William Robinson, The History and Antiquities of the Parish of Hackney, in the County of Middlesex. 2 vols. (London: John Bowyer Nichols and Son, W. Pickering, and Caleb Turner, 1842-1843) 2:252-254; DEB.

Carey, Eustace (1791-1855)—The son of Thomas Carey, William Carey’s brother, Eustace was baptized by John Ryland, Jr., in Northampton in 1809. He began his studies at John Sutcliff’s academy at Olney later that year. In 1812 he entered Bristol Academy and in February 1814 sailed for India. He settled in Calcutta, where he ministered to a small congregation and assisted in the work of the BMS mission. In 1815 relations between the Calcutta mission and the Serampore Mission began to deteriorate over issues that would eventually separate the latter mission from the BMS in 1827. As a result, Eustace Carey formed a separate missionary union at Calcutta, an action that seriously strained relations with his uncle and the other missionaries at Serampore. He was forced to leave Calcutta in 1824 due to poor health. He returned to England to serve as a deputation director for the BMS, publishing the first biography of William Carey for the BMS in 1836. See DEB.

Carey, Jabez (1793-1862)—He was the third son of William Carey. Originally trained to be a lawyer, he was appointed as a BMS missionary in 1814, working as a teacher in Amboyna. Soon he was operating schools with over 300 students, while completing a translation of Isaac Watts’s Catechism into Malay.  After the colony was returned to the Dutch, he returned to India in 1818 (see letter 124), organizing a “Lancastrian” school in Ajmeer, Rajistan, in an effort to civilize the native populations. He retired from the BMS in 1832 and became a successful judge in Calcutta.  See Cox, History, 2:241-242, 314; DEB.

Carey, Mary (1765-1839), and Ann Carey Hobson (1763-1843)—Both women were sisters of William Carey. Ann married William Hobson (1756-1826), a Cottesbrooke farmer. Mary (often referred to as “Polly” by Carey) never married and lived with the Hobson’s for much of her life. Both sisters were ardent supporters of Carey’s work in India. After becoming speechless and paralyzed (except for the use of one limb) in 1789, Mary spent the last fifty years of her life bedridden. Nevertheless, she managed to maintain a correspondence with Carey and other BMS leaders. Several letters of William Carey to his sisters, as well as from Mary to William, can be found in the BMS Archives at the Angus Library, Regent’s Park College, Oxford. For more on the Careys, see Terry G. Carter, ed., The Journal and Selected Letters of William Carey (Macon GA: Mercer Press, 2000) 197; Mary Drewery, William Carey: A Biography (Grand Rapids MI: Zondervan, 1979) 72-73; Timothy George, Faithful Witness: The Life and Mission of William Carey (Birmingham AL:  New Hope Press, 1991) 100-103; Carey, William Carey, 152, 239; DEB.

Carey, William (1761-1834)—A shoemaker by trade, Carey became a Baptist in his teens. His first pastorate was a small congregation at Moulton.  In 1789 he removed to Harvey Lane in Leicester, where Robert Hall would later pastor. For several years Carey had been developing a strong sense of the need for Baptist missions to foreign lands; he spoke on the subject at a Northamptonshire association meeting on 30 May 1792, shortly after he had published his famous discourse, An Enquiry into the Obligations of Christians to Use Means for the Conversion of the Heathens (1792). He and several other ministers formed the Baptist Missionary Society in October 1792, and on 13 June 1793 Carey and his family, along with Dr. John Thomas, sailed for India, where Carey remained until his death in 1834. After spending some years doing missionary work while operating an indigo plantation near Mudnabatty and later at Kidderpore, conditions required that Carey move the mission to Serampore, Bengal, about fifteen miles from Calcutta and at that time under the control of the Danes. Late in 1799, Joshua Marshman and William Ward joined him, and together they formed the “Serampore Trio.”  In India, Carey became one of the leading linguists in the world, translating the Bible into Bengali, Oriya, Sanskrit, Hindi, Assamese, Marathi, and other languages, as well as numerous texts from those languages into English. In 1801 he was appointed professor of Bengalee and Sanscrit at the College of Fort William, and in 1818 founded Serampore College. He also became a renowned horticulturalist as well, establishing an Agricultural and Horticultural Society at Serampore around 1820. See Carter, ed., Journal and Selected Letters; Drewery, William Carey; Carey, William Carey; F. D. Walker, William Carey, Missionary, Pioneer, and Statesman (Chicago: Moody Press, 1951); George, Faithful Witness; idem, “William Carey (1761-1834),” ed. Haykin, in The British Particular Baptists, 2:143-161; Farrer, William Carey: Missionary and Botanist; DEB.

Carver, Johnministered to the West End Chapel, Wellingborough, Northamptonshire, from 1770 to 1797; previously he had been at Kirtling, Cambridgeshire, 1767-70.

Chamberlain, John (1777-1821)—Originally from Welton, Northamptonshire, Chamberlain was baptized at Guilsborough in 1796. He spent a year at Olney with Sutcliff (1798), followed by pastoral training at Bristol Academy (1799-1802), during which time he kept a diary, which was later used extensively by William Yates in his Memoirs of Mr. John Chamberlain, Late Missionary in India (1824). Chamberlain met Hannah Smith, a member of Sutcliff’s church, during his year at Olney. She was born at Walgrave, in Northamptonshire, in 1779, where her father was a deacon in the Baptist church. They were married on 29 April 1802, and on 15 May they set sail for America and then India. Hannah Chamberlain died there on 14 December 1804. A second wife died in 1806, as well as his three children by 1812. He first worked in Catwa, supporting himself as a cloth merchant. He then opened northern India to the BMS, becoming the first Englishman to preach the Gospel in Delhi. On several occasions he was forced to return to Serampore, finally settling at Monghyr. He died after just three weeks at sea on his way to England in 1821. See Joshua Marshman’s “Account” of Mrs. Chamberlain’s death, as well as two letters by Hannah Chamberlain to John Sutcliff, in the Periodical Accounts, 3:66-77 and 3:78-82; see also Payne, The First Generation 90-96, Cox, History, 1:105-136, 207; Yates, Memoirs of Mr. John Chamberlain; DEB.

Chater, James (1779-1829)—Chater, along with William Robinson, came to India as a BMS missionary on board the Criterion in August 1806. The two men, however, were ordered to leave during a crackdown on missionary activity by the representatives of the East India Company. Chater, along with Richard Mardon, was commissioned to develop a mission in Burma in 1807, but Chater left that country in 1811, leaving the work with Felix Carey, who later turned it over to Adoniram Judson and the American Baptist Mission. In 1812, Chater settled in Columbo, Ceylon (Sri Lanka), where he remained until his death in 1829. See Stanley, History, 54-55, 168; Gravett, Three Hundred Years of God’s Grace, 27; Cox, History, 1:156, 167, 191-192, 202; DEB.

Clark, John (1809-1880)—Clark worshiped in Baptist churches in Thrapston, Devonshire Square in London, and at the Old Bunyan Meeting in Bedford before accepting an appointment as a BMS missionary to Jamaica in 1835, assisting John Coultart at St. Ann. His fiance, a Miss Spiller, arrived in early July 1836, and they were married on 12 July, the same day Coultart and Nichols (at Torquay) died. Clark helped open a chapel at Brown’s Town in 1836, which was enlarged in 1838. In the next four years he opened chapels in Sturge Town, Bethany, Clarksonville, and Salem. Besides church planting, Clark also started a number of schools in Jamaica and founded ten villages. Along with fellow missionaries Walter Dendy and James Phillippo, Clark published The Voice of Jubilee:  A Narrative of the Baptist Mission, Jamaica, from its Commencement; with Biographical Notices of its Fathers and Founders (London: J. Snow, 1865). See Clarke, Memorials, 170-171; DEB.

Clarke, Adam (1760?-1832)—Clarke was a Wesleyan preacher, Biblical commentator, theologian, linguist, and scholar. After his conversion to Methodism in 1778, John Wesley sent Clarke to the Kingswood School (near Bristol) for training, after which he was assigned to the Bradford-on-Avon, Wiltshire, circuit in 1782, followed by a stint in Cornwall and the Channel Islands (he could speak French fluently). Later he was sent to Liverpool, where he served from 1793 to 1795. In 1795 he left Liverpool for London, where he would spend the majority of the rest of his life, becoming proficient in such languages as Hebrew, Syriac, Arabic, Persian, Sanscrit, Armenian, Coptic, and Ethiopic, as well as Greek and Latin. He was a regular contributor to the Eclectic Review, and worked often with the British and Foreign Bible Society. He received an M.A. from King’s College, Aberdeen, in 1807. He was elected president of the Wesleyan Conference in 1806, 1814, and 1822. He also composed and published extensive bibliographies of classical literature, as well as works on missions and his celebrated Bible . . . with Commentary and Critical Notes (8 vols; 1810-1825). See DEB.

Clarke, John (1802-1879)—Clarke joined the Baptist church at Berwick-on-Tweed, Northumberland, in 1823 and within a few years began to think seriously about going to the mission field. In 1829 he was approved by the BMS to begin work in Jamaica, where he ministered to various churches among the slave population for the next ten years. In October 1840, while on furlough in England, he was appointed, along with Dr. G. K. Prince of Jamaica, to conduct a missionary expedition in West Africa. In 1841-1842, the two men surveyed the island of Fernando Po and some surrounding areas along the coast of West Africa. Clarke and Prince returned to England in 1842 to promote the new venture for the BMS. Clarke sailed for Jamaica on the Chilmark in August 1843, taking with him Alfred Saker of Devonport, along with Saker’s wife, Helen, to recruit Jamaican missionaries to West Africa. The Chilmark arrived at Fernando Po in February 1844. After three years, Clarke left for England due to ill health. He returned to Jamaica in 1852, and remained there until his death in 1879. His major writings include Memorials of the Baptist Missionaries in Jamaica (1869), a life of John Merrick, and two works on West African dialects—Introduction to the Fernandian Language, and Specimens of Dialects . . . in Africa. See F. W. Butt-Thompson, “A Voyage to Fernando Po,” Baptist Quarterly 15 (1953-1954): 82-87, 113-121; DEB.

Clarke, William (1732-95) – he ministered to the congregation at Unicorn Yard, Southwark, from 1762 to 1784, supplying for a time at Carlton in Northamptonshire before removing Bampton, Devon, in 1787. He left there early in 1791 and appears to have spent his final years in Exeter.

Claypole, E. A.—He was the minister of the Baptist church at Ross-on-Wye, Herefordshire, c. 1828 to some time in the late 1850s. From 1861 to at least 1867 he ministered at the Third [Baptist] Church in Wallingford, Berkshire. See Evangelical Magazine (1831): 154; Baptist Handbook, 1861-1867.

Clegg, Arthur—J. C. Ryland, in his MS. book entitled “The Society for Christian Improvement and Good Works” (MS., Bristol Baptist College Library), which he began in October 1759, listed “Arthur Clegg” as the Baptist minister in Manchester. That entry may have been added after 1759, for it is more likely Clegg was affiliated with Caleb Warhurst and the dissenting chapel in Cold House Lane in 1759. In 1762 the paedobaptists withdrew, led by Warhurst, to form a new Independent congregation in Cannon Street. According to Ashton, Edmund Clegg (Arthur’s relation?—see letter 256 for more on the Cleggs) took a small group of High-Calvinists from the congregation at Coldhouse and formed a new meeting at Shudehill, which he ministered until c.1781, at which time he left and the congregation rejoined Coldhouse. Whether Arthur Clegg left with the group that went to Cannon Street or the High Calvinist group at Shudehill is unclear. See Ralph Ashton, Manchester and the Early Baptists: Being a Sketch of the Origin and Growth of the Particular Baptist Church Worshipping in Gadsby’s Chapel, Rochdale Road, Manchester (Manchester: n.p., 1916) 21; Urwick, Historical Sketches, 293; Kenneth Dix, Strict and Particular: English Strict and Particular Baptists in the Nineteenth Century (Didcot, Oxfordshire, UK: Baptist Historical Society, 2001) 30-66.

Clough, Benjamin—Clough was a Wesleyan missionary in Ceylon for many years. With the assistance of Abraham de Armour, James Chater, and William Tolfrey, Clough produced a Singhalese edition of the New Testament that was issued by the Wesleyan Mission Press in Colombo in 1819. Along with Tolfrey, he published A Compendious Pali Grammar in 1824. Clough also compiled, under the patronage of the government of Ceylon, A Dictionary of the English and Singhalese and Singhalese and English Languages (Colombo, 1821-1830).

Coke, Thomas (1747-1814)—Coke completed his B.A. at Jesus College, Oxford, in 1768 and an M.A. in 1770 before serving as curate at South Petherton, Somerset.  He met John Wesley in 1776 and decided to become a Methodist; bofore long he had become Wesley’s chief assistant.  He was instrumental in the creation of the Deed of Declaration (1784) that gave legal status to the Methodist Conference after Wesley’s death.  In 1784 he was set apart by Wesley as the Superintendent of American Methodism and was soon joined as “Bishop” by Francis Asbury.  After Wesley’s death, Coke was actively involved in the transformation of Methodists into a separate denomination, being elected President of the Methodist Conference in 1797 and in 1805.  Beginning in the 1780s, he was instrumental in creating a Methodist mission overseas, from the West Indies to Sierra Leone to India in 1813.  After the renewal of the East India Charter in 1813 and its greater acceptance of missionaries, Coke led the first group of Methodist missionaries to India, but he died at sea enroute. Some Methodists, both in England and America, however, resented Coke for his sense of superiority and his ambition to control the Conference.  He authored A Plan of the Society for the Establishment of Missions Among the Heathens (1783-4); The Life of John Wesley [with Henry Moore] (1792); A Commentary on the Holy Bible (6 vols; 1801-03); and A History of the West Indies (3 vols; 1808-11). See DEB.

Coles, Thomas (1779-1840)—Coles was born at Rowell, Gloucestershire, and at the age of four moved to Bourton, were he grew up under the ministry of Benjamin Beddome and his assistant, William Wilkins. He became a member of the Baptist church in Bourton in 1795, and immediately left for Bristol Academy. In 1797 he was a Ward’s scholar in Aberdeen. After completing his M.A. in 1800, he accepted a position as assistant at Little Prescot Street, under Abraham Booth. One year later, and after much debate on Cole’s part, he became pastor of the Baptist church at Bourton-on-the-Water, where he remained until his death in 1840.  See Thomas Brooks, Pictures of the Past: The History of the Baptist Church, Bourton-on-the-Water  (London: Judd and Glass, 1861); Henry Coles, ed., Letters from John Foster to Thomas Coles, M.A. (London: H. G. Bohn, 1864).

Coles, William (1735-1809)—Coles was born at Daventry, Northamptonshire, of dissenting parents; in his late teens he was converted and soon after called to the ministry. He first went to Coventry to attend the ministry of John Butterworth, and then to Northampton and J. C. Ryland in 1756. After preaching in churches near Northampton for a year, he began ministering to the Baptist congregation at Newport-Pagnell in July 1758, where he remained for 10 years. He then removed to the church at Maulden, south of Bedford, in October 1758, preaching there until his health forced him to resign in 1805. Coles’s daughter became Andrew Fuller’s second wife in December 1794. See Baptist Magazine 9 (1817): 122-127.

Colgate, William (1783-1857)—Colgate was born in Hollingbourne, Kent, the son of a farmer who imbibed strong republican, pro-American, pro-French sentiments. In 1798 the Colgates emigrated to Maryland. In 1804, William moved to New York City, where he was apprenticed to John Slidell, a soapmaker. After three years Colgate started his own company, manufacturing various soap and petroleum products, eventually becoming one of New York City’s most prosperous and influential citizens. He was first affiliated with the Presbyterian Church (his father had been an Arian Baptist), but in 1808 he was baptized and joined the First Baptist Church of New York.  In 1811 he moved his membership to the congregation at Oliver Street and in 1838 to the Tabernacle, for which he had donated huge sums for its construction. He was a major supporter of Baptist schools and Baptist missionary enterprises, as well as the American Bible Society. In 1827 he helped found the American and Foreign Bible Society (largely a Baptist group initially). He also assisted in the founding of the American Bible Union in 1850. His sons, James (1818-1904) and Samuel (1822-1897), continued his legacy of involvement in higher education and, as a result of their generous endowments to Madison University (originally the Hamilton Institution), the school was renamed Colgate University in 1888. See William Brackney, ed., Historical Dictionary of the Baptists (Lanham MD: Scarecrow Press, 1999) 108; William Cathcart, The Baptist Encyclopedia (Philadelphia: L. H. Everts, 1881) 249-250.

Collins, Luke (d. 1805)—Collins pastored the Baptist meeting at Bethel Chapel, Shipley, 1769-1770. He then became an Independent, ministering at Horton-in-Craven, Yorkshire (1771-1793); Lowther Street in Kendal (1794-1802); and Ulverston, Lancashire (1802-1805). See Bethel Church, Shipley, 1758-1958 (Shipley: n.p., 1958); James Miall, Congregationalism in Yorkshire: A Chapter in Modern Church History (London: J. Snow, 1868) 284; Benjamin Nightingale, Lancashire Nonconformity; Or, Sketches, Historical and Descriptive, of the Congregational and Old Presbyterian Churches in the County. Churches of Manchester, Oldham, Ashton, etc., 6 vols. (Manchester: John Heywood, [1890-1893]) 1:260, 287.

Comstock, W. C. (1809-1844)—The son of a New York Baptist minister, Comstock worked as an attorney before becoming an American Baptist missionary. He spent one year at the Hamilton Literary and Theological Institution (now Colgate University) and then sailed with his wife for Burma, arriving in early 1835. They settled in Arracan, establishing churches and schools until his death in 1844 as a result of cholera. See Carey, Oriental Christian Biography, 3:374-376.

Cooke, Stephen—A prominent merchant in Kingston, Jamaica, Cooke began corresponding with John Rippon in the early 1790s concerning the black Baptist minister, George Liele, and his work among the slaves on that island. Cooke continued to correspond with Rippon and various leaders of the Baptist Missionary Society for many years. His first letter to Rippon, dated 26 November 1791, appeared in the Baptist Annual Register, 1:338-339.

Cornford, Philip Henry—Cornford was a student at Newport Pagnel Academy before becoming a BMS missionary in October 1840, working at Rio Bueno and Stewart Town. His wife died during their first year in Jamaica. He remarried in 1842 and began preaching at Montego Bay, where he ministered for five years.  In 1847 he moved to the Jericho church in St. Thomas-in-the-Vale. He returned to England in 1850, ministering to Baptist churches at Ramsey, Huntingdonshire, and Luton, Bedfordshire, for ten years before emigrating to New Zealand in 1860. See Clarke, Memorials, 183.

Cottle, Joseph (1770-1853)—Cottle grew up in the Baptist congregation at the Pithay, Bristol. James Newton, the assistant pastor at the Pithay and a tutor at the Baptist Academy, lived in the Cottle home for nearly thirty years before his death in 1789. Cottle was also a frequent attendant at the Baptist church in Broadmead and was for over forty years a member of the Committee of the Bristol Education Society, which oversaw the work of the Academy. In November 1800, after the death of his father, Robert Cottle, a deacon for many years in the church at the Pithay, Joseph, along with his mother and sisters, left the Pithay church and became members of the Baptist and Independent congregations at Broadmead. In March 1830, when a separate church record book was begun for the Independent congregation at Broadmead, Joseph Cottle was listed as one of the deacons (the initial pages of the MS. are in Cottle’s hand). In December 1832, however, after many years at Broadmead, Joseph and his sister Mary were dismissed to the Zion Chapel (Independent) in Bedminster, where they were living at that time. Joseph’s brother, Thomas, lived for a while at Bath and then moved to London, where he subscribed to the BMS in 1800-1801 and in 1804-1805. Joseph Cottle is best known for publishing Samuel Taylor Coleridge’s first book of poems in 1796, early volumes of Robert Southey poems, as well as the initial copies of Wordsworth’s and Coleridge’s Lyrical Ballads in 1798. A voluminous poet himself, Cottle is best known for his Early Recollections; Chiefly Relating to the Late Samuel Taylor Coleridge, during his Long Residence in Bristol (2 vols; 1837), and his slightly revised version, Reminiscences of Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Robert Southey (1847). See Baptist Annual Register, 3:306; Periodical Accounts, 2:204; 3:132; Timothy Whelan,  “Joseph Cottle the Baptist,” Charles Lamb Bulletin, N.S. 111 (2000): 96-108; DEB.

Coultart, James (d. 1836)—Coultart was from Holywood, near Dumfries, Scotland, and studied at Bristol. He was approved as a BMS missionary in 1816, along with his wife, the former Mary Ann Chambers. They sailed for Jamaica on 14 March 1817 and landed on 9 May. He quickly got a license to preach, incorporating a group of members from George Lisle’s congregation. His wife died that September. Coultart’s health was not good either, and he returned to England in 1818 and was present at the ordinations of Christopher Kitching and Thomas Godden that March.  He remarried and returned to Jamaica and commenced building a chapel in Kingston (Kitching had already died). The chapel was opened on 27 January 1822 and accommodated 2000 people.  He resigned from the Kingston church in 1829 and removed to Mount Charles; he was replaced by Joseph Burton (1803-1860) in Kingston. Coultart traveled to England several times due to health reasons, returning once again to Jamaica in 1834 with James Phillipo. He preached at St. Ann’s Bay until his death in 1836.  See Cox, History, 2:24, 234.

Cowell, John—Cowell became a member at Carter Lane, Southwark, in 1774. In 1778, while living in Gravel Lane, Southwark, he subscribed to J. C. Ryland’s Contemplations. He was also a subscriber to the Baptist Missionary Society, donating £1.1 in 1800 and in 1804. A later entry in the Carter Lane church book notes that Cowell and his wife, also a member, were dismissed “to the church at Potter Street, near Harlow, Essex under the Pastoral care of Mr Brown” at a Church meeting on Monday, 20 December 1802. According to the church records at Potter Street, on 31 March 1811 it was proposed at a church meeting that messengers from the church visit Cowell concerning his absence from church and the Lord’s Supper and church meetings. On 26 May two messengers were appointed to visit Cowell. On 30 June they reported that Cowell had told them he was not attending because neither “he nor his family could profit by the ministry of” Rev. Bain. To Cowell, “every thing was carried at them according to the will of the pastor and that he absented himself from church meetings for the sake of peace but that he wished to hold communion with us as a church in the way he had done for a long time past. That he did not wish to hold his subscription or any pecuniary aid needfelt. The church admitted his reason for not attending regularly the public means of grace as it was not their business to search the heart. Nor to say who or where he should hear, every one having a public right to seek spiritual profit where they may find it. His second reason they could not admit as it was one principle part of his office to attend church meetings. It was agreed to present to him by the reporting messengers the church’s respects & request him to attend at church meetings and that they fully comply with his request to continuance on communion.”  He left Harlow and joined a dissenting congregation at Ware in 1822. See Horsleydown and Carter Lane Church Book, f. 41; “List of Subscribers,” Bristol Baptist College Library, shelfmark G97a.Ah.33; Periodical Accounts, 2:204; 3:132; Stephen Hulcoop, Extracts from the Minute Book of Potter Street Baptist Church Harlow Relating to Discipline of Members by the Church Meeting Covering the Period 1776-1827 (Harlow: S. H. Publishing, 2001) 21-22.

Cox, Francis Augustus (1783-1853)—Cox studied at Bristol Baptist Academy and Edinburgh University (M.A.) before commencing his pastoral career. After two years as pastor of the Baptist church at Clipston, Northamptonshire (1804-1806), and two years at St. Andrew’s Street, Cambridge (1806-1808), following Robert Hall’s resignation (letter 81 denotes the beginning of Cox’s ministry at St. Andrew’s Street), Cox returned for a time to Clipston before accepting the pastorate at Mare Street in Hackney, where he remained for more than forty years. He was actively involved in Baptist affairs throughout the first half of the nineteenth century, working on the BMS committee and supporting the Baptist Home Missionary Society, helping to create the Baptist Magazine, assisting in the founding of the Baptist Irish Society, and serving as a part-time tutor at Stepney College from 1813 to 1822. He served as secretary to the General Body of Dissenting Ministers, supported the Anti-State Church Association, and, like Joseph Hughes, was instrumental in the founding of London University, becoming its first librarian. He represented the Baptist Union in 1835 on a tour of America, after which he, along with James Hoby, authored The Baptists in America. He is best known for his History of the Baptist Missionary Society, from 1792 to 1842 (2 vols; 1842). Cox was thrice chairman of the Baptist Union. See J. H. Y. Briggs, “F. A. Cox of Hackney: Nineteenth-Century Baptist Theologian, Historian, Controversialist, and Apologist,” Baptist Quarterly 38 (1999-2000): 392-411; DEB.

Crabtree, William (1720-1811)—Crabtree was for many years the Baptist minister at Bradford. He was born c. 1720, and began ministering at Bradford in 1753, where he would remain thereafter. Isaac Mann wrote a short life of Crabtree in 1815. A number of letters to and from Crabtree can be found in the Isaac Mann Collection, National Library of Wales. See Baptist Annual Register, 1:13.

Cramp, John Mockett (1796-1881)—Cramp was educated at Stepney College, 1814-1818. He pastored at Dean Street, Southwark, 1818-1825; assisted his father at St. Peters Baptist Chapel (St. Peters, England), 1827-1825; and pastored at Wellington Square Chapel in Hastings, 1842-1844. He was editor of the Baptist Magazine, 1825-1828; served on the BFBS committee, 1820-1844; and from 1844-1849 was President of the Canada Baptist College in Montreal. In 1851 he became President of Acadia College in Wolfville, Nova Scotia, where he retired in 1869. He was a prolific author, including Baptist History from the Foundation of the Christian Church to the Close of the Eighteenth Century (1868). See DEB.

Crassweller, Henry (d. 1880)—Crassweller was a deacon at the Baptist church at Eagle Street in London from 1812 to 1880. A letter from Crassweller, dated 3 December 1841, from 36 Welbeck Street, London, appeared in the Baptist Magazine 34 (1842): 31. He was a generous giver to the BMS, contributing £50 to the Jubilee Fund in December 1842. He also collected another £1.16 for the Fund. His son, Harris (1827-1905), completed his studies at Stepney College in 1854 (he earned a B.A. as well from London University). He ministered to Baptist congregations at Leominster (1854-1856), Woolwich (1856-1864), St. Mary’s Gate, Derby (1864-1871), and Cross Street, Islington (1871-1887). Edward Whymper, a member at Maze Pond, Southwark, mentions in his diary that he heard the younger Crasweller preach once at Maze Pond in 1856, noting that the sermon was “very good in matter, but dreadful bad in style.” See Missionary Herald (January 1843): 52; Seymour J. Price, “Maze Pond and the Matterhorn,” Baptist Quarterly 10 (1940-1941): 202-208; F. G. Hastings, “The Passing of St. Mary’s Gate, Derby,” Baptist Quarterly 9 (1938-1939): 45-49; Baptist Handbook (1906): 433-434.

Crisp, Thomas Steffe (1788-1868)—Crisp was originally from Suffolk. After taking his degree at Glasgow University in 1809, he ministered to the Independent congregations at Southwold, Suffolk (1810-1811), and at St. Ives, Huntingtonshire (1811-1818). He came to Broadmead and the Baptist Academy in June 1818, replacing Henry Page, who had resigned the previous year. Upon Robert Hall’s arrival as pastor at Broadmead in 1826, Crisp was appointed Principal of the academy and assistant pastor at Broadmead, positions he maintained until his death at the age of 80 in 1868. See C. Sidney Hall and Harry Mowvley, Tradition and Challenge:  The Story of Broadmead Baptist Church, Bristol, from 1685 to 1991 (Bristol: Broadmead Baptist Church, 1991) 44, 54, 57, 62-63; DEB.

Crowther, Jonathan (1794-1856)—The son of a prominent Methodist minister, Crowther was born in Cornwall and educated at Kingswood School. After completing his studies at Woodhouse Grove, Crowther was ordained and became a headmaster at Woodhouse (1814-1816) and at Kingswood (1823-1825). He then served as a circuit preacher and a follower of Jabez Bunting. From 1837 to 1842 he served as superintendent of the Methodist mission in India (Madras). He returned to England and in 1849 was appointed classical tutor of the Northern branch of the Theological Institution at Manchester and Didsbury. Though loyal to the Methodist Conference, Crowther was nevertheless a supporter of women’s preaching, allowing Sarah Boyce and Martha Gregson to preach in Methodist chapels in Birmingham during his tenure on that circuit (1829-1831). Among his published works are A Sermon on the Death of the Rev. D. McAllum, M.D.: Preached in New-Street Chapel, York, July 23, 1827 (York, 1827); A Defence of the Wesleyan Theological Institution (1834); and Sermons (1839). For Crowther, see Biographical Index, Methodist Archives, JRULM.

Crowther, Samuel Ajayi (c.1807-1891)¾Born in Western Nigeria, he was sold into slavery when about thirteen, but was eventually freed when the Portuguese ship on which he had been bound was captured by the British and the slaves taken to Sierra Leone. Three years later he became a Christian and renamed after a prominent leader in the Church Missionary Society. He was one of the first students at Fourah Bay College, Freetown, specializing in linguistics. After serving a time as a schoolmaster, he was chosen to be the interpreter for Thomas Buxton’s unsuccessful Niger Expedition (see letter 191). Crowther’s abilities did not go unnoticed, however, and he came to England with the remaining leaders of the Expedition to seek ordination in the Church of England. He returned to his original homeland and joined the Anglican mission near Abeokutu, Nigeria. He journeyed to England in 1851, speaking throughout the country and meeting Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. He published a number of grammar texts in African languages and was one of the earliest scholars of the Igbo language. In 1864 he was appointed bishop for Western Africa; in 1889 dissention arose among a group of white clergy in Western Africa that led to a splitting of the black and white leadership in Western Africa. When he died two years later, Crowther was replaced by a white bishop. See John Flint, “Crowther, Samuel Ajayi,” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004); David Killingray, “The Black Atlantic Missionary Movement and Africa, 1780s-1920s,” Journal of Religion in Africa 33 (2003): 3-31.

Daniel, Ebenezer (1784-1844)—Daniel joined the Baptist church at Burford, Oxfordshire, when he was seventeen. After studying at the Bristol Academy, he ministered to Baptist congregations in Brixham (1808-1812) and Luton (1812-1830) before seeking appointment as a BMS missionary to Ceylon, replacing James Chater. Daniel and his family left England in May 1830; during the next fourteen years he would be the driving force behind the Cingalese Baptist Mission. His wife died on her return to England in 1838. After her death, Daniel was aided by two new BMS missionaries, Joseph Harris and C C. Dawson. In his last years he helped establish a missionary academy at Colombo. He died in Ceylon on 2 June 1844. Shortly before his death, he published a small volume titled Reminiscences of Two Years’ Missionary Labours in the Jungles of Ceylon, a portion of which appeared in the Baptist Magazine 35 (1843): 491-496; 545-550. See Carey, Oriental Christian Biography, 3:289-293.

Darracott, Richard (1751-1795)—Darracott attended Daventry Academy, under Caleb Ashworth, and began his ministry at Bridge Street Meeting, Walsall, Staffordshire, in 1770. In 1773 he became pastor to two congregations, one at Fulwood and the other at Bishops Hull, Somerset, remaining at the latter until 1793. He died at Taunton in 1795. He was the son of Risdon Darracott  (1717-1759), a student of Doddridge at Northampton. The elder Darracott ministered at Chulmleigh, Devon, and at Penzance, Cornwall, 1738-1739, before removing to Barnstaple and then to Wellington, Somerset, where he ministered to the Independent congregation from 1741 to 1759. Risdon Darracott was affectionately known as “the Star of the West.”  He was also the author of Scripture Marks of Salvation, Drawn up to Help Christians to Know the True State of Their Souls (1756).  See Evangelical Magazine 3 (1795): 305; Protestant Dissenter’s Magazine 2 (1795): 216.

Davies, John Jordan (d. 1858)¾Davies, originally from Wales, was raised in the Church of England, but adopted Baptist views and attended Bristol Academy. After preaching for a time at Bath, he removed to Tottenham in 1828 where he was ordained on 12 June of that year, remaining as minister there for the next seventeen years. His final ministry was at Park Street, Luton, 1849-1857. See Baptist Magazine 20 (1828): 375; my thanks to John Briggs for information on Davies.

Davis (Davy), Henry (1700-1780)—Davis became a deacon in the small Strict Baptist congregation at Northampton in 1743, an elder in 1744, and pastor in 1748, with John Gill giving the charge and John Brine the sermon. Davis was the father of the Independent minister at Wigston, Leicstershire. John Ryland, Jr., would later write, “Mr. Davis was a very worthy man, a plain, serious preacher; but the church gradually dwindled, till at last they broke up, and sold the place to the Wesleyan Methodists. After this, Mr. Davis preached for some time in his own house at Harlestone, four miles from Northampton, till he became quite infirm with age. He died in 1780, aged 80, and was buried in College-lane meeting yard.” See John Ryland, “History of the Baptist Churches at Northampton,” Baptist Annual Register, 4:772.

Day, David (d. 1862)—After spending several years as a pastor in Speen, near Newbury, Day was appointed as a BMS missionary to Jamaica in November 1837. His wife died during their first year in Jamaica. Day then married the niece of J. M. Phillippo and remained in Jamaica for the next twenty-two years, working mostly in churches in the parish of St. Mary until his death in 1862. See Clarke, Memorials, 175-176.

Dendy, Walter (d. 1881)—Dendy was appointed as a BMS missionary in 1831 from the church in Salisbury, under the ministry of P. J. Saffery (Dendy’s brother-in-law). The Dendy’s sailed for Jamaica with the Burchells in 1831. Like many of the Baptist missionaries in Jamaica, Dendy was imprisoned in 1833; upon his release he took over William Knibb’s church at Falmouth. In 1835 he removed to the church at Salter’s Hill, the church originally formed by Moses Baker. During the time of martial law, government forces killed twenty-one of his members. Dendy sailed for England (with two of his deacons) in March 1841, returning to Jamaica in November of that same year. He would remain with the BMS until his death in 1881. Along with John Clark and James Phillippo, his fellow missionaries in Jamaica, Dendy published The Voice of Jubilee:  A Narrative of the Baptist Mission, Jamaica, from its Commencement; with Biographical Notices of its Fathers and Founders (London: J. Snow, 1865). See Clarke, Memorials, 159-166; Baptist Magazine 34 (1842): 397-398.

Dent, Joseph—Dent was from Milton, Northamptonshire, and was baptized on the same day as John Ryland, Jr. (13 September 1767). Dent married Elizabeth Ryland, John Ryland’s sister, who was described by James Culross as “comely in appearance and gracious in spirit.”  Dent was “a man of genuine piety, solidity of thought, and promptitude of action—qualities that served him well in his long diaconate” at College Lane, which began in 1777. Frances Ryland records in her diary that Dent died on 22 September 1795. His son, also named Joseph, however, would survive and become a leading member of the church and the larger Baptist community in England. In 1812 he served on the BMS Committee. In the summer of 1825, he was instrumental in forming a Baptist church at Milton, consisting of Baptists from Northampton and RoadeSee James Culross, The Three Rylands: A Hundred Years of Various Christian Service (London: Elliot Stock, 1897) 24; Cox, History, 2:221; Payne, College Street Church, Northampton, 15.

Dexter, Benjamin Bull (d. 1863)—After finishing his studies at Stepney College, Dexter was set apart as a BMS missionary at Olney on 21 January 1834. He arrived in Jamaica on 1 April 1834, ministering initially at Montego Bay and Salter’s Hill for a time, than at Rio Bueno and Stewart Town, laying the foundation stones for new chapel buildings at each place on 23 May 1835. He retired from the mission field in 1853 and returned to England, where he died in 1863. See Clarke, Memorials, 167-168; Cox, History, 2:207-209.

Dore, James (1763/64-1825)—Dore studied at Bristol Academy (1779-1782) and then succeeded Benjamin Wallin as pastor at Maze Pond in 1783, with Robert Robinson of Cambridge delivering the introductory discourse at Dore’s ordination service on 25 March 1784. Dore would remain at Maze Pond until 1815. Of the congregation at Maze Pond, Walter Wilson noted, “the church has long been in a flourishing state, and may vie with the most respectable congregations of the same persuasion.” Dore’s most significant publication was his sermon, On the African Slave Trade (1788). He was the younger brother of William Dore, Baptist minister at Cirencester. See Three Discourses Addressed to the Congregation at Maze-Pond, Southwark, on Their Publick Declaration of Having Chosen Mr. James Dore their Pastor, March 25th, 1784 (Cambridge: F. Archdeacon, 1784); Wilson, History and Antiquities, 4:286; Hayden, Continuity and Change, 230; DEB.

Dracup, John (1723-1795)—Dracup ministered to the Independent meeting at Steep Lane, Sowerby, Yorkshire, 1755-1772; he then joined the Baptists and preached at Rodhill End, near Todmorden, Lancashire, and at Rochdale, 1772-1783. He returned to Steep Lane in 1784 as a Baptist, and the church joined the denomination at that time. Dracup remained there until his death in 1795.

Duff, Alexander (1806-1878)—Duff, a Scottish-born educator and missionary, attended St. Andrew’s University, 1821-1829, where he came under the influence of Thomas Chalmers. He was sent to India by the Church of Scotland in 1829 as an educator. He taught in English, and was instrumental in the Indian government’s decision in 1834 to make English the language of higher education in the country. In the 1830s and ’40s he was one of the more controversial European figures in Calcutta. He was not popular initially with the East India Company (he violated their policy of non-interference in matters of religion) nor with the Home Mission Board. He spent 1834-1839 in Scotland defending himself and his educational policies in India. In 1843 he left the state church and joined the Scottish Free Church; the next year he published his important treatise, Female Education in India. He continued to serve tours of missionary duty in India until 1863, at which time he returned to Edinburgh and taught at New College while also working as mission director for the Free Church. See DEB.

Dunscombe, Thomas (1748-1811)—Dunscombe came from Tiverton to the Bristol Academy in 1770. His brother, Samuel, was the Baptist minister at Cheltenham, 1768-1797, during which time the latter became a close friend of Robert Robinson. Samuel was also one of the signatories at the founding of the Bristol Education Society in 1770. Thomas Dunscombe supplied at Cote [Coate], Oxfordshire, in 1772, where he was ordained in 1773. He itinerated in chapels at Buckland and Bampton in Oxfordshire, and at Farringdon between 1773 and 1797. He preached the sermon for the annual meeting of the Bristol Education Society in 1792. In 1797 he married the poet Mary Steele and moved to Yeovil for a time before returning to Broughton. He died at Farrington in 1811, shortly after preaching at James Bicheno’s installation service at Cote. See Case, History of the Baptist Church in Tiverton, 40; Coate Church Book, 1684-1885 (MS., Angus Library, Regent’s Park College, Oxford); Hayden, Continuity and Change, 230.

Durrant, Timothy—A farmer from Lesiate, Durrant joined the nearby congregation at King’s Lynn in 1790 and began assisting William Richards in preaching and conducting some of the affairs of the church. In 1800 the management of the church fell primarily into his hands. He would serve as pastor until 1808, during which time a new chapel was built. After his resignation, he remained a deacon in the church until 1812. See The Baptists in King’s Lynn (King’s Lynn: n.p., 1939) 13-14.

Dutton, Anne (1692-1765)—Early in her life, Dutton joined a Calvinist church in Northampton and never departed from those beliefs. Her second husband, Benjamin Dutton (d. 1747), served as pastor to the Baptist congregation at Great Gransden, 1733-1747. During her life, Dutton composed over twenty-five works, some concerning assurance of salvation and genuine evangelical piety (printed forms of spiritual autobiography), and some more polemical in nature, patterned after the thought and style of several Calvinistic preachers of the Great Awakening she admired and with whom she corresponded, especially George Whitefield (see letter 4). She was an ardent opponent of Wesley’s Arminianism. She was also instrumental in the call of Robert Robinson to St. Andrew’s Street in Cambridge in 1759. Robinson wrote an admiring account of his visit with Dutton shortly before her death in a letter to John Robinson of Eriswell on 30 November 1766, now in the Crabb Robinson Correspondence, Dr. Williams’s Library, London.  Among her writings are A Narration of the Wonders of Grace, in Verse (1734), Letters on Spiritual Subjects, and Divers Occasions (1747), and A Brief Account of the Gracious Dealings of God with the Late Mrs. Anne Dutton (1750). See JoAnn Ford Watson, Selected Spiritual Writings of Ann Dutton, 6 vols. (Macon GA: Mercer University Press, 2003-2009); J. C. Whitebrook, “The Life and Works of Mrs. Ann Dutton,” Transactions of the Baptist Historical Society 7 (1920-1921): 129-146; Timothy Whelan, “Six Letters of Robert Robinson from Dr. Williams’s Library, London,” Baptist Quarterly 39 (2001-2002): 355-356; DEB.

Dutton, Henry John (d. 1846)—After completing studies at Stepney College, Dutton was appointed a BMS missionary to Jamaica in October 1839. He arrived in Jamaica in February 1840, working mostly in Brown’s Town. His wife, who was pregnant, remained in England, but she died while giving birth in June 1840. Dutton remarried in July 1841 and returned to England on furlough in 1843. On his return to Jamaica he was chosen to assume control of the church at Jericho, but those plans never came to fruition, for he died in November 1846. See Clarke, Memorials, 178-179.

Dyer, John (1783-1841)—The son of a Baptist minister, Dyer was the first full-time secretary of the BMS. He was influenced as a teenager by William Steadman, both at Broughton and Plymouth, and began preaching in Plymouth and later at Reading. He was elected to the BMS Committee in 1812 and in 1818 became the BMS Secretary, moving (though not without some controversy) the headquarters to London. Shortly thereafter, however, difficulties developed between the Home Office and the Serampore Mission concerning the management of funds and various other matters of jurisdiction. A split occurred between the two groups in 1827, a rift not remedied until 1838. Dyer was very much a centralized bureaucrat, never visiting any of the foreign missions. He died on 22 July 1841, and was succeeded by Joseph Angus as Secretary of the BMS. See Payne, First Generation, 120-126; idem, “The Diaries of John Dyer,” Baptist Quarterly 13 (1949-1950): 253-259; DEB.

Dyer, Samuel (1804-1843)—Dyer served as a Congregationalist missionary to Malay, China, and Hong Kong under the auspices of the London Missionary Society from 1828 until his death in 1843. Educated at Woolwich and Cambridge, he studied for the ministry at Gosport under David Bogue and at Homerton Academy under John Pye Smith.  As a missionary, he was primarily employed with the mission press; he was instrumental in developing moveable metal type for Chinese script. His daughter married the famous missionary to China, J. Hudson Taylor. DEB.

East, Timothy (1783-1871)—East, a Congregationalist, was originally from Berkshire and received his education at Gosport Academy. He served as pastor at Zion Church, Frome, Somerset, 1805-1818; at Ebenezer, Steelhouse-lane, Birmingham, 1818-1843; at Providence, Ovenden, Yorkshire, 1855-1857; and at Paignton, Devon, 1859-1864. He authored a series of tracts entitled The Evangelical Rambler (1822-1825) as well as A Series of Discourses on the Proper Deity of the Son of God, and the Primary Design of his Mission (1843) and Christianity Contrasted with Hindooism. A Sermon Preached before the London Missionary Society, at the Tabernacle, on Wednesday Evening, May 8, 1822 (1822).

Edmonds, John (d. 1823)—John Edmonds and his two brothers, Edward and Thomas, were called to the ministry out of the Baptist church in Cannon Street in Birmingham. Edward (c.1750-1823), after a short stint as pastor at Wooton-under-Edge, moved to the church in Bond Street, Birmingham, in 1785, where he remained until his death in 1823 at the age of 73. His son, George Edmonds (1787?-1868), gained notoriety in Birmingham for his radical, “popular” politics. Thomas Edmonds served as pastor of Baptist congregations at Sutton-in-the-Elms (1786-1794), Upton-on-Severn (1794-1806), Bridgnorth (1806-1813), and Leominster (1813-1834). John Edmonds came to the Baptist church at Guilsborough shortly after a new chapel was built in 1781. As a result of the church’s success, coupled with the general distrust that developed in late 1792 by conservative advocates of the established church who sought to link all religious dissenters with republican politics, Edmonds and his congregation experienced persecution and the destruction of their building by a mob in late December 1792. John Rippon provided the following account of the ordeal: “. . . but after many  virulent expressions which had dropt from individuals in various companies, and after part of a brick wall belonging to the meeting-house had been outrageously pulled down, of which these innocent people took no notice:  on Dec. 25, 1792, they were alarmed at the cry of fire, and soon discovered that their place of worship was in flames:  they made immediate efforts to extinguish them, but the thatch on the roof rendered their efforts ineffectual. They advertized fifty guineas reward for the apprehension of the incendiary or incendiaries, and his Majesty and the ministers of state offered two hundred pounds more, but in vain.”  John Edmonds remained at Guilsborough until at least 1811. In 1823 he was serving as pastor at the Long Buckby church, not far from Guilsborough. See Baptist Annual Register, 2:9; my thanks as well to John Briggs for information on the Edmonds.

Edmonds, Thomas (1784-1860)—Edmonds was the son of John Edmonds, Baptist minister at Guilsborough (see above). After completing his studies at Bristol Academy and Marischal College, Aberdeen (M.A., 1806), the younger Edmonds served for a time as minister at Clipston before removing to Exeter in 1809. He assumed the pastorate at St. Andrew’s Street in Cambridge in 1812, remaining in that capacity until 1831. His publications included The Gospel Committed to Faithful Men:  A Sermon Delivered in London, on Thursday, June 20, 1816, Before the Subscribers and Friends of the Stepney Academical Institution (1816); Christian Missions Vindicated and Encouraged:  A Sermon Preached on Behalf of the Baptist Mission, at Queen’s Street Chapel, Lincoln’s Inn Fields, on Wednesday morning, June 23, 1819 (1819); and Christian Union:  A Circular Letter Addressed to the Ministers and Churches of the Cambridgeshire Association (1834). See the entry on Edmonds in E. J. Tongue, “Dr. John Ward’s Trust,” Baptist Quarterly 13 (1949-1950): 267-275; Baptist Handbook (1861): 98.

Edwards, Jonathan (1745-1801)—Son of the famous leader of the American Great Awakening, Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758), the younger Edwards in 1794, shortly before being dismissed from the Whitehaven Congregational Church of New Haven, Connecticut, sent John Ryland, Jr., a box of religious pamphlets from America (now at Bristol Baptist College Library, shelfmark G97A). These pamphlets may have been in response to the pamphlets sent by Ryland that are mentioned in letter 34. Edwards would later serve as President of Union College, New York. See DEB.

Edwards, Peter—After ministering to the Baptist meeting at White’s Row, Portsea, 1785-1794, Edwards resigned and became an Independent minister. Shortly thereafter he published Candid Reasons for Renouncing the Principles of Antipaedobaptism (1795), which was answered that same year by Joseph Jenkins, at that time pastor of the Baptist church at Blandford Street, London, in A Defence of the Baptists Against the Aspersions & Misrepresentation so Mr. Peter Edwards . . . in his Book, entitled Candid Reasons, for Renouncing the Principles of Antipaedobaptism. In a Series of Letters. See “Calendar of Letters,” Baptist Quarterly 6 (1932-1933):  180.

Ellis, Jonathan D. (d. 1845)—Ellis and his wife were appointed as BMS missionaries to India in 1831. He came out of the church at Maze Pond, Southwark, having been trained as a printer before arriving in India. He worked initially at Chitpore, superintending the men’s department of the Native Christian Boarding School, while Mrs. Ellis worked with the women. Ellis soon organized a small church, but poor health forced him to remove to Howrah in 1838. The Ellis’s moved again late in 1838, this time to Intally. In March 1841, Mrs. Ellis returned to England, with her husband following her that June. When he arrived in England, he learned that his youngest child had died at sea and that his wife had just died in Exeter. Devastated, he retired to Exeter to regain his health, remarrying briefly before his death on 9 February 1845. During his final illness in 1843-1844, the BMS paid his medical bills, including £185 Ellis requested for 1844. See Carey, Oriental Christian Biography, 3:78-79; Potts, British Baptist Missionaries, 246; BMS Committee Minutes, Vol. I (January 1843-May 1844), ff. 174-175.

Etheridge, Samuel—Etheridge was a deacon for many years at the Baptist church at Little Prescot Street, in Goodman’s Fields. He was the uncle of Samuel Jackson of the Baptist congregation at Unicorn Yard (see letter 28). Etheridge was a great benefactor of Baptist causes. In 1784 he gave a bequest of £100 to the Particular Baptist Fund. In 1805 the Sunday School Society of the church received a legacy of £50 from Etheridge, the bequest reading, “To a Society who meet at Mr. Booth’s Meeting House to teach young girls to read, Fifty pounds in aid of their benevolent design.” See Ernest Kevan, London’s Oldest Baptist Church (London: Kingsgate Press, 1933) 94, 101.

Evans, Caleb (1737-1791)—Baptized at Little Wild Street in London in 1758, Evans assisted Josiah Thompson at Unicorn Yard, Southwark, for a year, then came to Broadmead in Bristol in 1759, first as assistant then later as co-pastor to his father, Hugh Evans. After his father’s death, Caleb Evans served as senior pastor at Broadmead from 1781 to 1791. He became involved with the work of the Academy as well, helping to found the Bristol Education Society in 1770. In 1779 he was named Principal of the Academy, a post he held until his death. Evans read widely in the Puritans and the classics and was an evangelical Calvinist (like his friend Robert Hall, Sr.), passing that tradition on to the young preachers he trained at Bristol. He also had a keen interest in itinerant preaching and evangelism. His writings include numerous sermons, as well as some controversial political tracts, such as A Letter to Mr Wesley (1776), concerning the American war; also a Collection of Hymns Adapted to Public Worship (1769), with John Ash. See Norman S. Moon, “Caleb Evans, Founder of the Bristol Education Society,” Baptist Quarterly 24 (1971-1972): 175-190; idem, Education for Ministry, 10-26; Kirk Wellum, “Caleb Evans (1737-1791),” ed. Haykin, in The British Particular Baptists, 1:213-233; Hayden, Continuity and Change, 123-141; DEB.

Evans, Charles—Evans (of the Pithay church in Bristol) sailed with Richard Burton in 1820 to Sumatra (both men had studied at Bristol Academy). They were joined the next year by William Robinson (1784-1853) of Olney, who had been working in Java since 1812. Sir Thomas Raffles, then governor of Sumatra, had requested Evans and Burton to open a station at Fort Marlborough, where they were assisted by Nathaniel Ward, William Ward’s nephew. According to Cox, Evans, “finding himself unequal to the combined exertion of conducting the school, and acquiring the native language, removed to Padang.”  After the insurrection in Sumatra in 1825 and the new restrictions imposed upon missionaries there, Evans was forced to retire from Padang. Suffering now from ill health, he returned to England. See Cox, History, 1:353.

Evans, Hugh (1712-1781)—Baptized at Broadmead by Bernard Foskett in 1730, Evans became Foskett’s assistant in March 1733/4 and co-pastor in February 1739/40, eventually becoming senior pastor and principal of the Academy, 1758-1781. In 1756, as evidence of his tolerant approach to communion and fellowship among believers, Evans organized some sixty paedobaptists who regularly worshiped at Broadmead into an Independent congregation within the larger Broadmead congregation, serving as pastor of both congregations. The Independent congregation (what became known as the “little church”) remained a part of the Broadmead church until the mid-nineteenth century. He was also instrumental in the formation of the Bristol Education Society in 1770, attempting to provide the Particular Baptist churches of England and Wales with qualified ministers. As Roger Hayden has noted, “Hugh Evans successfully continued Foskett’s work with students, nurtured the Welsh links, and after the appointment of Caleb [Evans], worked with him to put the students programme on a denominational basis, while retaining control within it. Upon this foundation Hugh and Caleb built up the concept of an educated, able and evangelical Baptist ministry which would be vital for the missionary expansion of the denomination at home and overseas.” See Moon, Education for Ministry, 10-24; Hayden, Continuity and Change, 116, 119; DEB.

Evans, James Harington (1785-1849)—Evans was the minister at John Street Chapel in London, 1818-1848. He was educated for the Anglican ministry, but left the established church in 1815 and began preaching in London in a Swiss church. He moved to the new chapel in John Street in 1818, but for many years refused to consider himself a part of any denomination. By the late 1830s, however, John Street, and Evans himself, had clearly moved into the Baptist denomination. Evans became a strong supporter of the BMS, publishing A Sermon on Behalf of the B.M.S. in 1837. See DEB.

Evans, John—Evans studied at Bristol Academy before serving as pastor of the Baptist congregation in Foxton, Northamptonshire, 1751-81. He was one of the founders of the Northamptonshire Baptist Association, composing the first circular letter in 1765; he was also moderator of the Association meeting and writer of the circular letter in 1774. He retired to Northampton in 1782. See Baptist Annual Register, 2:428; Payne and Allan, Clipston Baptist Church, 12; Arthur S. Langley, “Baptist Ministers in England about 1750 A.D,” Transactions of the Baptist Historical Society 6 (1918-1919): 150.1.    

John Evans (1767-1827)—a Baptist minister and schoolmaster, was a descendant of the Evans family of Radnorshire, Wales; he was the grandson of Caleb Evans (d. 1790), a Baptist preacher and schoolmaster in Wales, who was the half-brother of Hugh Evans (1712-81), President of Bristol Baptist Academy and pastor of the two congregations at Broadmead in Bristol, 1758-81.  John Evans was educated for the ministry at Bristol Academy, where Robert Hall served as his tutor. He then became a Ward scholar at the Universities of Aberdeen and Edinburgh, graduating from the latter with an M.A. in 1790. While in Scotland, he seems to have moved toward Unitarianism.  He was ordained in 1792 by the General Baptist congregation at Worship Street, London, remaining there as pastor until shortly before his death in 1827.  He opened his school at Islington in 1796 and earned much renown for his work with young preachers, continuing in that capacity until 1821.  He was a friend and correspondent of Russell Scott, son-in-law of Dr. William Hawes, founder of the Humane Society. Evans published some forty works in his lifetime, including his influential A Sketch of the Denominations of the Christian World (1795). 

Ewing, Greville (1767-1841)—Originally a minister in the Church of Scotland, Ewing took an active role in the formation of the Edinburgh Missionary Society in 1796, serving as its first secretary and editor of the Missionary Magazine from 1796 to 1798. He became a Congregationalist minister in Glasgow in 1799, remaining in that capacity until 1836. Ewing, along with the Haldane brothers and Ralph Wardlaw, was instrumental in bringing Congregationalism and home missions into Scotland. He would later break with the Haldanes when they became Baptists, remaining loyal to his congregationalism. Ewing played a leading role in the formation of the Congregational Union of Scotland in 1812. At the time of letter 96 (1811), he was also serving as a tutor at the Glasgow Theological Academy, a Congregationalist school he helped found in 1809. Despite his affiliations, Ewing was a solid supporter of the BMS, collecting subscriptions and donations on the part of the Serampore Mission to replace the contents lost in the fire of March 1812 (see letter 99). Among his publications are A Defence of Itinerant and Field Preaching: A Sermon Preached before the Society of gratis Sunday Schools, December 24, 1797, at Lady Glenorchy’s Chapel, Edinburgh (1799) and The Duty of Christians to Civil Government (1799). See Talbot, Search for a Common Identity, 90-98; DEB.

Eyre, John (1754-1803)—Eyre was an Evangelical Anglican clergyman who studied at Trevecca College in Wales and then performed itinerant preaching in Cornwall, 1774-1778. He became curate of Weston in 1779 and later held curacies at Lewes (Sussex), Reading, and Chelsea. In 1785 he removed to the Episcopal chapel at Homerton where he remained until his death. He was a founding member of the London Missionary Society, Village Itinerancy, and, along with Samuel Greatheed and others, one of the first editors of the Evangelical Magazine. See DEB.

Fawcett, John (1740-1817)—Fawcett, a Yorkshire resident all his life, was converted through the ministry of George Whitefield, and after a brief stint as a Methodist preacher, was ordained a Baptist minister in 1765. He began his ministry at Wainsgate before moving the church to Hebden Bridge in 1777, where he remained (living at Ewood Hall) until his death in 1817. Though twice offered pastorates outside Yorkshire, he chose to remain with his people there. Though self-educated, Fawcett was a man of culture and a leader in providing education for young ministerial students in the north of England. He was instrumental in the founding of Horton Academy at Bradford (later Rawdon College), and kept a private academy for many years. He was an active supporter of the BMS and the British and Foreign Bible Society, a hymn writer, occasional author, and leading figure in the Baptist Evangelical revival of his day. See John Fawcett, Jr., An Account of the Life, Ministry, and Writings of the Late Rev. John Fawcett, D.D (London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1818); DEB.

Fenn, John—Fenn was a hosier at 78 Cornhill, London. He may have been the father of Joseph Fenn [Finn], who became a missionary to India for the Church Missionary Society. In 1799 Fenn took on a new partner in his business, Joseph Wickenden. Wickenden joined James Dore’s congregation at Maze Pond in August 1799, having been in business previously in Portsmouth and a member of the Baptist church there.  Both Fenn and Wickenden were supporters of the BMS, subscribing £2.2 each in 1800-1801 and 1804-1805. Wickenden became a deacon at Maze Pond in 1800, and also served as an associate member of the Particular Baptist Fund in 1804-1805. See Universal British Directory, 1/2:142; Periodical Accounts, 2:204, and 3:132, 137; Maze Pond Church Book (MS., Angus Library, Regent’s Park College, Oxford) 2: ff. 20,184, 189, and 194; Valentine, Concern for the Ministry, 48.

Fernandez, Ignatius (1757-1830)—Fernandez was born in Portuguese Macao, and was trained for the priesthood by an Augustinian monk. He grew skeptical of “Rome’s image-worship,” however, and declined the priesthood. He traveled to Bengal in 1774, where he eventually built a large wax-candle factory and an indigo plantation. He was converted through the work of the BMS missionaries in 1796, baptized in 1801 and ordained in 1804. Thereafter he became a true friend of the mission, ministering to the church at Dinagepore for many years and organizing several schools. Carey once sent him to England to buy “works of good philosophy and divinity, not in antiquated language!” Fernandez is first mentioned in a letter of Carey to Fuller on 22 June 1797. William Yates, in his Memoir of John Chamberlain, includes a long letter by Chamberlain to John Ryland, dated 3 September 1804, in which Chamberlain informs Ryland that he and his wife had recently stayed with Fernandez in Dinagepore. To Chamberlain, Fernandez was a man whose “heart is warm with the love of Christ, nor has he greater pleasure than when he is telling the good news of salvation to poor sinners. He supports a school, consisting of about thirty boys, some of whom could read the Scriptures, say the catechism, and sing several hymns . . . Brother Fernandez’s situation is solitary, but far from discouraging. He preaches every Lord’s day to his servants, and sometimes others attend; besides which, he has many opportunities of speaking to people about their spiritual concerns.” William Carey, writing to either William or Samuel Hope of Liverpool shortly after the death of Fernandez, recalled his first meeting with Fernandez in 1796:  “He was then building a dwelling-house at Dinagepore, which, he said, he intended for the worship of God, and invited brother Thomas and myself to preach at the opening of it, which we soon after did. From that time till this there has been preaching in it; and our late brother was the instrument of collecting the largest church in Bengal. It now consists of nearly one hundred members, and when we take into account those who have died in the Lord, the number must amount to one hundred at least. These will be his crown of joy in the day of the Lord Jesus.” See Carey, William Carey, 170; Eustace Carey, Memoir of Dr. Carey, 2nd ed. (London: Jackson and Walford, 1837) 308; Yates, Memoirs of Mr. John Chamberlain, 1:388-389; S. Powell,  “Account of Mr. F—,” Baptist Annual Register, 3:405-407; DEB.

Fishwick, Richard (1745-1825)—Fishwick was possibly the leading Baptist layman in the north of England during the last quarter of the eighteenth century. He spent his early years in Hull, where he and his family worshiped in the local Baptist church. He was baptized by John Beatson in 1777, and the next year removed to Newcastle to join with another Baptist layman from Bishop Burton, Archer Ward (1753-1800), and his partner Samuel Walker of Rotherham, in forming the Elswick White-Lead Works. He enquired about the Baptists, only to discover that the congregation at Tuthill-stairs had recently been split by a Socinian wing, led by Caleb Alder and his son-in-law, William Robson. They would eventually form the Pandon-bank chapel, with Edward Prowitt, a former student at Bristol Academy, as their first minister (Prowitt had also briefly pastored at New Road, Oxford, 1784-1786, but resigned because he had already “adopted heterodox views”). Fishwick reinvigorated the small meeting at Tuthill Stairs, at that time led by Henry Dawson, who was succeeded in 1781 by William Pendered. Fishwick and Ward laboured incessantly for the next eighteen years in building a Baptist work in Newcastle, which culminated in the completion of a new chapel at Tuthill-stairs in 1798. That year Fishwick was chosen treasurer of the newly formed Northern Evangelical Society. He spent considerable sums of his own money helping to build Baptist chapels throughout the north of England. Both Fishwick and Ward were close friends and correspondents of David Kinghorn, Baptist minister at Bishop Burton, and his son, Joseph, once an apprentice to Ward and Fishwick and later Baptist minister at Norwich. In fact, Fishwick paid the majority of Joseph Kinghorn’s educational expenses during his time at Bristol Academy. Fishwick was a strong supporter of the BMS in the north, subscribing £5 to the Baptist Missionary Society in 1804-1805. Fishwick’s final years were not so glorious, however. Unwise speculations led to the loss of much of his fortune, and he moved to London in 1806 in greatly reduced circumstances. He joined John Rippon’s congregation at Carter Lane and died at Islington in 1825. See Douglass, History, 218-219, 240-241, 243-244; Bradburn, History of Bewick Street, 5; Frank Beckwith, “Fishwick and Ward,” Baptist Quarterly 15 (1953-1954): 249-268; Philip Hayden, “The Baptists in Oxford 1656-1819,” Baptist Quarterly 29 (1981-1982): 130; Periodical Accounts, 3:142.

Fletcher, Joseph¾Fletcher was a Baptist layman, serving as treasurer at this time of the Baptist Theological Education Society and the Baptist Building Fund. His address is listed both as Shooter’s Hill and the Union Docks, Limehouse¾the former may have been his private residence and the latter his business residence, for he was involved in the shipping trade and was active in assisting the BMS Committee and its missionaries in matters pertaining to ships and passages to various destinations. When Edward Hewett (see below) was approved as a missionary in 1842, the BMS Committee granted £140 to outfit him and send Hewett and his wife to Jamaica; the Committee minutes also noted that “Joseph Fletcher Esq (in whose vessel they were likely to sail) had given up the Owners’ Share of the Passage Money.”   As the letters in Part Six reveal, Fletcher was involved in the procurement and testing of the Dove as a suitable vessel for the BMS, contributing not only advice on the vessel but also £400 towards its purchase in 1844. For his help in this matter, the Committee thanked him “for the full & very important suggestions with which he has favoured them.” See Baptist Magazine 33 (1841): 408; 34 (1842): 664; 35 (1843): 265-266, 587, 654-655; 36 (1844): 583, 657; 38 (1846): 306, 522, 705-706; BMS Committee Minutes, Vol. H (Oct. 1841-Dec. 1842), f. 75; Vol. I (January 1843-May 1844), f. 188; Vol. J (30 May 1844¾29 July 1847), ff. 7, 9, and 43.

Fletcher, Josiah—Fletcher was a deacon for many years in the Baptist church at St. Mary’s, Norwich, during the pastorates of Joseph Kinghorn (1789-1832) and William Brock (1833-1848). Fletcher was a printer, bookseller, and bookbinder by trade, with offices in Upper Haymarket Street. He published, along with his fellow church member, Simon Wilkin, the East Anglian, Norfolk and Suffolk and Cambridgeshire Herald in Norfolk. In 1845 a new paper was begun, the Norfolk News, of which six of the founding proprietors were Baptists, including Fletcher, who printed the paper. See Charles Boardman Jewson, The Baptists of Norfolk (London: Carey Kingsgate Press, 1957) 99-102, 119; George Gould, Open Communion and the Baptists of Norwich (Norwich: Josiah Fletcher, 1860) lvii; Pigot and Co.'s Royal National and Commercial Directory and Topography of the Counties of Bedford, Cambridge, Essex, Herts, Huntingdon, Kent, Middlesex, Norfolk, Suffolk, Surrey and Sussex (London: Pigot, 1839) 492.

Fletcher, Richard (1800-1861)—Originally from Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Fletcher entered the Independent college at Rotherham in 1819. After ministering at Ebenezer Chapel, Darwen, Lancashire, 1823-1831, he moved to Manchester, succeeding the popular William Roby as pastor of the Grosvenor Street Chapel. He remained there until 1853, when he and John Poore, minister at Hope Chapel, Manchester, were persuaded by the London Missionary Society to serve as missionaries in Australia following the gold rush. Fletcher ministered at St. Kilda, Victoria, Australia, 1853-1861. He was the father of William Roby Fletcher (1833-1894), prominent Congregational minister in Australia, 1858-1894. See Congregational Yearbook (1863): 225-228.

Flight, Thomas (1726-1800)—In 1783, after serving many years as the London agent for the Worcester China Factory, Thomas Flight purchased the factory, placing primary operations of the Worcester branch into the hands of his two sons, Joseph (1762-1838) and John (1766-1791). They opened a retail shop at 45 High Street, Worcester, in July 1788. The next month they wer visited by George III, a visit that resulted in the factory receiving a royal patent. By 1790 Flight and his sons were operating a china factory in London (22 Bread Street), one in Worcester, and the Worcester China Warehouse at 1 Coventry Street in the Haymarket, London, selling primarily French porcelain that John Flight had purchased for purposes of imitation during his frequent visits to France between 1785 and 1791. After Flight’s untimely death in 1791, Martin Barr (former business partner of Thomas Gillam, the father of John Flight’s young widow), a devout Calvinist and member of the Independent congregation at Angel Street in Worcester, became Thomas Flight’s new partner. By 1800 the business was listed as “Flight & Barr, Worcester China Warehouse,” in the Haymarket. Tom Flight, as well as his sons, Joseph and John, and a third son, Bannister, all attended the Baptist congregation at Maze Pond, Southwark. Tom Flight joined the church in 1756 and served as a deacon for nearly 27 years. On many occasions he served as the messenger of the church to the Particular Baptist Fund and the Body of Protestant Dissenting Deputies.  He was a wide supporter of Baptist causes throughout the kingdom, as well as the more ecumenical aims of the Sunday School Society, to which he generously subscribed £21 in 1789. Like many Baptists in the late 1780s and early 1790s, Flight was an active supporter of the French Revolution and the efforts to enact political reform in England. Among his close friends was the radical editor of the Cambridge Intelligencer, Benjamin Flower (see entry below), at that time a member of Robert Hall’s congregation at St. Andrew’s Street in Cambridge. In his will Flight left £200 to the church for the relief of the poor. See Maze Pond Church Book, 2: ff. 118,190, 192; The Merchant and Tradesman's London Directory for the Year 1787 (London: R. Shaw and W. Lowndes, 1787) 60; Universal British Directory, 1/2:146; Kent’s Directory for the year 1800 (London: Richard and Henry Causton, 1800) 69; Plan of a Society Established in London, Anno Domini 1785, for the Support and Encouragement of Sunday-Schools in Different Counties of England (London: Sunday School Society, 1789) 25; “A Diaconal Epistle, 1790,” Baptist Quarterly 8 (1936-1937): 216.

Flower, Benjamin (1755-1829)—Flower was raised in Edward Hitchin’s Independent congregation at White Row, Spitalfields, London, where Benjamin’s father, George Flower, was a deacon. After working six years as the European agent for a manufacturer in Tiverton, Flower became the first and only editor of the Cambridge Intelligencer, which he published from 1793 to 1803. He removed to Harlow in 1804, where he operated a printing business until 1815. In 1819, he retired with his two daughters, Eliza and Sarah, to Dalston, Hackney, where he died in 1829.  While in Cambridge he was an attendant (and occasionally the hymn leader) of Robert Hall’s congregation at St. Andrew’s Street from 1793 to 1798, having been a friend and ardent admirer of Hall’s predecessor, Robert Robinson. In 1799 Flower spent six months in Newgate prison for libeling the Bishop of Llandaff in an editorial in the Intelligencer. While in prison, he met his future wife, Eliza Gould (1770-1810). She grew up in Bampton, Devon, where her father was a deacon in the local Baptist church. In 1799 (when she met Flower) she was living in London in the home of Joseph Gurney (1744-1815), a deacon at Maze Pond and the father of William B. Gurney (see letter 267). During their years at Harlow, the Flowers attended the Baptist meeting at Fore Street; Flower, his wife, and two daughters are all buried in the Baptist cemetery in Foster Street, Harlow. Among his publications are The French Constitution: With Remarks on Some of its Principal Articles … and the Necessity of a Reformation in Church and State in Great Britain, Enforced (1792); National Sins Considered, in Two Letters to the Rev. Thomas Robinson ... to Which are Added a Letter from the Rev. Robert Hall, to the Rev. Charles Simeon … (1796). See Timothy Whelan, Politics, Religion, and Romance: The Letters of Benjamin Flower and Eliza Gould Flower, 1794-1808 (Aberystwyth: National Library of Wales, 2008) xiii-xlvii.

Forsaith, Robert (1749-1797)—An Independent minister, Forsaith was originally from Sleaford, Lancashire, and entered Hoxton Academy in 1765, studying under Savage, Kippis, and Rees. He assisted at Norwich from 1770 to 1782, apparently creating a schism, which forced his separation from the church. He pastored at Oundle, Northamptonshire (1783-1785), and then became classical tutor at Daventry Academy (1785-1789), before returning once again to Northampton (1790-1797). He subscribed to Habakkuk Crabb’s Sermons in 1796 (printed by Benjamin Flower in Cambridge). See Protestant Dissenter’s Magazine 4 (1797): 280.

Foster, John (Baptist essayist) (1770-1843)—Born near Hebden Bridge, not far from Halifax, Yorkshire, Foster was raised in a strict dissenting home and attended John Fawcett’s congregation at Wainsgate. When he was seventeen the church set him apart for the ministry, and four years later (1791) he matriculated at Bristol Academy, under the immediate supervision of Joseph Hughes, then classical tutor at the Academy and assistant pastor at Broadmead. During his year at Bristol, Foster met Joseph Cottle, a member at the Pithay church as well as a frequent attendant at Broadmead and soon to be member of the Committee of the Bristol Education Society. Foster left Bristol on 26 May 1792 to pastor the struggling congregation at Tuthill Stairs at Newcastle. After about a year, he left for Dublin, where he preached occasionally and taught in an academy. While in Ireland, Foster embraced radical politics, associating with some “violent Democrats” and helping to form a society called the “Sons of Brutus,” which, he says, “exposed me at one period to the imminent danger, or at least the expectation, of chains and a dungeon.”  Foster returned to England in 1796, pastoring a General Baptist congregation in Chichester for two and half years before moving to Battersea, near London, to assist his old tutor and friend Joseph Hughes (now pastoring the Baptist congregation there) in instructing a class of twenty young Africans from Sierra Leone as part of a civilizing missionary outreach. Between 1800 and 1804, Foster ministered to a small congregation of Baptists at Downend, near Bristol. In 1804 he removed to the Baptist congregation at Sheppard’s Barton, Frome, and shortly thereafter published his famous Essays in a Series of Letters (1805), which went through thirty-five British and American editions between 1805-1920. Two of these essays, “On the Application of the Epithet Romantic” and “On Some of the Causes by which Evangelical Religion has been rendered less Acceptable to Persons of Cultivated Taste,” were Foster’s first critical essays on literature and aesthetics. He resigned his pastorate in 1806 and commenced a connection with the Eclectic Review that would last until 1839, contributing 185 articles during those years. He returned to Downend in 1817, and in 1821 removed to Stapleton, three miles from Bristol, where he lived until his death in October 1843.  Throughout his life he was an advocate for political reform and a staunch Nonconformist with a strident belief in freedom of conscience along with the need for greater education among the masses. See J. E. Ryland, Life and Correspondence of John Foster, 2 vols. (London: H. G. Bohn, 1852) (quotation above found on 1:26); Timothy Whelan, “John Foster and Samuel Taylor Coleridge,”  Christianity and Literature 50 (2001): 631-656; DEB.

Foster, John (of Biggleswade) (1765-1847)—A prosperous merchant, Foster was treasurer of the Bedfordshire Union of Christians, 1797-1847. He was a prominent member of the Baptist church at Biggleswade for over fifty years, joining in 1788, becoming a trustee in 1790, and a deacon in 1799. Related to the Fosters who attended St. Andrew’s Street, Cambridge, John Foster served as a lay preacher in the Biggleswade meeting from 1816 to 1818 (as well as 1836) and in several village congregations surrounding Biggleswade. He was also a supporter of the BMS, subscribing £1.1 in 1800-1801. See John Brown, The History of the Bedfordshire Union of Christians (London:  Independent Press, 1946) 87; Biggleswade Baptist Church 1771-1971 (Biggleswade: [n. p.], [1971]) 39-40; Periodical Accounts, 2:205; C. H. Chaplin, History of the Old Meeting Baptist Church, Biggleswade (Biggleswade: C. Elphick, 1909) 27-29.

Fountain, John (1766-1800)—Fountain joined the Baptist church at Eagle Street in London in 1794. In January 1796 Andrew Fuller and the BMS committee agreed to take him under the direction of the Society. That April he sailed on board the American ship Elizabeth, arriving in India on 16 September 1796. He applied himself to the language and eventually assisted in translation work at Mudnabatty, as well as preaching at Dinagepore and Rungpore and working with the school there. Fuller chastised him for his political outspokenness, but Carey consistently defended him. He moved with Carey to Kidderpore when Carey purchased a small factory there, but left in 1799 to help the new missionaries—Marshman, Ward, Brunsdon, and Grant—who had just arrived in Calcutta. When they decided to make Serampore the mission headquarters, he settled there in November and soon married a Miss Tidd of Oakham, who had arrived with the new missionaries. He decided to return to Dinagepore in the spring, but took ill and died in August 1800 at the age of 33. See Eagle Street Church Book, London, Vol. 1, 1737-1785 (MS., Angus Library, Regent’s Park College, Oxford) f. 133; Carey, Oriental Christian Biography, 3:332-336; DEB.

Fownes, Joseph (1715-1789)—Originally from Andover, Fownes was educated at a Presbyterian academy in the early 1730s. He began his ministry with the Presbyterian congregation at Cradley in 1736, and was ordained there in April 1743. He then removed to the Presbyterian congregation at High Street in Shrewsbury, first as assistant, then co-pastor (1748-1765) with Job Orton, and finally as pastor, 1765-1789. He authored An Enquiry into the Principles of Toleration (Shrewsbury, 1773).

Francies, Ebenezer Joseph—Francies was the son of George Francies, Baptist minister at Colchester and later at Lambeth, Surrey. After completing his studies at Stepney College, he was appointed as a BMS missionary to Jamaica in May 1839. He worked in the Hanover parish until 1844, when he was forced to remove to the island of St. Vincent for health reasons. After a furlough in England, he and his wife began a new work in Haiti in December 1845; however, their time in Haiti was short-lived, for Francies died of a fever in July 1846. His wife died in Falmouth, Jamaica, the next year. See Clarke, Memorials, 177-178.

Francis, Benjamin (1734-1799)—After studying at Bristol Academy, Francis, a Welshman, ministered initially at Chipping Sodbury (1756-1759) before settling at Horsley, where he remained the rest of his life. He was a noted hymn writer, and was unanimously called to replace John Gill at Carter Lane in London in 1772, but decided to remain at Horsley. See Brown, English Baptists of the Eighteenth Century, 94; Michael A. G. Haykin, “Benjamin Francis (1734-1799),” ed. Haykin, in The British Particular Baptists, 2:17-29; Hayden, Continuity and Change, 55-57, 128-131, 175-194, 234; DEB.

Freeman, Joseph John (1794-1851)—Freeman served as Secretary of the London Missionary Society from 1839 to 1846. Educated at Hoxton Academy (1812-1816), he ministered to Independent churches in Chelmsford, Dawlish, Westbury and Kidderminster between 1816 and 1826. From 1827 to 1835 he served as an LMS missionary to Madagascar. When he returned to England in 1837, he assumed the pastorate of the Independent church at Walthamstow, where he assisted in the founding of the Walthamstow School for Missionary Children (later Walthamstow Hall, Sevenoaks). He also began working for the LMS at that time. In 1842-1843, he visited the West Indies on behalf of the LMS, examining the working conditions among the blacks on the islands after emancipation. He was most impressed with their generosity, claiming that the former slaves in British Guiana and Jamaica had contributed a quarter of a millions pounds to the work of their churches and missions. During 1848-1851, he visited mission stations in Madagascar and South Africa; he died at Hamburg, Germany, in September 1851, on his return to England. See Richard Lovett, The History of the London Missionary Society, 1795-1895 (London: H. Frowde, 1899) 681-710. 

Fuller, Andrew (1754-1815)—Baptized into the Baptist congregation at Soham in 1769, Fuller soon found himself involved in a High Calvinist controversy that eventually placed him in the role of pastor at a very young age. His study of scripture and his reading of Jonathan Edwards and others led him to an evangelical Calvinist position, and his influential work, The Gospel Worthy of All Acceptation (1785) was the fruition of that study (and the subject of letter 27). He subsequently influenced numerous ministers among the Particular Baptists to follow his evangelical emphasis, a movement that became known as “Fullerism.” He left Soham in 1782 for the Baptist church at Kettering, where he remained the rest of his life. He became one of the leaders of the Northamptonshire Association, along with Robert Hall, Sr., John Ryland, Jr., and John Sutcliff. With these men and others, he founded the BMS in 1792, and became its first secretary, a post he held until his death. Despite devoting much of his time and effort to the work of the BMS, Fuller, through his pen, was a key defender of orthodox Calvinism against the claims of High Calvinism, Antinomianism, Socinianism, and infidelity, most notably in his major work, The Calvinistic and Socinian Systems Examined and Compared as to Their Moral Tendency (1793).  Without question, Fuller was one of the leading evangelicals of his day and his legacy in regards to the BMS remains to this day. See Morris, Memoirs; Ryland, The Work of Faith; Clipsham, “Andrew Fuller and Fullerism”; Peter J. Morden, Offering Christ to the World: Andrew Fuller (1754-1815) and the Revival of Eighteenth Century Particular Baptist Life. Studies in Baptist History and Thought, vol. 8 (Carlisle: Paternoster Press, 2003); Tom J. Nettles, “Andrew Fuller (1754-1814),” ed. Haykin, in The British Particular Baptists, 2:97-141; DEB.

Gamby, William (1790-1813)—Gamby came from Southill, Bedfordshire, where his father, John Gamby (1730-1802), served as minister of the Baptist meeting, 1787-1802. The younger Gamby was apprenticed in Leicester and attended the ministry of Robert Hall.  He was baptized in 1810 and recommended as a missionary on 1 October 1811.   He studied under Sutcliff at Olney in 1812, but his health deteriorated, resulting in his untimely death the next year. See Gravett, Three Hundred Years, 28; “Sutcliff’s Academy,” 277; Baptist Annual Register, 4:1074; Baptist Magazine 6 (1814): 200-02.

Gay, Robert (d. 1865)—Gay, from Hastings, was appointed a BMS missionary to Jamaica in 1842, working with Knibb in the publication of the Baptist Herald and the Friend of Africa; he also supervised Knibb’s schools. He later ministered to the Falmouth church, 1847-1856.  He retired from the mission field in 1856 and returned to England, where he ministered to the Baptist church at Little Kingshill until his death in 1865. In letter 219, Gay was just commencing his voyage to Jamaica. See Clarke, Memorials, 185.

Geard, John (1749-1838)—Originally a member of the Baptist church at Montacute, Somerset, Geard was one of the first students to enter Bristol Academy after the formation of the Bristol Education Society in 1770. While at Bristol, he supplied the fledgling Falmouth and Chacewater meetings in 1773. He began his official ministry as the successor to Samuel James at Tilehouse Street, Hitchin, Hertfordshire, in 1774; he was ordained in April 1775, and remained at Hitchin until 1831. He was a strong supporter of the BMS as well as a pioneer in village preaching in such places as Shillington, Bendish, Breachwood Green, and Langley. Geard, like many of his Baptist brethren in the late 1780s and early 1790s, was not averse to politics. The church book notes that in 1788, on the centenary of the Glorious Revolution, a collection of £1.15 was taken for the building of a memorial pillar to Runnymede. When that scheme fell through, the money was sent instead to the Abolitionist Society in London “that this nation which boasts so much of liberty may not expose itself to the reproach of the inconsistency as well as the cruelty of enslaving others.” Geard was a strong supporter of the BMS from its inception in 1792, as well as Sunday schools, which began at Tilehouse in 1812. Geard’s last seven years were spent in retirement. See James McCleery, The History of Tilehouse Street (Salem) Baptist Church, Hitchin (Hitchin UK: Carling and Hales, 1919) 30-35; David Watts, A History of the Hertfordshire Baptists ([Hertfordshire]: Hertfordshire Baptist Association, 1978) 14; Hayden, Continuity and Change, 234.

Gentleman, Robert (1746-1795)—Gentleman was born at Shrewsbury and studied at Daventry Academy. He kept a boarding school while serving as pastor of the Independent congregation at Swan Hill, Shrewsbury, 1767-1779. He then ministered at Lammas Street, Carmarthen, where he was also a tutor in the Carmarthen Academy, 1779-1784. His last pastorate was at the New Meeting, Kidderminster, 1784-1795. See Protestant Dissenter’s Magazine 2 (1795): 312.

Giles, Samuel (b.1809)—Giles was a calico printer in Great Cheetham Street, Manchester. His father, William Giles (1771-1845), was a Baptist minister at Dartmouth (where Samuel was born), Lymington, Chatham, and Preston (Lancs.) from 1833 to 1842. Rev. Giles spent most of 1842 in Manchester, then preached at Ashton-under-Lyne, Lancashire, in 1843-1844 just before his death in 1845. Samuel was educated at John Hinton’s academy at Oxford; his brother, John Eustace (1805-1875), would gain considerable recognition as pastor of the Baptist congregation at South Parade, Leeds, 1836-1846, followed by pastorates at Bristol, Sheffield, and at Clapham Common. Samuel’s oldest brother, William Giles, Jr. (1798-1856) would become a schoolmaster at Chatham, 1817-1821, where Charles Dickens was one of his students. Giles, Jr., would move to Lancashire in the early 1830s, where he operated schools at Barton Hall and Patricroft; he also ministered to the Baptist meeting at Barton Lane, Eccles. He later opened a school at 38 Ardwick Green, Manchester, c. 1837, but in 1842 resigned from the church at Eccles and moved his school to Seacombe House, Ashton, Cheshire. He served as pastor of the Baptist church there from 1843 to 1845. In 1848, he moved again, this time to Netherleigh House, Chester, continuing as both a schoolmaster and pastor until his death in 1856, by which time he had become F.R.G.S. For a brief time during 1842 (the date of letter 172), all three Giles—William, Sr., William, Jr., and Samuel—lived in or near Manchester. In fact, in 1843, William, Jr., and Samuel entertained Dickens at William’s home at Ardwick Green. See “Giles, Father and Sons,” Baptist Quarterly 4 (1928-1929): 333-336; Pigot and Slater’s Directory of Manchester and Salford, 3 vols. (Manchester: Pigot and Slater, 1841) 1:104; DEB.

Gill, John (1697-1771)—Gill was introduced to High Calvinism as a young student in Kettering by John Skepp, whose influence marked the works and ministry of Gill thereafter. In 1719 Gill assumed the pastorate of the Baptist congregation at Horsleydown in Southwark, not far from his High Calvinist friend, John Brine, at Cripplegate. Gill remained with the Southwark congregation until his death in 1771. Like Brine and others who followed the High Calvinist model, Gill was constrained by his theology to refrain from offering any of his hearers an unrestricted invitation to accept Christ. The High Calvinism of some of Gill’s followers was probably greater than his own, but his works abound in close defenses of a system that a later generation of evangelical Calvinists would view as arid, narrow, and stifling in regard to evangelism. Nevertheless, Gill was a profound scholar and voluminous writer and defender of orthodox Calvinism against the early inroads of Socinianism and Antinomianism. Gill’s biblical and doctrinal studies were standards for many students and ministers during the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, especially his three-volume A Body of Doctrinal Divinity, which earned him an honorary D.D. from Aberdeen in 1748. See George M. Ella, John Gill and the Cause of God and Truth (Eggleston: Go Publications, 1995); Robert W. Oliver, “John Gill (1697-1771),” ed. Haykin, in The British Particular Baptists, 1:145-165; DEB.

Gill, John (d. 1809)—He was the nephew of the legendary John Gill. The former came to St. Albans from his uncle’s congregation at Carter Lane, Southwark, in 1758 and in 1768 the St. Alban’s church joined the Northamptonshire Association. Two annual meetings of the Association took place at St. Albans in 1783 and 1795, with Andrew Fuller preaching at the latter. During Gill’s ministry, which lasted until his death in 1809, the church remained relatively small, with a membership of under 50. See Watts, History of the Hertfordshire Baptists, 13.

Gillard, Daniel – he served as minister at Folkstone, Kent, from 1776 to 1783, when he removed to Hammersmith, Middlesex, where by 1794 he was listed merely as a “druggist.”

Godden, Thomas (d. 1824)—Along with Christopher Kitching, Godden was set apart as a missionary to Jamaica at Frome in March 1818. He came out of James Bicheno’s congregation at Newbury. In October 1819, not long after he commenced his work at Spanish Town, his wife died. He did not remain long in Jamaica, retiring in 1823 due to poor health; he died in November 1824. See Cox, History, 2:25-32.

Grant, William (d. 1799)—Grant, along with Joshua Marshman and Daniel Brunsdon (at that time all three were members of the Broadmead congregation in Bristol), sailed with William Ward for India in 1799. Grant had been converted by means of Latin lessons given by Joshua Marshman in Bristol. Grant’s subsequent decision to become a missionary was instrumental in Marshman’s decision to go to India. Shortly after his arrival, however, Grant died, never meeting William Carey.

Greatheed, Samuel (d. 1823)—Originally from London, Greatheed served in the British Army during the American War. He became an assistant tutor at William Bull’s Academy at Newport Pagnell in 1786; he later supplied as minister of an Independent congregation at Woburn, Bedfordshire, 1789-1791. He then accepted the pastorate and remained there until 1797, after which he retired to Bishops Hull, Somerset. He was one of the first editors of the Evangelical Magazine, as well as one of the founders of the London Missionary Society (1795) and the Bedfordshire Christian Union (1797). His major publication was Memoirs of the Life and Writings of William Cowper, Esq. (1814). See Congregational Magazine 2 (1819): 56.

Green, Samuel (1796-1883)—The son of a Baptist minister in Norfolk, Green entered Stepney College in 1816 and in 1820 began his ministerial career at Falmouth, where he remained for four years. He then preached at Faringdon, Berkshire, for one year before removing to Thrapstone, Nortthamptonshire. He came to the Baptist church in Lion Street, Walworth, as assistant to John Chin, in 1834, becoming a member of the London Baptist Board in 1835. He served as senior pastor at Lion Street from 1841 to 1849, before retiring to Hammersmith in 1855. Among his publications is The Biblical and Theological Dictionary (1841). At various times he served as secretary to the Baptist Irish Society and Stepney College.  See Whitley, The Baptists of London, 143; Couling, “Biographical Dictionary, 1875-1889.”

Greenwood, Abraham (1749-1827)—Greenwood, originally from Barnoldswick, became one of John Fawcett’s first ministerial students at Wainsgate. Greenwood married Alvery Jackson’s daughter and became the first pastor at Rochdale in 1775. He removed to Dudley in 1780 and later to Oakham, where he ministered from 1787 to 1796. He then removed to South Killingholme, Lincolnshire, serving as pastor of the Baptist church there until his death in 1827. He was one of a select group of pastors who was present at the formation of the Baptist Missionary Society at Kettering in 1792. He was probably the son of John Greenwood, a deacon in the Baptist church at Barnoldswick. See Arthur S. Langley, “Abraham Greenwood, 1749-1827,” Baptist Quarterly 2 (1924-1925): 84-89; E. Winnard, The History of the Baptist Church, Barnoldswick, 1500-1916 (Burnley: [n. p.], 1916) 61.

Gregory, Olinthus (1774-1841)—Gregory, from Yaxley, Huntingtonshire, published Lessons Astronomical and Philosophical in 1796, an early indicator of his future prominence in the field of mathematics. That same year he arrived in Cambridge to work as sub-editor of Benjamin Flower’s Cambridge Intelligencer. He attended at St. Andrew’s Street and was baptized there, becoming a close friend of Robert Hall. He also operated a bookshop and a school, during which time he hired Newton Bosworth as his assistant. In 1803 he was became an instructor of mathematics at the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich, leaving Cambridge and turning his school over to Bosworth. In 1821 he was appointed professor of mathematics, having established himself as a preeminent authority by that time. By the time he retired in 1838, he had composed several scientific treatises, written about half the scientific articles for the encyclopedic work, Pantalogia (1808-1813), served as a member of numerous philosophical and scientific societies, and become widely known for his writings in Christian apologetics, such as Letters on the Evidences of Christianity (1811). For many years Gregory worshiped with the Baptist church at Maze Pond, Southwark. As the writer of his obituary in the Baptist Magazine writes, though Baptist tenets “were immovably fixed in his creed, and adopted after most extensive research and patient thought, yet no man ever held them with more pure and genial catholicity of feeling.” He frequently attended Anglican services in his later years, but was always an adherent of the principles of civil and religious liberty. He was widely known for his edition of The Works of Robert Hall (6 vols; 1832). Along with Joseph Hughes, F. A. Cox, and others, he was instrumental in the founding of University College, London University. See Baptist Magazine 33 (1841): 129-130, 268-273; DEB.

Groser, William (1791-1856)—The son of the Baptist minister at Watford, Groser entered the ministry in 1813 at Princes Risborough, followed by a long tenure at Maidstone (1820-1839). He removed to London in 1839 to become secretary to the Anti-Opium Society, for which he contributed a number of printed tracts. In 1838 he became editor of the Baptist Magazine; he would later serve as a member of the committee of the Baptist Irish Society, the London Baptist Board, the BMS, and the Religious Tract Society. He was also an early supporter of the Baptist Union. See Price, “The Early Years of the Baptist Union,” 127; DEB.

Grunden (Grindon), Richard (d. 1814)—He served 28 years as pastor of the Baptist meeting at Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire. He removed to the Baptist meeting in Ringstead, Northamptonshire, in 1798, where he remained until his death on 9 August 1814. See Baptist Annual Register, 1:3; 3:4; Baptist Magazine 6 (1814): 425.

Gurney, William Brodie (1777-1855)—Gurney succeeded his father, Joseph (1744-1815), as shorthand writer for the Old Bailey and for parliament; his older brother, John (1768-1745) (later Sir John Gurney) became a leading London lawyer, judge, and eventually Baron of the Exchequer in 1832. Between 1770 and 1816, the Gurneys were staunch Particular Baptists, first under Thomas Craner at Red Cross Street and then under James Dore at Maze Pond, Southwark. One of the leading Baptist layman of his day, W. B. Gurney helped form a Sunday school at Maze Pond in 1801 and in 1803 the London Sunday School Union, of which he was at various times secretary, treasurer, and president, remaining a part of the organization until his death. For many years he served as editor of The Youth’s Magazine, a cheap periodical devoted to religious concerns. He was involved with the British and Foreign Bible Society, treasurer of Stepney College (1828-1844), the Baptist Missionary Society (1835-1855), and the Particular Baptist Fund. He authored A Lecture to Children and Youth on the History and Characters of Heathen Idolatry. With Some References to the Effects of Christian Missions (1848), and edited the 15th and 16th editions of Thomas Gurney’s Brachygraphy (1824, 1835). Gurney’s daughter, Amelia, married Joseph Angus in 1841. Gurney’s son, Joseph (1804-1879) (who was for over 50 years a member of the committee of the Religious Tract Society and later treasurer of Regent’s Park College) succeeded his father as shorthand writer for parliament in 1849, remaining in that position until his retirement in 1872. At that time, his nephew, William Henry Gurney Salter, took over, continuing more than 100 years of service by members of the Gurney family as shorthand writers for parliament and the Old Bailey. See William Henry Gurney Salter, ed., Some Particulars of the Lives of William Brodie Gurney and his Immediate Ancestors. Written Chiefly by Himself (London: Unwin, 1902); A. C. Underwood, A History of the English Baptists (London: Baptist Union Publications Department, 1947) 146-147; DEB.

Guy, William (1739-1783)—Guy came to the Baptist meeting at Sheepshead, Leicestershire, in 1774, where he remained until his death in 1783. He immediately led the church into a revival; Sutcliff visited Guy in the autumn of 1774 to witness the revival for himself. John Ryland, Jr., preached Guy’s funeral sermon, Seasonable Hints to a Bereaved Church: And the Blessedness of the Dead, Who Die in the Lord (1783). See Haykin, One Heart, 83-84.

Hague, William (1736-1831)—Originally a Methodist, Hague was a native of Scarborough. He was baptized by Joseph Gawkrodger at Bridlington, and soon began preaching. He founded the Ebenezer church at Scarborough in 1771, a congregation in which both Baptists and Independents worshiped together. A chapel was built in 1777, with a gallery added in 1790. A letter from the church to John Rippon, dated 26 June 1796, noted that Hague was “advancing in years and almost blind.”  A second letter, dated 20 June 1798, commented that Hague had “a wife and three children at home,” living on a salary of only £30, a figure that, the letter surmises, “as our congregation increases, we hope it will be better.” Apparently, it did, for Hague would remain at Scarborough another 21 years. His financial situation may have improved as well, or he may have exemplified great generosity in his poverty, for in 1804-1805 he subscribed £1.8 to the Baptist Missionary Society. See Baptist Annual Register, 3:39; Periodical Accounts, 3:144; Ernest A. Payne, “A Yorkshire Story,” Baptist Quarterly 19 (1961-1962): 366-369.

Haines, George (d. 1780)—Haines, originally from Gloucester, was called into the ministry through the influence of Benjamin Francis at Horsley. Haines would serve as minister at Bethel Chapel (Baptist) in Shipley from 1771 until his death in 1780. Earlier ministers at Shipley included Joseph Gawkrodger (1758-1767) and Luke Collins (1769-1770). Under Haines’s leadership, the chapel was enlarged. He was succeeded briefly by Robert Gaze (1781-1782) and then by John Bowser (1782-1812). Eventually, Isaac Mann would pastor at Shipley, 1814-1826. See Bethel Church, Shipley, 1758-1958 (Shipley: n.p., 1958) 4-5, 20.

Haldane, Robert (1764-1842)—Along with his brother James (1768-1851), Robert Haldane was a leading figure in the evangelical revival of Scotland in the late 1790s and early 1800s. Originally a seaman, he retired early from his commission and used his wealth and estate to preach, train ministers, and establish evangelical churches throughout Scotland. Encouraged by their contacts with a number of English evangelical ministers, both Anglican and Nonconformist, in 1797 the two brothers founded the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel at Home, evangelizing primarily in the Highlands of Scotland. In 1798 James became pastor of a independent Congregational church (in many respects, a “nondenominational” church, as Brian Talbot describes it) in The Circus in Edinburgh, which shortly thereafter moved into a new building (seating 3200) called the Tabernacle Church. Robert purchased another Circus in Glasgow and converted it into a church as well. Fuller and Sutcliff preached to 4000 in Edinburgh and 5000 in Glasgow on a BMS tour of Scotland in October 1799. In 1808 he led his congregation into adopting Baptist polity, initiating a significant revival of Baptist work in Scotland through his preaching, philanthropy and publications. Robert Haldane served many years as minister of the Baptist church at Airdrie. See George Yuille, History of the Baptists in Scotland from Pre-Reformation Times (Glasgow: Baptist Union Publications Committee, 1926) 55-60; Lawson, “Robert and James Haldane,” Baptist Quarterly 7 (1934-1935): 276-285; George McGuiness, “Robert (1764-1842) and James Haldane (1768-1851),” ed. Haykin, in The British Particular Baptists, 2:219-235; Bebbington, ed., Baptists in Scotland, 9-47; Talbot, Search for a Common Identity, 73-114; for Fuller’s discussion of the Haldanes, see Fuller to William Ward, 23 May 1801, MSS. BMS, vol. 1, Angus Library, Regent’s Park College, Oxford. DEB.

Hall, Robert (1764-1831)—Raised under the tutelage of his father, Robert Hall, Sr., in the Baptist church at Arnesby, the younger Hall showed a remarkable precocity as a child. After a brief stay at John Collett Ryland’s academy in Northampton, he entered Bristol Academy at the age of 14. He eventually completed his A.M. at Aberdeen in 1785 while serving as classical tutor and assistant pastor to Caleb Evans at Broadmead and the Academy. After tensions developed between the two men in 1790, Hall preached that fall for two months in Cambridge, then for the first six months of 1791 before finally accepting the call to succeed Robert Robinson at St. Andrew’s Street in Cambridge in July of 1791. For most of that decade Hall would continue Robinson’s liberal tradition of freedom of conscience, allowing numerous Arians to remain within his congregation, all the while developing a ministry that would prove of great importance to himself and his denomination, both politically and ecclesiastically. Like Robert Robinson, Joseph Priestley, Richard Price, and his former Bristol mentor Caleb Evans, Hall bore an outspoken allegiance to the fundamental principles of political dissent, as his pen soon demonstrated, resulting in two classics of dissenting literature from the 1790s, Christianity Consistent with a Love of Freedom (1791) and An Apology for the Freedom of the Press (1793). His radical positions altered in the late 1790s (as did many reformers), and he turned his focus toward the threat of infidelity in his most famous publication, On Modern Infidelity (1800). He resigned from St. Andrew’s Street early in 1806 after a second mental breakdown; he quickly recovered, however, and in 1807 accepted the pastorate of William Carey’s former church in Leicester. He remained there until 1826, at which time he returned to Bristol to succeed John Ryland, Jr., as pastor at Broadmead and president of the Academy. He remained at Broadmead until his death in 1831. He argued in print with Joseph Kinghorn in 1816 about the terms of communion, and boldly defended the Framework Knitters Fund of Leicestershire in 1819. His most lasting notoriety during his lifetime, however, involved his preaching, which to many observers was unmatched by any other minister of his day. Olinthus Gregory published Hall’s Works, along with a Memoir, in 1832. See “Memoir” of Robert Hall in vol. 6 of Olinthus Gregory, ed., The Works of Robert Hall, A. M., 6 vols. (London:  Henry G. Bohn, 1834); Timothy Whelan, “Coleridge and Robert Hall of Cambridge,” Wordsworth Circle 31 (2000): 38-47; idem, “Robert Hall and the Bristol Slave-Trade Debate of 1787-1788," Baptist Quarterly 38 (1999-2000): 212-224; idem, ‘I have confessed myself a devil’: Crabb Robinson’s Confrontation with Robert Hall, 1798-1800,” Charles Lamb Bulletin, New Series 121 (2003): 2-25; DEB.

Hall, Robert, Sr. (1728-1791)—Originally from Newcastle-upon-Tyne, the elder Robert Hall was baptized and joined the congregation at Hexham in 1752, after which he entered the ministry and pastored at Arnesby from 1753 until his death in 1791. He was one of the leaders in the movement against High Calvinism in favor of a more evangelical ministry, which he set forth in his influential work, Help to Zion’s Travellers (1781). See Michael A. G. Haykin, “Robert Hall, Sr. (1728-1791),” ed. Haykin, in The British Particular Baptists, 1:203-211.

Hands, Thomas F. (c.1817-1870)—Hands came from the church in Cannon Street, Birmingham. After studying at Bristol Academy, he and his wife were appointed as BMS missionaries to Jamaica in December 1842. He worked at Staceyville, Mount Angus (with David Day), Yallahs, and beginning in 1847, at the second Baptist church in Montego Bay. In 1852, he returned to England, where he ministered to Baptist congregations at Salisbury  (1853-1856) and Luton (1857-1869) as well as serving for a time as traveling secretary for the Bible Translation Society.  He died in 1870 at the age of 53. See Clarke, Memorials, 194.

Hankey, William Alers—Hankey, a Congregationalist, was like his colleague John Poynder, a businessman actively involved in numerous evangelical associations during his lifetime. He worked closely with the Religious Tract Society for many years, assisting in the production of an early tract, Scripture Extracts. He devoted considerable volunteer time to proofreading tracts written in various languages, including Spanish, which he mastered during his later adult years. Hankey also served as treasurer of the Protestant Union in 1843. See Jones, Jubilee Memorial of the Religious Tract Society, 60; Baptist Magazine 35 (1843): 658.

Harjette, Thomas Lawrence—Harjette was a printer in London, initially at Burlington Arcade, Piccadilly (1821), and then at 29 Bedford Street, Covent Garden (1822-1828). He was listed as Harjette and Savil, 107 St. Martin’s Lane, Charing Cross, 1828-1832, and closed his printing career at 10 Craven Buildings, Drury Lane in 1843. Most likely he was a Baptist, for among his list of printed works (1822-1843) are circular letters of the Essex Baptist Association, sermons by Baptist ministers (at least one by Isaac Mann), and the 8th, 9th, and 10th Annual Report of the Baptist Society for Promoting the Gospel in Ireland (1822-1824). He also printed pamphlets for the American Colonization Society (involving Liberia), the first five volumes of the British Magazine, as well as an edition of the writings of George Washington. See William B. Todd, A Directory of Printers and Others in Allied Trade, London and Vicinity 1800-1840 (London: Printing Historical Society, 1972) 90.

Harmer, Thomas (1714-88)—Born at Norwich, Harmer was educated at Moorfields and immediately began his ministry as pastor of the Independent Church in Wattisfield in 1734, remaining there until his death in 1788. He compiled a detailed history of the Congregational churches & most of the dissenting churches in Norfolk & Suffolk up to the year 1774, a manuscript now at Dr. Williams’s Library, London. He was succeeded by Habbakuk Crabb, son of a deacon in the church and a native of Wattisfield (and the uncle of Henry Crabb Robinson, the famed diarist). See Harmer’s obituary in the Gentleman’s Magazine (1788), Part 2:1127.

Harris, John (1727?-1801)—Harris joined Broadmead in 1745, and served as a deacon from 1760 to 1801. For many of those years he served as chairman of the deacons. He wife was a cousin of Hugh Evans, his pastor for many years at Broadmead. Harris was a prominent merchant (a sugar refiner in Lewin’s Mead) and alderman for the City of Bristol, serving twice as Sheriff (1776, 1778) and once as Mayor (1790). John Ryland said of Harris, “When he was chief magistrate of this city in 1790, he was enabled to discharge the duties of that office with great fidelity and respectability, and ever since he maintained the highest character for diligence and uprightness in his civil capacity.” As a sugar refiner, he was closely connected to the West Indies market, fueled in Bristol by the slave trade. As a result, he eventually opposed his pastor, Caleb Evans, during the slave trade debate in Bristol in the late 1780s. See “Sketch of Dr. Ryland’s Sermon, preached at Broadmead, Bristol, May 31, 1801; Occasioned by the Decease of John Harris, Esq. One of the Aldermen of that City,” Baptist Annual Register 4:609; Timothy Whelan, “Robert Hall and the Bristol Slave-Trade Debate of 1787-1788," Baptist Quarterly 38 (1999-2000): 212-224; Roger Hayden, “Caleb Evans and the Anti-Slavery Question,” Baptist Quarterly 39 (2001-2002): 4-14; Hall and Mowvley, Tradition and Challenge, 40.

Harris, Joseph—Harris and his wife were appointed as BMS missionaries to Ceylon in 1837. After working with Ebenezer Daniel for a time at Columbo, Harris removed to Kandy, where he was joined by C. C. Dawson and his wife. The two missionaries planted churches and schools throughout that region of Ceylon, as well as establishing a printing press. Harris retired from the BMS in 1843 (note reference in letter 235) and returned to Great Britain. Carey, Oriental Christian Biography, 3:292; Cox, History, 2:322-324; 2:402.

Hartley, William (1740-1822)—Born in Wadsworth, Heptonstall, near Halifax, Yorkshire, Hartley was influenced early in life by his mother, a Methodist, and regularly attended Society meetings. Richard Smith, who preceded John Fawcett at Wainsgate, was another early influence upon Hartley. Shortly after his marriage to a Miss Halliwell in 1761, Hartley heard Dan Taylor, a General Baptist, preach a sermon that awakened him to an experiential awareness of his sin. He joined Taylor’s congregation, but his own reading of the Bible led Hartley to a Calvinist position. He left Taylor’s society and returned to John Fawcett’s at Wainsgate, where he was baptized and joined the church. Under Fawcett, Hartley was called to the ministry, and in 1771 removed to Halifax, where he faced many “unhappy circumstances” during his tenure there, including the death of his wife in December 1771. He was ordained in August 1772, and within a few years proposed to a woman in the church, but his choice of companion did not suit many in the church, and he was forced to resign. According to an anonymous obituary in the Baptist Magazine, “This interference, especially when the person he chose was an approved member of the church, was culpable in the highest degree.” He left in August 1776, and remarried that October. He removed to Bingley in late 1779, and in 1790 accepted a call to the church at Tuthill-stairs, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Before officially settling there, however, he returned once again to his old church at Halifax. He removed to Lockwood in 1795, and remained there ten years, before finally assuming the pastorate of the Newcastle church, which was once again destitute. After one year at Newcastle, he removed to Stockton-on-Tees, where he ministered until his death in 1822. As the obituary in the Baptist Magazine noted, “Ministers who pass through the world with less trial and affliction than the subject of this Memoir, may learn from his case, to whom they are to attribute their superior comforts. A more holy man than our deceased friend is probably not to be found on earth.” See Baptist Magazine 14 (1822): 500, 504.

Haweis, Thomas (1734-1820)—Originally from Redruth, Cornwall, Haweis was an Anglican evangelical, serving as rector at All Saints, Aldwincle, Northamptonshire, chaplain to Selina, Countess of Huntingdon (1774), and as joint founder, along with John Eyre and David Bogue, of the London Missionary Society (1795). He was widely known for his commentary, The Evangelical Expositor (2 vols; 1765-1766), and his Translation of the New Testament from the Original Greek (1795). See DEB.

Heighton, William (c.1752-1827)—Heighton was called into the ministry under Andrew Fuller at Kettering. He ministered to the Baptist meeting at Roade (a church in the Northampton Association) from 1786 until his death in 1827 at the age of 75. He was one of the original Northamptonshire ministers involved in the formation of the Baptist Missionary Society in 1792. See Payne, College Street, 12-17; idem, Roade Baptist Church 1688-1938 (London: Kingsgate Press, 1939).

 Henderson, John Edward (1816-1885)—Henderson studied at Stepney College before becoming a BMS missionary in July 1840. He began his work in Kingston, Jamaica, and later at Waldensia and Hoby Town. Henderson suffered from periods of poor health, spending considerable time in America in the 1850s. He remained a BMS missionary until 1881. See Clarke, Memorials, 180-181.

Hervey, Thomas (1741-1806)—A controversial Anglican evangelical clergyman, Hervey began his career as a curate at Rapside and then at Underbarrow near Kendal, where he was also a schoolmaster. He published a work on shorthand but gained considerable recognition for his work, Elementa Christiana, an exposition of the Thirty-Nine Articles.  He was at one point (as letter 14 demonstrates) accused by some of his fellow clerics before his Bishop of being too evangelical. See DEB.

Hewett, Edward (d.1883)—Hewett studied at Stepney College before he and his wife, Eliza, were appointed as BMS missionaries to Jamaica in 1842. During the next forty years he would pastor churches at Jericho, Mount Hermon, Mount Carey, the Second Baptist Church in Montego Bay, and Bethel Town. His first wife died in 1846; he next year he married Estheana Burchell (daughter of Thomas Burchell). Hewett died in 1883; his second wife in 1903. See Clarke, Memorials, 191-192.

Hewlett, James P.—The son of an Anglican minister, Hewlett was the initial pastor at the Baptist congregation at Salem Chapel, Dover, which formed in October 1839. Hewlett completed his ministerial studies at Rawdon College, Bradford, in 1835. He ministered at Kingsbridge, Devon, before accepting the call to Dover late in 1839. The church immediately organized a Sunday school and began supporting the BMS, contributing £25.11 its first year. In 1841 the church joined the East Kent Association of Baptist Churches, with Hewlett serving as moderator that year and as general secretary from 1842 to 1849. During his tenure at Dover, the church grew considerably and expanded its ministries with the addition of a choir, a Tract Society, a Sunday school library, as well as an itinerant preaching ministry among various nearby villages. Hewlett retained some vestiges of his Anglican upbringing during his ministry at Dover, even wearing a Genevan gown in the pulpit. In 1842 he was sought by Baptist leaders to serve as Joseph Angus’s assistant at the Baptist Mission House, but he declined (see letter 186). He remained at Dover for ten years before removing to the Beechen Grove Baptist Church in Watford in December 1849, where he continued his practice of wearing the Geneva gown, as well as expanding the service of praise (an organ was introduced in 1852) and moving the church from open communion to open membership. After nine years, he became a District Secretary for the British and Foreign Bible Society. He retired in 1874 to Wiltshire. See Buffard, Kent and Sussex Baptist Associations, 154; Beechen Grove Baptist Church, 10; Holyoak, Dover Baptists, 17-21; Payne, First Generation, 18; Stanley, History, 213.

Hill, Christopher—Hill was a deacon at the Ebenezer Baptist Chapel, Scarborough, where William Hague ministered from 1773 to 1824. In 1804, Hill subscribed to two BMS collections, one for Hull (£1.1) and one for Scarborough (£2.2.) In 1826, Benjamin Evans (1803-1871) commenced his distinguished pastorate at Ebenezer Chapel, marrying Hill’s daughter, Sarah, in 1828. See Periodical Accounts, 3:143, 144; Christine Paine, “Benjamin Evans of Scarborough 1803-1871,” Baptist Quarterly 21 (1965-1966): 174.

Hill, Rowland (1744-1823)—He was the 6th son of Sir Rowland Hill of Hawkstone Park, Shropshire. Sir Richard Hill (1732-1808) was his elder brother and influenced Rowland toward spiritual concerns at an early age.  After receiving his early education at Shrewsbury and Eton, he entered St. John’s College, Cambridge, in 1764. He graduated in 1769 and wanted to take orders in the church, but was refused by six bishops because of his irregular preaching habits. He was finally ordained in 1773 by the Bishop of Bath and Wells, and took a curacy at Kingston, Somerset. He continued to preach as an evangelist, and as a result was turned down for the priesthood. He became immensely popular among the people, however, and a chapel was erected for him in Wotton, Gloucestershire, and another in 1783 in London (Surrey Chapel), which became his preaching home for the rest of his life. He published his Village Dialogues in 1810 and was a promoter of many of the evangelistic endeavors of the day, such as being first chairman of the committee for the Religious Tract Society as well as a member of the British and Foreign Bible Society and the London Missionary Society. See DEB.

Hillyard, Samuel (1770-1839)—Minister at the Old Meeting at Bedford, 1790-1839, Hillyard was one of the early leaders of the Bedford Sunday School Union and Bedfordshire Union of Christians. John Brown considered Hillyard (often called the “Nonconformist Bishop of Bedfordshire”) to be “the animating spirit of the [Sunday school] movement from the beginning.” The son of Thomas Hillyard (1746-1828), minister of the Independent church at Olney (1783-1828), Samuel first preached at Bedford in late 1790, while completing his studies at William Bull’s academy at Newport Pagnall. He was ordained at Bedford in June 1792. Because he was an Independent, a number of the Baptist members (the Old Meeting had been a mixed congregation since Bunyan’s days) left to found the Third Church of Bedford in Mill Lane in 1793. Nevertheless, Hillyard developed close ties with Robert Hall of Cambridge and Andrew Fuller of Kettering, demonstrating a keen interest in the affairs of the BMS. Like his friend Samuel Greatheed, Hillyard was one of the founders of the Bedfordshire Union of Christians in 1797. The following letter from Fuller to Hillyard, dated 21 August 1798 (MS97:13, Spencer Research Library, University of Kansas), demonstrates Hillyard’s ecumenical view of missions:

My dr bro.r

      I sh.d be obliged to you if you c.d drop a line on Saturday, your Market day, if you have no opportunity before, to Bro.r Dickens of Keysoe, to inform him that I mean to call and spend a night with him, viz Friday Sep 7. and that if agreeable to him and his friends shall have no objection to giving them a Sermon that Evening. I knew of no method of conveying a Letter besides, or I w.d not have troubled you. To repay you for this trouble I will tell you a few particulars of a Letter fm Carey dated at different times fm June 22.97 to Jan.y 9.98 wh I rec.d last week. And I dare say our good friend Mr Livius w.d like to see it. They and their families are well, except that Fountain has been very ill of a fever & flux, of wh he was hardly recoverd. The natives of whom they have entertained hopes still persevere, tho’ not so zealous as at first. A new door has been opened for preaching the word at Dinagepore, the chief city in those parts of Bengal.  At that place there lives a Portuguese gentleman, a Mr Fernandez, originally designed for a popish priest, but who as he came to years of maturity c.d not approve of the idolatry of popery. Of late having heard of our friends, he sent to them for some books. They sent him Newton on the prophecies &c and afterwards visited him. He heard Mr Thomas preach, and entered so heartily into the doctrine as soon after to build them a place of worship at Dinagepore. It was publickly opened by Carey Thomas & Fountain in November last. They have engaged to preach there one Lords day in every month. It was Careys turn to be there on Lds day Jan.y 7. 98. It was the time of the Assizes. He preached in English one part of the day, & in Bengalee the other. Nearly all the Europeans in the City came to hear; among whom were the three Judges. They attended both parts of the day, & invited Mr Carey to dine with them. They had much conversation on the gospel, particularly the Mission. They appear to have known all our proceedings. A Period.l  Acc.t or else a Register had been sent over to India & handed about among the higher Circles. They appeared amicable. Some of the Interior Magistrates favour the translation of the scriptures.

A box of books wh we sent out in 94 and had almost given up for lost, and wh included a Polyglot bible, is now safe at Mudnabatty. A fount [sic] for types of the Country languages has been set up at Calcutta. Mr Carey conceiving that by this means a press might be set up at Mudnabatty, proposed it to Mr Udney, who highly approved of it, and gave orders for its being constructed. Powell is making the press, & men may be had fm Calcutta to work it.

Mr Udney understands Persic, as do most of the higher orders of people in India. On his looking over the Polyglot he found the Persic translation of the Pentateuch and four gospels. He immediately set some copyists to work to transcribe it for the press.

If a press can be established at Mudnabatty under Careys eye it will be a great object. We must appoint a banking house in London on which he may draw for Money, & then the generous benefactions of our friends will soon come into action. Upwards of 500£ has lately been received fm Scotland unsolicited.

                              Affec.y  y.rs  A. Fuller

See Brown, History, 77, 78; Tibbutt, Bunyan Meeting Bedford, 43-44.

Hindle, John (d. 1798)—Hindle was trained at Wainsgate by John Fawcett. After preaching for a time at Bingley, Hindle removed to the church at Pellon Lane, Halifax, where he ministered from 1779 to 1789, succeeding William Hartley. During Hindle’s time at Pellon Lane, the chapel was enlarged, the membership grew, and his salary was doubled. Unfortunately, Hindle’s personality clashed with many in the congregation, and “his irritable disposition led to his removal” in 1789, according to a church historian. He followed this with pastorates at Blackley (1791-1793) and Salt-house Lane in Hull (1794), where he succeeded John Beatson. He remained only one year and by 1798 was ministering at Cannon Street in Manchester, succeeding John Sharp. His tenure was short-lived, however, for he died that same year. See Baptists of Yorkshire, ed. Shipley, 68, 94, 101, 216; T. Michael, A Brief Historical Account of the First Baptist Church, Halifax (Halifax: S. N. Whitaker, 1890) 13; Dix, Strict and Particular, 34n.16. 

Hinton, James (1761-1823)—After completing his studies at Bristol Academy, Hinton became pastor of the mixed congregation at Oxford in 1787, where he would remain until his death in 1823. Due to a poor salary, he was obliged to operate a school as well. Despite poor health and a divided, often contentious, congregation, during Hinton’s ministry the church grew into a solid Baptist church (celebrating an open communion); the building was enlarged twice during his tenure at Oxford. He practiced his evangelical Calvinism not only within his own congregation, but also throughout the countryside by means of itinerant preaching. Unruly undergraduates frequently interrupted his services in Oxford, and in 1792 Dr. Tatham, Rector of Lincoln College, attacked Hinton in a pamphlet. He was also attacked by a mob and nearly killed by soldiers while preaching at Woodstock in 1794. Though accused of radicalism, he was a moderate Whig, supporting the Volunteers during the invasion scare of 1798, and in his later years becoming decidedly pro-government in the Napoleonic wars. He remained active in Baptist affairs, including support for the BMS, and was instrumental in the early formation of the Baptist Union. See R. Chadwick, ed., A Protestant Catholic Church of Christ: New Road Baptist Church, Oxford (Oxford: New Road Baptist Church, 2003) 107-136; DEB.

Hinton, John Howard (1791-1873)—The son of James Hinton of Oxford, J. H. Hinton served as pastor of the Baptist congregation at Devonshire Square in London from 1837 to 1863, after which he retired to Bristol. From 1841 to 1866 he served as secretary of the Baptist Union, and was president in 1837 and 1863. See DEB.

Hirst, John (1736-1815)— Hirst was born in Rochdale and converted through the preaching of the Methodists. He eventually adopted Calvinism and was brought by the Rochdale Methodists before John Wesley for preaching “erroneous sentiments respecting justification.”  Having lost his home among the Methodists, Hirst took up with the Baptists at Accrington, who quickly set him apart as a preacher. He preached for the church at Bacup during the illness of their pastor, Joseph Piccop, in 1772. A few months later Piccop died and on 31 December 1772 Hirst was installed as pastor; he would remain at Bacup until his death in 1815. His ministry was successful and a new chapel was opened in 1777 and enlarged in 1783, only to give way to an even larger chapel in 1812. A Sunday school was formed in 1811. Hirst was not averse to politics at times, for he noted in the church book on 4 September 1790, “Ask them [the deacons] how the money in the hands of George Hargreaves is to be disposed of, whether to the poor stock, or to be reserved for the colection  [sic] respecting the repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts.” The Baptist minister James Hargreaves published a biography of Hirst. See Overend, History of the Ebenezer Baptist Church, Bacup, 160-185.

Hoby, James (1788-1871)—The son of George Hoby, a boot maker and deacon at Andrew Gifford’s congregation at Eagle Street in London, the younger Hoby was trained at Bristol Academy, after which he served as assistant pastor at Maze Pond, Southwark, and as pastor at Weymouth, Birmingham (Graham Street), and Twickenham. Along with F. A. Cox, Hoby traveled to America in the 1830s to promote Baptist causes and the abolition of slavery, a trip that resulted in the publication of The Baptists in America (1836). He was actively involved with the BMS and served as chairman of the Baptist Union in 1851 and 1854.

Hogg, Reynold (1752-1843) in 1790. He would remain at Thrapston until 1808). H was present at the founding of the BMS at Kettering on 2 October 1792 and would serve as the Society’s first treasurer for many years.

Hope, Samuel (1760-1837)—Hope was a prominent banker in Liverpool, active philanthropist, and a member of the Baptist  congregation at Byrom Street. He founded the first Baptist Sunday school in Liverpool and the Liverpool Sunday School Union in 1815. A strong supporter of the BMS, he subscribed £5.5 to the support of the Society in 1804-1805. He also served for a time as the treasurer in England of the Serampore Mission. John Dyer described him as the “great stay of the Serampore Mission.” See Periodical Accounts, 3:145; J. Hughes, Liverpool Banks and Bankers 1760-1837 (London:  H. Young & Sons, 1906) 212; N. P. Hancock, “Healing the Breach: Benjamin Godwin and the Serampore ‘Schism,’” Baptist Quarterly 35 (1993-1994): 127; E. A. Payne, “The Necrologies of John Dyer,” Baptist Quarterly 13 (1949-1950): 309; DEB.

Hope, William—Like his relation Samuel Hope, William Hope of Liverpool was an active supporter of the Baptist Missionary Society, serving for many years as the director of the Yorkshire and Lancashire Auxiliary Society of the BMS. According to the list of monies received by the Treasurer of the BMS, collected from 1 May to 1 August 1819, William Hope collected £269.18. Carey wrote to Hope in 1830, informing him of the death of Ignatius Fernandez. Hope and his wife served as superintendents of the Byrom Street Sunday School in 1819, which ministered that year to over 400 children and some 30 adults. See letter 25 for a reference to William Hope of Pool Lane, which may be his father, for in 1804 a William Hope, Sr., subscribed £5.5 to the Society, with another £2.2 coming from William Hope, Jr. See Baptist Magazine 11 (1819): 411; Cox, History, 1:388-389; Evan Owen, “A History of the Liverpool Baptists” (MS., Angus Library, Regent’s Park College, Oxford); Periodical Accounts, 3:125.

Hopper, Richard (1738-1826), ministered at Friar Lane in Nottingham from 1769-1803. He first preached at Bishop Burton, near Hull, where he was the first person to supply the pulpit there. He was succeeded by David Kinghorn in 1771, with Hopper having already taken the position at Friar Lane in 1769, where he remained until June 1803. See Godfrey, John T., and James Ward. The History of Friar Lane Baptist Church, Nottingham. (Nottingham: H. B. Saxton, 1903), 198-99.

Horne, Melville (1761-1841)—Horne was an Anglican clergyman who played a prominent role in the beginnings of the missionary movement in England in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. He joined the Methodists in 1784 and the next year began preaching in Chester, where John Fletcher, vicar of Madeley, was superintendent.  Horne was ordained in 1786 and became curate at Madeley after Fletcher’s death; the next year Wesley appointed Horne superintendent for the new Wolverhampton circuit, which he maintained until 1791. In 1792 he became the second chaplain to the new colony in Sierra Leone; he did not stay long, however, returning to England in 1793. He quickly published Letters on Missions (1794), a work that advocated direct involvement by evangelicals in overseas missions. From 1796 to 1799 he was the vicar at Olney (where Newton had been), after which he served at Macclesfield, 1799-1811. In 1809, Horne, who had not preached in a Methodist meeting since 1792, came into conflict with Jabez Bunting, a future leader of the Methodists, which resulted in a controversial pamphlet by Horne, An Investigation of the Definition of Justifying Faith (1809). His career demonstrated the difficulties many individuals faced after 1800 in attempting to be both Anglican and Methodist. His later curacies were in Essex, Cornwall, and Salford. See DEB.

Horne, Thomas Hartwell (1780-1862)—Bibliographer, scholar, and prolific author, Horne was a lifelong resident of London. His first publication, A Brief View of the Necessity and Truth of the Christian Revelation, appeared in 1800, after which he joined the Methodists and became a bibliographer, primarily at the British Museum. He also served as a private clerk to Joseph Butterworth, M.P. for Coventry (1806-1809) and son of John Butterworth (1727-1803), Baptist minister at Coventry. Horne’s An Introduction to the Critical Study and Knowledge of the Holy Scriptures (1818) went through eleven editions by 1860. He became a curate in the Anglican Church in 1819, and eventually served as Prebend of St. Paul’s Cathedral from 1831-1862. See DEB.

Horsey, John (1754-1827) ministered to the Independent Meeting as Castle Hill, Northampton, from 1777 until his death in 1827. He also operated an academy there for many years as well. His ministry was popular at first, but charges of heterodoxy plagued Horsey throughout the late 1780s and into the 1790s, causing a decline in his congregation. Thomas Coleman, however, contended that Horsey remained a pious minister throughout his career, though his position on the nature of Christ remained vague at best in regard to orthodox doctrines. Nevertheless, Horsey manifested the spirit of devotion, and a humble reliance on Christ as the Saviour of sinners, and would be found ‘looking for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ to eternal life.’” See Thomas Coleman, Memorials of the Independent Churches in Northamptonshire (London, 1853), 31-32.

Horton, Thomas (1796-1877)—After studying at Bristol Academy, Horton preached briefly at Devizes before assuming the pastorate of the Baptist church at Morice Square, Devonport, where he ministered from 1820 to 1850. After his resignation, he remained in Devonport, eventually helping to found Hope Baptist Chapel, which opened in 1855. He retired in 1870. See Couling, “Biographical Dictionary, 1875-1889.”

Hughes, John—Hughes came to Brassy Green from the church at Wrexham in 1775. While at Brassy Green he also ministered to the small congregation of Baptists in Chester, where William Hartley was supplying in 1779. He suffered a stroke in 1777 and never regained his health, dying in 1783 at the age of 38.  During his illness the church suffered considerably.  See Margaret F. Thomas, Brassey Green & Tarporley:  A Baptist History (n.p., 1984) 8.

Hughes, Joseph (1769-1833)—Born in Yorkshire and trained as a youth at John Fawcett’s academy at Hebden Bridge, Hughes received his formal training at Bristol Baptist Academy, at King’s College, Aberdeen, and at Edinburgh University. From 1791 to 1796 he was classical tutor at Bristol, replacing Robert Hall; Hughes also served also as assistant pastor at Broadmead with Caleb Evans and John Ryland, Jr. He left Bristol for the Baptist church in Battersea, where he ministered from 1797 until his death. His greatest achievements lay outside his pastorate, however, providing the primary impetus and leadership in the founding of the Religious Tract Society in 1799 and the British and Foreign Bible Society in 1804. He served as a secretary for both societies for the remainder of his life. He also played a role in the founding of London University. See Leifchild, Memoir of the Late Rev. Joseph Hughes; DEB.

Huntington, William (1745-1813)—Huntington was a controversial High Calvinist preacher in London, first at the Providence Chapel (1782-1810) and later at the New Providence Chapel (1811-1813). A former coalheaver with little formal education, Huntington (his original name was “Hunt,” and he later added “S.S.” [“Sinner Saved”] to his new name) and his network of chapels would prove extremely problematic for London’s moderate Calvinists. A “self-called” minister, Huntington came to London from Kingston in 1782 and soon commenced construction of the Providence Chapel in Tichfield Street. He preached to upwards of 3000 hearers, earning an exorbitant annual income that approached £2000. He would later build other chapels in the London area, ministering to all simultaneously. He attracted large numbers of Baptists to his meetings, as well as Independents and followers of the Countess of Huntingdon, despite the fact that his hearers had to purchase a ticket in order to enter his chapels. His early life was full of scandals, and his ministry was plagued with controversy, primarily over his Antinomian tendencies. He was despised by the Particular Baptists and entered into pamphlet wars with Rowland Hill, Caleb Evans, John Ryland, Jr., and the Baptist poet and polemicist, Maria de Fleury. Despite his fervent denials, Huntington’s opponents accused the controversial preacher of being a High Calvinist antinomian. Though conversion by grace alone was a fundamental belief of all Calvinists, including antinomians, Huntington also contended that believers under the dispensation of grace were free from the requirements of the law. To de Fleury and other evangelical Calvinists, Huntington preached a gospel of “easy” grace which absolved the Christian of any obligation to obey God’s moral law, thereby granting the believer unlimited liberty in his or her behavior, a liberty evangelical Calvinists were convinced would inevitably lead to licentiousness. Nevertheless, Huntington’s antinomianism enticed large numbers of hearers away from London’s morally strict Baptist and Independent congregations and into his Providence Chapel, as well as his other chapels in Monkwell Street and Horsleydown. Though moderate Calvinists consistently attacked Huntington as a heretic and proselytizer, his influence remained strong as large numbers attended his services. See T. Wright, The Life of William Huntington, SS. (London: Farncombe, 1909); John Mee, “Is There an Antinomian in the House? William Blake and the After-Life of a Heresy,” Historicizing Blake, ed. Steve Clark and David Warrall (Houndsmills, Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1994) 43-58; Dix, Strict and Particular, 6-29; Timothy Whelan, “‘For the Hand of a Woman, has Levell'd the Blow": Maria de Fleury's Pamphlet War with William Huntington, 1787-1791,’” Women’s Studies 36 (2007): 431-454; DEB.

Hutchins, John (d. 1851)—After studying at Stepney College, Hutchins was set apart as a BMS missionary at Bedford in February 1834, arriving in Jamaica that April, where he began working at Savannah-la-Mar and Fuller’s Field. His wife died in 1838; he died as a result of a cholera epidemic in Jamaica in 1851. See Clarke, Memorials, 168-170.

Ivimey, Joseph (1773-1834)—Baptized by John Saffery at Wimborne, Dorset, Ivimey began as an itinerant preacher in Portsea before becoming pastor of a congregation at Wallingford. From 1805 to 1834 he ministered to the Baptist church in Eagle Street, London. He was instrumental in the founding of the Baptist Union in 1812, serving as secretary the remainder of his life. He also worked with the Baptist Irish Society, Stepney College, the Baptist Magazine, and the BMS. His chief publication was his four-volume History of the English Baptists (London: J. Ivimey, 1811-1830). See J. C. Doggett, “Joseph Ivimey (1773-1834),” ed. Haykin, in The British Particular Baptists, 3:113-131; DEB.

Jackson, Alvery (1700-1763)—Jackson was converted through the ministry of Thomas Dewhurst and baptized at Sutton-in-Craven in 1715. He later attended Baptist churches at Heaton and Rawdon. In 1718 he began ministering at Barnoldswick, where he was an early advocate of hymn singing. During his years at Barnoldswick, three men were called into the ministry:  Abraham Greenwood, John Tommas, and Richard Smith. He gained some notoriety for his involvement in a pamphlet war between some “evangelical” Calvinists and High Calvinists, 1737-1753. Participants in this debate (what was termed by them “The Modern Question”) included Matthias Maurice, Abraham Taylor, and Jackson, all promoting an evangelical emphasis within their Calvinism; John Brine and John Gill led the High Calvinists. Jackson’s contribution was The Question Answered (1752). He remained at Barnoldswick until his death in 1763. See Winnard, History, 49-50; 60-61; Hayden, Continuity and Change, 186-188; DEB.

Jackson, Samuel (1755-1836)—He was a currier and leather cutter in Little Windmill Street, London. He served as a deacon in the Baptist meeting at Unicorn Yard, Southwark, from the early 1780s until 1811. He audited the church’s financial accounts in 1785, and served as a Protestant Dissenting Deputy as well as a Messenger to the Particular Baptist Fund in 1807. He was a subscriber to the BMS in 1800-1801 and 1804-1805, at that time living in Hackney. In 1813 he served as a lay representative from Unicorn Yard to the first Committee in London of the newly established Baptist Union. Bristol Academy has a photocopy of a letter from Jackson, then living at 68 Lombard Street, London, dated 28 May 1795, to the Rev. Richard Furman, Baptist minister in Charleston, South Carolina (shelfmark G96, Box T). See Universal British Directory, 1/2:191; Unicorn Yard Church Book, f. 262r, 333r; Periodical Accounts, 2:205; 3:134; Price, “The Early Years of the Baptist Union,” 121-122; Payne, “Necrologies of John Dyer,” 308-309.

James, Isaac (1759-d. 28 Dec. 1828)Bristol, bookseller, was the son of Samuel James (1716-1773), Baptist minister at Hitchin. He came to Bristol in 1773 as a student at the Baptist Academy. He kept a shop as a bookseller, teadealer (and sometimes undertaker) first in North Street and then in Wine Street. He was a member of the Baptist meeting at Broadmead and served as classical tutor at the Baptist Academy in Bristol from 1796 to 1825. He was brother-in-law to the celebrated Baptist minister Robert Hall and to William Button, Baptist minister at Dean Street, Southwark, 1775-1815. During the late 1790s and early 1800s, James collaborated with Joseph Cottle in selling numerous works, mostly by dissenters. Among James’s own works were Providence Displayed: or, The Remarkable Adventures of Alexander Selkirk (1800). He also tried his hand at poetry, including The Pilgrim’s Progress. The First Part: Rendered into Familiar Verse (1815), as well as a polemical work, An Essay on the Sign of the Prophet Jonah (1802). See his obituary in Christian Penny Magazine (1829), pp. 326-28.

James, Samuel (1716-73)—Born near Litchfield, in Staffordshire, 4 August 1716.  His father, Rev. Philip James, was a native of Glamorganshire, born in 1664.  He went to Oxford to enter the church, but fell among some Baptists and was thereafter effectively disowned by his father.  In 1705 he became pastor at of the Baptist church at Warwick, then moved around some, and ended at Hemel-Hempsted, in Hertfordshire in, where he pastored until his death in 1748 at 84.  Samuel began school at Hempsted under the tutorship of Daniel Turner, who had been a student there as well under Samuel’s father.  Turner later became a significant Baptist minister at Abingdon.  (133-34). Eventually, after further schooling in various places, Samuel ended up in Hitchin on 31 October 1742, where he remained until his death. Isaac James includes a series of passages from Samuel’s diary in his Memoir and under Dec. 3 1759 he writes, “This morning set out for London in order to print the Experiences.  [Later published as An Abstract of the Gracious Dealings of God with Several Eminent Christians (London, 1760; 6th ed. 1786)]  Got safe to Newington.  Spent the evening with my friend Bowles.” (is this the same poet Bowles? On June 1, 1761,  Samuel preaches at Cambridge at the ordination of Robert Robinson from Heb. xiii.18, “shewing what great need ministers have of the peoples’ prayers.  Pray for us.  Found some freedom in pressing the exhortation.  Hope it was a comfortable opportunity.  Mr. Wallin gave the charge, and a very serious, suitable one it was.” On March 6 he notes that he “proposed the eldest son and two daughters of our friend Robinson to the church.  Remarkable that three out of one family should be brought in together” (148). On March 18, 1763, he writes: “Agreed to introduce hymns into the congregation and at the Lord’s table, which I have greatly wished’ (150). On 5 September 1770, the Baptist College in Rhode Island conferred on Samuel James the degree of M. A. Samuel James spent some time in Bristol in June 1772 “to try the effect of the waters” and recovered somewhat, but soon his health went bad again (he had the dropsy).  He died on 22 August 1773, at the age of 57 (154).  John Ryland, Jr., then at Northampton, preached for the church at Hitchin that day (to which Isaac adds, “and it is with heartfelt pleasure I add that he has been my highly esteemed pastor for more than thirty years”[154]).  John Ryland, Sr. spoke at the graveside ceremony, and Benjamin Wallin preached the funeral sermon, which was printed.  His wife, Mary Needham James, died in London in 1779 at the age of 65. Isaac says his father’s “sentiments were Calvinistic, but in his preaching he was rather practical than doctrinal, abut not to the neglect of the latter.  His library contained a rich treasure off the old Puritan divinity.  He lived on the most friendly terms with his Independent brethren at Hitchin, viz. the Rev. James Webb (once his fellow student) and his successor the Rev. Edward Hickman” (155).  He practiced Bunyan’s model of mixed communion. He had 11 children, of which Isaac was the youngest.  His oldest sister Mary Needham married Mr. William Burder of Fetter Lane Church, brother to the Rev. George Burder, pastor of that church; the second daughter Anna married the Rev. William Button, who was born in 1754, schooled at Ryland’s academy in Northampton, baptized there in 1767 with John Ryland, Jr.  Button took over for Samuel James at Hitchin in 1773, but since he was opposed to open communion, he could not stay and left in January 1774.  He then took over a group who had withdrawn from Carter’s Lane church upon the death of Dr. Gill, also over open communion, and they formed a new church at Dean Street, Southwark, with Button as pastor; John Rippon took over at Carter’s Lane.  Button pastored there for the next forty years, until his death in 1821 (155-156).  Rev. John Geard took over at Hitchin in 1775 and was still there in 1825!  See Isaac James,  Memoirs of the Rev. Samuel James, M. A, in An Abstract of the Gracious Dealings of God with Several Eminent Christians, in their Conversion and Sufferings.  Taken from authentic manuscripts, and published for the comfort and establishment of serious minds.  9th ed., with considerable additions, and memoirs of the author, by his son, Isaac James.  Bristol: I. James, 1824.

Jameson, William (1807-1847)¾Jameson arrived in Jamaica in 1835 as part of a contingent of missionaries sent out by the United Secession Presbyterian Church (Scotland). A presbytery was formed in 1836, and in 1841 a school for training ministers was opened in Goshen, directed by Jameson until 1846, when he departed for the new mission being started by the Presbyterians in Old Calabar, West Africa. He died there in 1847. That same year the Scottish Missionary Society transferred all its missionaries in Jamaica to the United Secession Church, which then became the United Presbyterian Church in Jamaica. John Clarke, who would later assist Jameson on his arrival at Fernando Po in January 1847, offers considerable praise for the Presbyterians and their work in Jamaica, despite his problem with Jameson in letter 231. See Clarke, Memorials, 225-230; Alexander Robb, The Gospel to the Africans: A Narrative of the Life and Labours of the Rev. William Jameson in Jamaica and Old Calabar (Edinburgh: A. Eliot, 1861) 263.

Jarman, John (1774-1830)—Jarman was originally from Clipston, the son of a tailor. In 1801, he moved to Oakham and joined the local Baptist church. He soon began lay preaching in Nottingham and Biggleswade, and in January 1804 the church at Biggleswade offered a trial pastorate to Jarman, but he declined in favor of accepting a call to the Friar Lane congregation at Notthingham. He arrived in Nottingham in April 1804, remaining as pastor until his death in 1830.  His only publication was The Duties of the Office of Deacons Explained and Enforced (1828). Jarman conducted a Sunday school for many years at Nottingham and often brought in other ministers to preach benefit sermons for the school. On 13 August 1809, Robert Hall preached the sermon. Jarman was successful during his tenure at Nottingham, and in August 1815 a new chapel was opened in George Street. Jarman also served on the BMS Committee in 1812. See John T. Godfrey and James Ward, The History of Friar Lane Baptist Church, Nottingham (Nottingham:  H. B. Saxton, 1903) 39, 47, 56, 199-203; Sydney F. Clark, “Nottingham Baptist Beginnings,” Baptist Quarterly 17 (1957-1958): 162-169; Cox, History, 2:221.

Jenkins, John (1656?-1733)—The grandfather of Joseph Jenkins (see below), John Jenkins was the primary minister of the Baptist congregation at Rhydwilym from 1689 until his death in 1733. By the turn of the century, Jenkins had become one of the leading Baptist ministers in Wales, acquiring some notoriety from his dispute with John Thomas, Independent minister at Llwyn-y-grawys, Llangoedmor, in 1691 over the question of baptism. Jenkins is believed to be the first minister to receive assistance from the Particular Baptist Fund in 1718. See Dictionary of Welsh Biography.

Jenkins, Joseph (1743-1819)—The son of a Baptist minister (Evan Jenkins) from Wrexham, Joseph Jenkins was educated in London and eventually studied at Aberdeen as a Ward scholar. He was baptized by Samuel Stennett at Little Wild Street Church in 1766. After a brief pastorate in an Independent church in Chester, he served for several years in London, tutoring ministerial students under the auspices of the Baptist Education Fund. He participated in the ordination of Abraham Booth at Little Prescot Street on 16 February 1769. He commenced his ministry as pastor of the Old Meeting (Baptist/Independent) in Wrexham in 1773. In 1793 he removed to Blandford Street, London, and in 1798 succeeded Joseph Swain at Walworth, remaining there until his death in 1819. He was awarded an honorary D.D. from Edinburgh in 1790. Among his publications are The Orthodox Dissenting Minister’s Reasons for Applying Again to Parliament (1772); The Christian’s Strength:  A Sermon Preached at Wrexham, in Denbighshire (Shrewsbury and London, 1775) (mentioned in letter 21); The National Debt, Considered in a Sermon, Preached at Wrexham in Denbighshire, February 21, 1781. Being the Day Appointed for a General Fast (Shrewsbury, 1781). See Kevan, London’s Oldest, 90; DEB.

Johns, William—A chemist and surgeon by trade, Johns was attending Carter Lane in Southwark at this time, although he did not become a member until 7 October 1804. He left England for India in 1810 with John Lawson to join William Ward at Serampore, raising £1200 for the Serampore Mission during their stay in America before arriving in India in 1813. He was to become the medical officer at Serampore during Nathaniel Wallich’s furlough in England; however, his application to the East India Company for residence in India was rejected, the last missionary to be so treated before the renewal of the Company’s charter that same year. He was forced to return to England immediately, and in December 1813 sent a letter to the Baptist Magazine about a service he attended during his brief stay at Serampore. In January 1814, he participated in the designation service of Eustace Carey at Northampton. He also published the first pamphlet in England on the practice of the sati (suttee), titled A Collection of Facts and opinions relative to the Burning of Widows with the dead bodies of their husbands, and to other destructive customs prevalent in British India (1816). He eventually returned to Serampore as a civilian and, like several of the other junior members working in Serampore, became disenchanted with the work of the Mission there, especially disliking the Marshmans. After failing to establish a medical practice at Serampore, coupled with poor health and the deaths of his wife and son, he returned to England in 1819. He published an account of his experiences in India, The Spirit of the Serampore Mission, in 1828, a work that contributed greatly to the split between the BMS and the Serampore group. His wife was Mary Blakemore, the sister of Martha Pearce, who was the wife of William Hopkins Pearce, the son of Samuel Pearce and BMS missionary in Calcutta. See letter 110; Baptist Magazine 6 (1814): 124-125; “Calendar of Letters,” Baptist Quarterly 7 (1934-1935): 42; R. W. Butt-Thompson, “The Morgans of Birmingham,” Baptist Quarterly 1 (1922-1923): 267; DEB.

Johnson, John (1706-1791)—Raised a General Baptist in Cheshire, Johnson became a High Calvinist Baptist and controversial founder of his own sect. After some very successful itinerant preaching among the Particular Baptist churches in the North West of England, Johnson accepted the call of the Byrom Street Chapel in Liverpool in April 1740. His increasing High Calvinism (and some Sabellian beliefs) began to stir dissension within the congregation, and when he returned from a tour of duty as a volunteer during the 1745 rebellion, a split occurred in the church. In 1747 Johnson took his followers and opened a new chapel in Stanley Street, becoming known as Johnsonian Baptists. Despite his High Calvinism, he remained busy as an evangelist and published a number of pamphlets, including The Faith of God’s Elect (1754), Evangelical Truths Vindicated (Liverpool, 1758?), and The Election of God Undisguised (1759). See Owen, “History of the Liverpool Baptists”; DEB.

Jones, David (1741-1792)—Jones was converted through the ministry of Howel Harris, a leading Welsh Calvinistic Methodist. Jones, however, soon joined the Particular Baptists at Pen-y-garn and in 1773 was ordained as assistant to Miles Harry. Jones would generally be associated with Pontypool. He published his first work in 1758, and in 1777 produced an elegy on Harris. Jones’s second wife owned property at Dol-goch, Newcastle Emlyn, and in 1785 he removed there, joining the Baptist meeting at Graig, Newcastle, and becoming co-pastor. He continued to maintain close ties, however, with the Calvinistic Methodists, especially Peter Williams and David Morris. In 1786 Jones began working with Williams on a Welsh edition of John Canne’s “pocket bible,” which had been widely used in its English form by Howel Harris and Miles Harry in the 1730s and ’40s. The efforts of Jones and Williams were widely supported by the Baptist Association in 1787 (not so by the Methodists, who expelled Williams in 1791). The work was finally published by the two Welshmen as Y Bibl Sanctaidd: Sef Yr Hen Destament a’r Newydd (1790), complete with glosses along each column. This is the work by Jones that John Ryland refers to in letter 34 as “Good News from Wales.” See Dictionary of Welsh Biography.

Jones, Noah (1725-1785)—Jones was born in Wales and studied at the Carmarthen Academy, c. 1742-1745. In 1745 he began his ministry at Newtown, Wales, before moving to the Pensnet Meeting in Cradley, Staffordshire, in 1748, where he remained until 1762. His final ministry was at Walsall, Staffordshire, from 1762 to 1784. See George Eyre Evans, Vestiges of Protestant Dissent (Liverpool: F. and E. Gibbons, 1897) 247; idem, Midland Churches: A History of the Congregations on the Roll of the Midland Christian Union (Dudley: “Herald” Printing Works, 1899) 91.

Jones, William (1762-1846)—Jones was the Liverpool publisher of Archibald McLean’s A Defence of Believer-Baptism, in Opposition to Infant Sprinkling. Originally from Denbighshire, Jones grew up in Cheshire, where he received a classical education. He was sent to Chester in 1780, working as an apprentice to a wine merchant. In the early 1780s he began worshiping with a group of Baptists that had recently begun meeting at Common-Hall Lane in Chester. In 1782-1783, however, Jones left for London, eventually working as a clerk for a Mr. Elderton (a Socinian) in Cheapside.  During his stay in London he usually attended the ministry of Abraham Booth at Little Prescot Street.  After only one year, however, he returned to Chester to work for a Mr. Thomas Crane, a member of the Baptist meeting there. In January 1786 he married Crane’s daughter. In October 1786 McLean preached for five weeks in Chester, staying with Jones and baptizing him and several others, moving the small Baptist congregation into the fold of the Scotch Baptists, which at that time could claim only one other congregation in England. In March 1793 Jones purchased a bookseller’s business, previously owned by his brother-in-law, in Castle Street, Liverpool, and began holding Sunday meetings in his home, although he may have occasionally attended Byrom Street under Samuel Medley. Sometime in 1796 or 1797, McLean came to Liverpool and, with the help of John Jones of Ramoth, helped organize a congregation of Scotch Baptists in Lord Street, with David Stewart Wylie and Jones as elders. During the next few years Jones edited two periodicals, The Theological Repository  (1800) and The Christian Advocate (1809). In 1812 Jones removed to London, where he joined the Scotch Baptist congregation, first at Red Cross Street and later in Windmill Street, Finsbury, serving as an elder. While in London he continued his work in the book trade, serving also as editor of the New Evangelical Magazine (1815-1824), The New Baptist Magazine (1825), The Baptist Miscellany and Particular Baptist Magazine (1827), and The Millennial Harbinger (1835). He authored several works during these years, including A History of the Waldenses (1811), A Dictionary of Religious Opinions (1815), The Biblical Cyclopoedia (1816), Christian Biography (1829), and The Works of Mr. Alexander McLean (1823). See William Jones, Autobiography of the Late William Jones, M.A. (London:  J. Snow, 1846); Dictionary of Welsh Biography; Owen, “History of the Liverpool Baptists”; Wilson, History and Antiquities, 3:325-326; R. Taylor, “English Baptist Periodicals 1790-1865,” Baptist Quarterly 27 (1977-1978): 50-82; DEB.

Keith, George (d. 1782)Keith joined John Gill’s congregation at Carter Lane, Southwark, in 1756. He was a bookseller and printer, first in Cheapside (1749-1753) and then at several locations in Gracechurch Street (1753-1782). He married John Gill’s daughter, and published many of Gill’s most important works. In 1774 (after Gill’s death), Keith and Joshua Warne, his friend and fellow deacon, both holding High Calvinist views, left Carter Lane and its new pastor, John Rippon, and joined William Button’s new congregation in Dean Street, Southwark. See Horsleydown and Carter Lane Church Book, ff. 22, 27.

Kilham, Alexander (1762-1798)—Founder of the Methodist New Connection, Kilham became one of Wesley’s traveling preachers in 1785 and handled several circuits in Lincolnshire and the East Riding of Yorkshire in the following years. After Wesley’s death in 1791, Kilham’s independent streak and anti-establishment thinking left him at odds with many in the Methodist hierarchy, and he was banished in 1792 to the Aberdeen circuit for his support of allowing non-ordained itinerant preachers to conduct the Lord’s Supper. He soon formed a group of Methodists (later called “Kilhamites”) who sought to break all ties with the Established church. The issue reached a crisis with Kilham’s publication in 1795 of The Progress of Liberty Amongst the People called Methodists, which advocated a greater voice for the laity than the movement was willing to allow.  At the Methodist Conference in 1796, Kilham was expelled for his “seditious” publication. He kept up his attack during his preaching tour of the north of England that year, as well as in his periodical, the Methodist Monitor (see letter 53). Kilham proposed some reform measures at the Methodist Conference at Leeds in 1797, but failed again, at which time he and a large group separated to form the Methodist New Connexion on 9 August 1797. About 5000 joined the first year, all from the north of England, comprising some 66 societies. Kilham was appointed the first secretary and established himself in Sheffield. In 1798 he moved to Nottingham to continue his duties as secretary, but on an itinerating trip he developed a cold and died. See DEB.

Kilpin, Samuel—Kilpin came out of the Old Meeting at Bedford, the same church from which his relation, William, had been called out in 1789. William was ordained at Bedford on 20 October 1790 and served as pastor of the congregation at Cotton-end in Bedford until his untimely death on 20 March 1791 at the age of 28. Samuel’s father, John Kilpin, was a member at the Old Meeting for more than fifty years, serving as a deacon for thirty years. At the time of letter 54, Samuel was still a student at Bristol Academy under John Ryland, but he was already doing supply preaching. He officially began his ministry at Leominster in 1801. From 1812 to 1829, he ministered to the Baptist congregation at South Street in Exeter, where Joseph Stennett had once served. Kilpin was a faithful supporter of the Religious Tract Society and the Baptist Missionary Society.  See H. G. Tibbutt, Cotton End Old Meeting, 1776-1962 (Bedfordshire: Cotton End Baptist Church; Rushden: S.L. Hunt, 1963) 15; Arthur Gabb, A History of Baptist Beginnings with an Account of the Rise of the Baptist Witness in Exeter and the Founding of the South Street Church (Exeter: Horsham, 1952) 36-37, 45; Memoir of Rev. Samuel Kilpin of Exeter, England; with Some Extracts from His Correspondence, to which is added His Narrative of Samuel Wyke Kilpin (New York: American Tract Society, [1835?].

King, Joseph – Baptist minister at Southill, died on January 14, 1785.

King, Thomas (1754/55-1831)—A grocer and chandler, King succeeded Reynold Hogg as treasurer of the BMS in 1795. He was a member at Cannon Street in Birmingham for forty-eight years and a deacon for forty years.  He would remain treasurer of the BMS until 1821, when William Burls, a member at Carter Lane, Southwark, succeeded him. King continued to serve on the BMS committee until his death in 1831. See Payne, First Generation, 60-67; DEB.

Kingdon, John (d.1855)—Originally from Devizes, Kingdon studied at Bristol Academy and began his work as a BMS missionary in Jamaica in 1831, serving initially at Savannah-la-Mar. Like many of the other BMS missionaries in Jamaica, he too was imprisoned in 1832-1833. Afterwards, he labored mostly in Machioneal until 1845, when he returned to England. He later served in Belize and Liberia (in collaboration with the Southern American Missionary Society), where he died in 1855. See Clarke, Memorials, 156-159.

Kinghorn, Joseph (1766-1832)—Shortly after he was baptized at seventeen by his father, David Kinghorn (a Baptist minister in Yorkshire), Joseph entered Bristol Academy. After a short stint at Fairford in Gloucestershire, he began his ministry at the Baptist meeting at St. Mary’s, Norwich, in 1789 and remained there until his death in 1832. He was involved in the local campaign to repeal the Test and Corporation Acts in 1790, and was troubled over England’s involvement in the war with France. Like numerous other Baptist ministers of his day, Kinghorn, an excellent scholar, also kept a school to train young men for the ministry. During his years in Norwich, Kinghorn was a member of the Speculative Society, a group of intellectuals (dominated by local Unitarians) devoted to the free inquiry of ideas. Though not a High Calvinist, Kinghorn was, however, a believer in closed communion, becoming embroiled in a controversy with Robert Hall in 1816 over the practice of open communion. Though not a prolific writer, Kinghorn still contributed a number of articles to the Baptist Magazine, the Eclectic Review, and the Evangelical Magazine. He was also a firm supporter of the BMS, speaking and traveling widely on its behalf. He played an active role in the effort to keep the Serampore Mission unharmed during the parliamentary debate in 1813 over the renewal of the East India Company’s charter. See M. H. Wilkin, Joseph Kinghorn of Norwich: A Memoir (Norwich: Fletcher and Alexander; London: Arthur Hall, 1855); Charles B. Jewson, “St. Mary’s, Norwich,” Baptist Quarterly 10 (1940-1941): 340-346; Dean Olive, “Joseph Kinghorn (1766-1832),” ed. Haykin, in The British Particular Baptists, 3: 81-111; DEB.

Kirtland, Charles (1811-1886)—Born an Anglican, Kirtland became a Baptist during his youth in Oxfordshire. He went into Christian work in the mid-1830s, working with the London City Mission in Holborn. He then worked for the Norwich City Mission for a time, before becoming the agent of the Baptist Home Mission for Nottingham, followed by a short term in a similar position in Newark. He also ministered to a Baptist congregation in Newark during the early 1840s, at one point seeking guidance from Joseph Angus about the possibility of foreign service, which did not materialize. He later preached at Sabden, Lancashire (1846-1851), before removing to Canterbury (1851-1865). From 1865 to 1874 he served as secretary of the Baptist Irish Society. He closed his career as minister of the York Road Baptist Chapel in Battersea, 1874-1883. See DEB.

Kitching, Christopher (d. 1819)—After his baptism in 1814, Kitching (John Ryland spells it variously “Kitchen,” “Kitchin,” and “Kitching”) became a student of John Trickett at Bramley before studying at Horton Academy under Steadman and Isaac Mann. He was apparently the first student to enter the foreign service from that school, being set apart, along with Thomas Godden, at Frome in March 1818. He and his wife sailed from Falmouth on 30 July 1818, reaching Jamaica on 18 September 1818; unfortunately, he died that December.  Mrs. Kitching returned to Yorkshire, where she would marry Isaac Mann. Two letters by Kitching from Jamaica appeared in the Baptist Magazine 11 (1819): 47, 410; see also Cox, History, 2:79-80.

Knibb, William (1803-1845)—Originally from Kettering, Knibb, along with his older brother, Thomas, moved to Bristol in 1816 to work with J. G. Fuller (Andrew Fuller’s son). The Knibb brothers joined the church at Broadmead and became Sunday school teachers. William was baptized there in 1822. Shortly thereafter, Thomas Knibb became a BMS missionary in Jamaica, but he died within a few months of his arrival. William promptly volunteered to take his place, sailing with his wife, Mary, for Jamaica in 1825. He first ministered at Savanna-la-Mar, then at Falmouth, from which the majority of his anti-slavery activities were conducted. Though discouraged by the BMS in London, Knibb was openly vocal in his opposition to slavery, and undoubtedly his activities were instrumental in provoking the Jamaica slave revolt of 1831-1832. Many of his followers were persecuted and imprisoned as a result of the uprising. After being held prisoner by the government, Knibb was released in February 1832, his chapels having suffered considerable damage. The criminal cases at Montego Bay against Knibb and his coworkers Thomas Burchell, Thomas Abbott, Walter Dendy, and Francis Gardner were eventually dropped.  Knibb returned to England and, along with Burchell and James Phillippo, spoke in churches and meetings across England, advocating the end of the persecution of the missionaries and slavery in Jamaica. His efforts led to the abolition of slavery throughout the British Commonwealth in 1834. He stated in June 1845 that the membership in his church at Falmouth was 1280; at Refuge, 780; Rio Bueno, 315; Waldensia, 746; Stewart Town, 813; Unity, 340; and Kettering, 200. See J. H. Hinton, Memoir of William Knibb (London: Houlston and Stoneman, 1847); Cox, History, vol. 2; Clarke, Memorials, 99-114; Tyrrell, “Moral Political Party,” 481-501; Wright, Knibb “the Notorious”; Gary W. Long, “William Knibb (1803-1845),” ed. Haykin, in The British Particular Baptists, 3:211-231; DEB.

Knight, James—Knight began his ministry at the Independent congregation at Bridewell Alley in 1791, succeeding John Rogers. In 1793 he moved to the Independent meeting in Nightingale Lane, London. He was formerly a member of the Independent church at the Weigh-house, and studied at Homerton Academy. He was a successful London minister for many years. Among his publications are The Utility of Seminaries for Religion and Learning:  With a View to the Christian Ministry . . . (1801); Christian Courtesy: A Sermon, Delivered at a Monthly Association of Congregational Ministers and Churches in Connexion with the Old College, Homerton, at Dr. Collyers’s Meeting House, Peckham, April 6, 1815 (1815); and Voluntary Subjection to God, the Genuine Liberty of a Rational Creature (1816). See Evangelical Magazine 2 (1794): 30.

Knowles, William (d. 1794) – ministered at Rushden, Northamptonshire, from 1752 until his death in 1794. The Rushden church was not a part of the Northamptonshire Association, although Fuller, Ryland, and others often preached there. See George E. Bayes, These Years Have Told: The Story of Park Road Baptist Church, Rushden (Rushden, Northamptonshire: Stanley L. Hunt, 1951), 13.

Lacroix, Alphonse Francois (1799-1859)—Originally from Switzerland, Lacroix served in Napoleon’s army for a time, but was converted and commissioned in Rotterdam as a missionary of the Netherlands Missionary Society, after which he was sent to the mission at Chinsurah, Bengal, where he arrived in March 1821. In 1825 Lacroix joined the London Missionary Society, working in villages in the south of Calcutta. He moved to Bhowanipore in 1837 to concentrate on native evangelism. He was a close friend of Alexander Duff, even though he disagreed with the latter’s promotion of English as the language of education. Lacroix spoke fluent Bengali and was an impressive figure among the missionaries in India in his day. See Lacroix’s memoir, Missionary Devotedness: A Brief Memoir of the Rev. A. Lacroix, of Calcutta, Thirty-Nine Years a Missionary to the Heathen (London, 1860). DEB.

Lancaster, Joseph (1778-1838)—Lancaster was born in Southwark, the son of a shopkeeper. In his early teens he became convinced he should serve as a missionary in Jamaica, and removed to Bristol, but was unable to afford the fare to Jamaica. He remained for a time in Bristol and eventually joined the Society of Friends. He returned to London in 1798 and opened a small school in Southwark that was to be free of charge, with payment strictly optional. The school became quite popular, but Lancaster found it difficult to employ teachers because of the unpredictability of funds. He then adopted the monitorial system used by another educator, Andrew Bell, in Madras, India, which eased his problem considerably. Lancaster developed an elaborate system of punishments designed to encourage the students through means of shame, but without corporal punishment. Within a few years Lancaster’s school had over 1000 pupils and began to receive national attention and financial support. In 1808, due to increasing debts, Joseph Fox, a dentist and member of the Baptist congregation at Carter Lane in Southwark, and William Allen, a Quaker, along with Samuel Whitbread, M.P., took over the management of the school. They proceeded to form the Royal Lancastrian Society, whose aim was to create similar non-sectarian schools throughout England, none of which were to be controlled by the Church of England. By 1810, fifty schools had been formed, educating over 14,000 pupils. In 1816 a disagreement between Lancaster and his trustees led to a separation and the formation of a separate school by Lancaster in Tooting. The school failed and Lancaster, now bankrupt, emigrated to America, where he continued to form new schools, some as far away as Canada and Venezuela, all of which were unsuccessful. He died in New York in 1838. Among his writings are Improvements in Education, as it Respects the Industrious Classes of the Community (1803), Instructions for Forming and Conducting a Society for the Education of the Children of the Labouring Classes of the People, According to the General Principles of the Lancastrian or British Plan (1810), as well as The British System of Education Being a Complete Epitome of the Improvements and Inventions Practiced by Joseph Lancaster . . . (1810). See Carl F. Kaestle, Joseph Lancaster and the Monitorial School Movement; A Documentary History (New York: Teachers College Press, 1973).

Langdon, Thomas (1755-1824)—Originally from Devon, Langdon attended Bristol Academy, after which he worked a short time as an assistant to Daniel Turner at Abingdon before assuming the pastorate of the Baptist church at Leeds in 1782. He remained there the rest of his life, operating a school for most of those years. He was influenced theologically by Andrew Fuller and Robert Hall, the latter his friend and fellow student at Bristol in the late 1770s. He published a sermon on church constitution and terms of communion in 1790 and wrote a circular letter for the Yorkshire association in the summer of 1791. In March 1790 Langdon received an invitation from the Rev. J. Biggs, Baptist minister at Swift’s Alley, Dublin, to preach for the Dublin General Evangelical Society, the object of which was “to prevail upon, and defray the expenses of, such ministers as should be approved, to make visits to that country, to preach under their directions, whenever it should be thought practicable, either in town or country, with the hope of stirring up the people to regard their immortal interests.” In November 1790, after Biggs’s sudden death, the church at Swift’s-Alley sent a letter by William Allen to Langdon asking him to become their pastor, but Langdon declined. He was an ardent abolitionist and political reformer in the late 1780s and early 1790s, serving on the Yorkshire committee of Dissenters for the Repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts as well as assisting William Wilberforce in sending petitions from northern England to parliament in 1791 to protest the continuation of the slave trade. Langdon published The Obligations of Christians to Support a Conversation Becoming the Gospel in 1795. He was also a bookseller during much of the 1790s, and during 1795-1797 served as the distribution agent in Leeds for Benjamin Flower’s newspaper, the Cambridge Intelligencer. Langdon would also be instrumental in the formation of the Northern Education Society in 1804. See Mary Langdon, A Brief Memoir of the Rev. Thomas Langdon, Baptist Minister, of Leeds (London: Simpkin and Marshall, 1837) 21, 23, 44-47; F. W. Beckwith, “The First Leeds Baptist Church,” Baptist Quarterly 6 (1932-1933): 72-82; Hayden, Continuity and Crisis, 237; DEB.

Law, John, began his ministry as pastor at Weston-by-Weeden, Northamptonshire, in 1791, his ordination occurring on September 20, 1791, with Fuller, Ryland, and Sutcliff present, one month after Carey’s ordination at Leicester by the same three ministers. He remained at Weston until 1805. See Joseph Lea, Historical Sketch of the Baptist Church at Weston-by-Weedon (Northampton: Taylor & son, 1868), 14.

Lawson, John (1787-1825)—Lawson moved to London at sixteen to become a wood engraver and artist. He attended the Baptist meeting at Eagle Street and through the preaching of Joseph Ivimey was called to be a missionary. He left London in 1808 to study with Sutcliff in Olney. He returned to London and joined the Baptist church in Eagle Street, serving an apprenticeship with a Mr. Colwell in an effort to become a miniature painter. He also published some poetry during this time (see letter 89). After his marriage to Frances Butterworth (she was a member at Devonshire Square), Lawson and his new wife sailed for Calcutta, accompanied by William Johns and a Miss Chafin, early in 1811. After a considerable stay in America, the new BMS missionaries arrived in India on 10 August 1812. Lawson was to begin working with the printing department at Serampore, cutting types, Johns to assist Wallich, the medical doctor (see Johns above). The East India Company rejected Johns, but Lawson was allowed to stay, primarily because Marshman intervened on his behalf, claiming his skills were needed in creating Chinese fonts. Lawson would eventually leave the Serampore group and join the other junior BMS missionaries in Calcutta—Eustace Carey, William Yates, James Penney, W. H. Pearce, and William Adam. Lawson spent most of his time there as co-pastor (along with Eustace Carey) of the Baptist church in Calcutta, and later as pastor of the second Baptist church on Circular Road. He was also involved with the school in Calcutta, run by his wife and Mrs. Pearce, providing instruction in writing, grammar, composition, geography, and drawing. An excellent musician and poet, Lawson was best known for his work in perfecting certain fonts used in publishing Bengalee and Chinese works. In a letter to Joseph Ivimey, dated 30 July 1813, Lawson states that since his arrival in India he had been principally engaged as an artist, teaching drawing in the school at Serampore and even being offered money by the local Europeans for his work. Lawson also composed Woman in India, a Poem (London: Samuel Lawson [and others], 1821), of which ‘Part 1. Female Influence’ appeared that year. He writes in his Advertisement, dated March 20, 1820, from Calcutta, ‘It is the design of the poem to exhibit in some slight sketches, woman, with respect to the influence she possesses – the excellency to which she may attain – the state of degradation in which she is sometimes found – and the obligations, especially of the Christian female, to lift the voice of pity against the revolting miseries of her sex in these heathen lands’ (viii). He does not see the them as ‘foreign to the character of poesy,’ but believes ‘that in a poetical dress it might obtain admittance to the consideration of many who are in general but little disposed to the perusal of more formidable compositions’ (ix). See Lawson’s letters in the Baptist Magazine Baptist Magazine 6 (1814): 172-173; 11 (1819): 134-137, 541-544; also Cox, History, 1:225, 233-324, 333-335; DEB.

      Lee, Richard ‘Citizen’ —Some of his poems from Flowers from Sharon (London, 1794) originally appeared in the Evangelical Magazine in 1793-94 under the signature ‘Ebenezer’. Lee appears in Edwin F. Hatfield’s The Poets of the Church (New York, 1884), pp. 384-85, who described his theological sentiments as ‘thoroughly orthodox’. In Henry Colbourn’s Biographical Dictionary of the Living Authors of Great Britain and Ireland (London, 1816), he is briefly described as ‘a political and religious fanatic’ (200).

Leland, John (1754-1841)—A Baptist from Massachusetts, Leland was inspired by the ministry of Elhanan Winchester. Leland preached throughout Virginia from 1773 to 1790, baptizing over 600 persons. He returned to Massachusetts in 1791 and devoted himself primarily to his writing. He was an outspoken advocate of religious liberty, freedom of conscience, and separation of church and state. He was an admirer of Thomas Jefferson, and is thought to have influenced James Madison’s political understanding of the separation of church and state. His Virginia Chronicle, with Critical Remarks under 24 Heads, was advertised in the Baptist Annual Register, 1:324. Among his other notable publications are The Rights of Conscience Inalienable (1791) and The Government of Christ a Christocracy (1804). See Brackney, ed., Historical Dictionary, 255; DEB.

Lepard, John Pelly (d. 1796)—Lepard worked with his father, William Lepard, as a London stationer, rag merchant and paper maker. The elder Lepard operated shops in Tooley Street, Upper Thames Street, Southwark, and at 26 Newgate Street from 1784 to 1788, at which time the younger Lepard joined the firm. John Pelly Lepard moved to 91 Newgate Street in 1789, and his father joined him there in 1792. After the younger Lepard’s death in 1796, his father moved the firm to 103 Shoe Lane. James Smith, a deacon at Little Wild Street and a messenger for many years to the Particular Baptist Fund, along with his son, John James Smith, were both watchmakers in Bunhill Row. He is probably the same James Smith who joined with William Lepard in 1792 in operating a printing and bookselling business at 14 Bridges Street, Covent Garden, remaining with Lepard until 1798. William Lepard, Sr., John Pelly’s grandfather, joined Carter Lane, under John Gill, in 1717 and died in 1799, aged 99; William, Jr., joined in 1755. Among the junior Lepard’s earliest printing jobs (1758-1766) were various works by Gill. All three Lepards were prominent members of Carter Lane, Southwark. See Universal British Directory, 1/2:211; Horsleydown and Carter Lane Church Book, 1719-1808 (MS., Metropolitan Baptist Tabernacle, London) ff. 22, 27, 33-35; Maxted, London Book Trade, 137, 208; Christopher Woollacott, A Brief History of the Baptist Church in Little Wild Street, Lincoln’s-Inn Fields, from 1691 to 1858 (London: Houlston and Wright, 1859) 41.

Lewis, William Garrett (1797-1865)—Lewis was born at Margate; he first began preaching at Sandwich, Kent, and in 1824 became pastor of the Baptist church at Chatham, where he remained for 18 years. In 1842 he succeeded James Smith as pastor at Cheltenham, remaining there until 1864, when he retired to Weston-super-Mare. While at Cheltenham, a new chapel (Salem Chapel) was built.

Lindsey, Theophilus (1723-1808)—After resigning his living in the Church of England following the failure of the Feathers Tavern Petition in 1772, Lindsey became one of the leading Unitarians of his day and founder of an influential Unitarian congregation in Essex Street in London, where he ministered from 1778 to 1793, when he was succeeded by John Disney. He wrote numerous defenses of Unitarianism, including A Historical View of the State of the Unitarian Doctrine and Worship from the Reformation to Our Own Time, with Some Account of the Obstructions it has met with at Different Periods (1783) (a reply to Robert Robinson’s Plea for the Divinity of Christ). He also wrote An Apology on Resigning the Vicarage of Catterick, Yorkshire (1774) and its sequel in 1776, mentioned in letter 21. See G. M. Ditchfield, Theophilus Lindsey: From Anglican to Unitarian (London: Dr. Williams’s Trust, 1998).

Lister, James (c.1779-1851)—Originally from Glasgow, he served as pastor of the first “English” Baptist church in Scotland, formed in Glasgow in 1801, with James Deakin (see letters 98 and 133) as one of his deacons. In 1803 Lister removed to the newly formed Baptist church in Lime Street (the result of a split in the congregation at Byrom Street after the death of Samuel Medley), where he would remain until 1847, by which time the church had moved to a new chapel in Hope Street. Thomas Raffles preached his funeral sermon on 30 November 1851. See Yuille, History, 60-61; “Calendar” 138; Halley, Lancashire: Its Puritanism and Nonconformity, 535-536; Bebbington, ed., Baptists in Scotland, 33; Talbot, Search for a Common Identity, 118, 122; Thomas Raffles, “The Perfect and Upright Man”: A Funeral Sermon for the Rev. James Lister delivered in Myrtle Street Baptist Chapel, Liverpool, on Sunday Morning, Nov 30, 1851 (Liverpool: Egerton Smith, 1851).

Llewelyn, Thomas (1720?-1793)—A Welshman, Llewelyn studied at Bristol Academy and Homerton Academy, London, prior to his ordination at Little Prescot Street, Goodman’s Fields, c. 1747. He chose to establish himself in London as a teacher of ministerial students, becoming the primary tutor for the newly founded London Baptist Educational Society (1752-1759). His immediate successors were Joseph Stennett, Joseph Jenkins, and William Clarke of Unicorn Yard. He continued to support the LBES, leaving £100 to the Society at his death. He bequeathed his library, however, to Bristol Academy. Llewelyn’s main achievements were his important historical studies of Welsh versions of the Bible and his work with the Society for the Propagating of Christian Knowledge (and other groups) in distributing Welsh Bibles. See Arnold H. J. Baines, “The Pre-History of Regent’s Park College,” Baptist Quarterly 36 (1995-1996): 193-196; Hayden, Continuity and Crisis, 238; DEB.

Lowell, Samuel (1759-1823)—Lowell was born in Birmingham and trained to be an engraver, but as a young man was called to be a Methodist itinerant preacher. He first preached in the Methodist connection in Yorkshire at Stainland (1781-1786) and Brighouse (1786-1789), where he was ordained in 1786. In 1789 he became a Calvinist, ministering to the Independent meeting at Woodbridge, Suffolk, from 1789 to 1799. While there, his preaching became “attractive and popular … and soon became known beyond the sphere of his immediate ministrations.” After some preaching engagements at the Tabernacle in Bristol in 1798, he was invited to preach for a season at Bridge Street, where he formally commenced his pastorate in the summer of 1799, remaining there until his death in 1823. The church experienced considerable growth under Lowell’s leadership. In 1801 he published Sermons on Evangelical and Practical Subjects, Designed Chiefly for the Use of Families, and in 1802, at the cessation of the war with France, The Blessings of Peace, a sermon preached in Bristol on the national day of thanksgiving. John Leifchild succeeded Lowell at Bridge Street. The following excerpt from a letter by the Rev. David Edwards of Ipswich to Samuel  Lucas (see below) at Shrewsbury, dated 9 March 1790, notes Lowell’s removal to Woodbridge: 

Mr Lowell from Halifax succeeds Mr Palmer at Woodbridge. He was formerly in Mr Wesley’s connection, but saw reasons to join the congregational churches—is a lively preacher and an agreeable talent at extempore preaching, lively and conversible in company—I was, at what is calld, his settlement in Novr last—There was a large and a respectable congregation—your friend Waldegrave preachd or rather went into the pulpit to laugh at us, or to make folks laugh; but, I assure you I was very serious, and often vexd—He took a noble text viz. To me who am less than the least of all saints &c—We expected to hear something of the unsearchable riches of the gospel, but we had very little of that—It was the most crude and undigested discourse as I have heard for many years—However there were some useful sentences deliverd now and then—His attempts at being witty were like Solomon’s fly in the ointment. But I would not be too severe—Our Christian tempers shd be like the windows narrow without, but very wide within. (Eng. MS. 369, f. 40, JRULM)

See also M. Caston, Independency in Bristol: With Brief Memorials of its Churches and Pastors (London: T. Ward, 1860) 102-111.

Lucas, Samuel (1748-1799)—Originally from Bury St. Edmunds in Suffolk, Lucas was educated at Mile End and Homerton Academy between 1768 and 1773. He began his ministry at Walsall in 1773 before removing to the Independent chapel at Swan Hill, Shrewsbury, in July 1779. He would remain there as pastor until a paralytic seizure led to his retirement in May 1797 and his death in 1799. See Ernest Elliot, A History of Congregationalism in Shropshire (Oswestry: Woodall and Minshall, 1898) 24.

Mack, John (1797-1845)—Originally from Scotland, Mack was educated at Edinburgh University and Bristol Academy. Recruited by William Ward during Ward’s furlough in England in 1819-1820, Mack was eventually appointed as a BMS missionary in 1821. He became a professor of science at the newly founded Serampore College in November 1821, and in 1824 the Serampore Press issued his highly regarded Principles of Chemistry, the first modern science text in an Indian language.  Mack also taught Greek, Latin, and Hebrew, as well as mathematics and natural sciences. Mack and Marshman produced the periodical, The Friend of India, in 1835. He served as Principal of Serampore College from 1837 to 1845. See Cox, History, 1:355-366; DEB.

McLean, Archibald (1733-1812)—McLean, a Scotsman originally trained to be a printer, first came under the influence of the Sandemanian John Glass, and retained some of his principles throughout his ministry. He came to Baptist convictions c.1763-1764 and was baptized by John Gill in London in May 1765. In 1768 McLean moved to Edinburgh and became an elder in a Scotch Baptist church there. In 1785 he entered the ministry full-time, and traveled widely in an effort to increase the Baptist witness in Scotland and elsewhere. Through his efforts, the Scotch Baptist Connexion came into being. His writings were influential in the Scotch Baptist cause as well, especially his The Commission Given by Jesus Christ to his Apostles, Illustrated (1786). He also wrote the first work on believer’s baptism in Scotland (mentioned in this letter) and generally maintained a strict rigidity in his doctrinal views that often led him into disputes with other Baptist ministers. Despite his differences, McLean was a strong supporter of the BMS in its early years. See “The McLeanist (Scotch) and Campbellite Baptists of Wales,” Transactions of the Baptist Historical Society 7 (1920-1921): 147-181; DEB.

Maddock, Abraham – The former curate at Creaton, the Rev., was known for his evangelical ministry, assisting in the founding of the Baptist church at Guilsborough, with others who attended his ministry eventually joining the Baptist church at Clipston and Walgrave, according to an entry in the Walgrave church book by Alexander Payne after Maddock’s death on May 30, 1784. See W.A. Wicks, Concise History of the Baptist Church, (Walgrave (Northampton: Taylor & Son, 1892), 24.

Madgwick[e], William—Baptized at Broughton, along with Thomas Purdy, in 1769, Madgwick later studied at Bristol Academy.  His first preaching experience was at Unicorn Yard, which he supplied after the departure of William Clarke in 1784.   According to the Unicorn Yard Church Book, Madgwick preached for five Sundays, after which the church met on Sunday, 22 January 1786, and invited him to preach again in June. Madgwick preached for five Sundays that summer, but the church decided not to pursue him as a candidate any longer.   An entry in the Church Book notes, “it being observed by the repeated absence of both members & hearers; not with that satisfaction to the Church or congregation as could be wished—the Sentiments of the Brethren & Sisters present being taken & being nearly unanimously returned to be that Mr Madgwicks ministry had not been acceptable not being useful—agreed that the above be conveyed him in the most tender & respectful manner by the Officers of the Church who are also directed to present him with the Churches most affectionate wishes.”  Joseph Jenkins turned down an offer from the church during this time.  Daniel Williams left his church in Preston and assumed the pastorate at Unicorn Yard in January 1787. Madgwick then went to Foulmire [Fowlmire], Cambridgeshire, where a dissenting congregation was formed in 1781.  Joseph Harrison came to preach to them in 1782, but some problems in his ministry led to a group leaving and forming a Baptist meeting at Harston, which Harrison led.  After Harrison’s removal, the church at Foulmire called Madgwick in 1787 as pastor.  He was replaced by Thomas Smith of Bedford in 1795.  While at Foulmire, Madgwick subscribed to Robert Robinson’s Ecclesiastical Researches (1792). See Broughton Church Book, Angus Library, Oxford; Unicorn Yard Church Book, ff. 265-69; “Statistical View” 504.

Mann, Isaac (1785-1831)—Born at Bridlington, Yorkshire, Mann was the first student trained at Horton Academy, Bradford. He was ordained at Halifax in 1809. After two years, he resigned and removed to the Baptist meeting at Burslem, Staffordshire. After that he pastored at Shipley, not far from Bradford. He returned to Horton as classical tutor in 1816, becoming joint secretary of the Northern Education Society in 1822. In 1826 he accepted the call of the congregation at Maze Pond, Southwark, where he remained as pastor until his death in 1831.  A significant collection of his letters resides at the National Library of Wales. See “Calendar of Letters”; DEB.

Mardon, Richard (1775-1812)—Mardon and his wife Rhoda were appointed as BMS missionaries to India in 1803. Like the Bisses, the Mardons had been members at Plymouth Dock, and Mardon had likewise studied under Sutcliff at Olney. The Mardons, along with Joshua Rowe, John Biss, William Moore, and their families, sailed from Bristol for Serampore (via America) in December 1803. Mardon worked briefly with Chater in Rangoon, but by February 1808, due to health reasons, he had removed to Malda in Bengal. Mrs. Mardon died in India in 1811; Richard Mardon died in Burma in 1812. See Cox, History, 1:137, 224-325; “Sutcliff’s Academy,” 277; DEB.

Marshman, John Clark (1794-1877)—Educated at Serampore and later in Europe, J. C. Marshman returned to Bengal to assist his father, Joshua Marshman (see below), and William Ward in the printing of periodicals at Serampore. In 1827-1828 the younger Marshman published his Dictionary of the Bengalee Language, establishing his reputation as an Oriental scholar. In 1835 he revived the Friend of India, and in 1840 founded the Bengal Government Gazette. After the death of his father, the younger Marshman, along with John Mack, took over the operations of Serampore College. In 1848 he published his famous History of Bengal. He retired to England in 1855, where he published his Life and Times of Carey, Marshman, and Ward (1859) and his History of India (1863-1867). In 1868 he was awarded the Star of India by Queen Victoria. See DEB.

Marshman, Joshua (1768-1837)—Originally a weaver, Marshman left that trade as a young man to teach at the Broadmead charity school in Bristol; he would become a student at Bristol Academy in the late 1790s. Influenced by Carey’s writings on India, Marshman and his wife, Hannah  (1767-1847), sailed with Ward, Brunsdon, and Grant in 1799 for Bengal, where Marshman became a valuable part of the Serampore Trio. Though not a great preacher, he was an excellent organizer, becoming the Mission’s chief secretary in dealing with the East India Company. He also became the chief developer of the various educational wings of the Mission, helping to found Serampore College in 1818 as a place where nationals could be trained to replace missionaries. Marshman developed a keen interest in the Chinese language and wrote several important works in Chinese, including a translation of the Bible that was completed in 1822. He was also involved with Ward in numerous publishing ventures of the Mission. Not always easy to get along with, Marshman’s personality led some younger missionaries to associate more with Eustace Carey and the Calcutta Mission after 1818. While on furlough in 1827-1828, Marshman, along with Christopher Anderson of Edinburgh, superintended the separation of the Serampore Mission from the BMS, a rift not healed until 1838. See A. Christopher Smith, “Joshua (1768-1837) and Hannah Marshman (1767-1847),” ed. Haykin, in The British Particular Baptists, 2:237-253; DEB.

May, John (1814-1894)—May was ordained to the ministry at the Baptist church at Saltash, Cornwall, in 1837; in 1840 he was appointed as a BMS missionary to Jamaica. May and his wife initially worked in the mountain station at Bethsalem, but in 1844 moved to the church at Lucea in the Hanover parish. The Mays returned to England for health reasons in 1852, with May once again ministering to the Baptist church at Saltash. See Clarke, Memorials, 182-83.

Medley, Samuel (1738-99)—Medley spent his early years in Warwick, where his father served as an assistant at J. C. Ryland’s academy. Converted after a period as a wartime sailor, Medley was baptized in 1760 and soon after began his ministry as pastor of the Baptist congregation at Watford (1762–1772) before moving to Byrom Street in Liverpool, where he remained until his death. The congregation experienced considerable growth during Medley’s tenure. Medley was noted for his preaching abilities, as well as his numerous hymns. See B. A. Ramsbottom, “Samuel Medley (1738-1799),” ed. Haykin, in The British Particular Baptists, 1:235-49; DEB.

Medley, Samuel, Jr. (1769-1857)—Son of Samuel Medley of Liverpool (see previous entry), the younger Medley became a noted painter. He entered the Royal Academy in London in 1791 (he was a student at one point of Sir Joshua Reynolds) and first exhibited the following year. Initially he painted religious and historical subjects, but later became known primarily for his portraits. By 1805 his health precluded his continuing his painting full-time, and he turned to the stock exchange, from which he would maintain a comfortable living the remainder of his life. He was a member at Carter Lane under John Rippon between 1798 and 1812, and thereafter worshiped at Hackney under F. A. Cox. He was an active participant in the early years of the Baptist Union and supporter of the BMS from its earliest days. Along with Cox, Joseph Hughes, and many other prominent London Nonconformists and Anglicans, Medley was instrumental in the founding of University College, London, in 1826. In 1818, he married Elizabeth Smallshaw (his second wife), daughter of John Smallshaw of Liverpool (see letter 39). See Price, “The Early Years of the Baptist Union,” 121-123; Horsleydown and Carter Lane Church Book; DNB.

Merrick, Joseph (1818-1849)—Merrick and his father, Richard (1790-1841), were the first native missionaries to work with the BMS, being set apart during a special service in February 1839 at the Baptist church in Jericho, Jamaica. Both father and son desired to go with John Clarke to West Africa, but the death of Richard precluded that event. Nevertheless, Joseph Merrick sailed for England in August 1842 to make preparations for the new work in Fernando Po. From August 1842 through May 1843, Merrick traveled across England promoting the West African mission. On 14 June 1843, he and his wife, along with Dr. Prince and his wife, joined Alexander Fuller on a ship bound for Fernando Po, arriving there on 6 September 1843. Merrick began his work in Bimbia, establishing a printing press in Jubilee Town in 1845, from whence he published portions of the Bible in several native dialects. Poor health forced his return to England in October 1849. Unfortunately, he died on board ship on 22 October 1849. See Clarke, Memorials, 204-210; David Killingray, “Black Baptists in Britain 1640-1950,” Baptist Quarterly 40 (2003): 69-89; DEB.

Millard, Benjamin (d. 1875)—After studying at Stepney College, Millard arrived in Jamaica in November 1840. He initially worked with Thomas Abbott at St. Ann’s Bay, and after 1846, at Falmouth and several surrounding churches. He remained with the BMS until 1872. See Clarke, Memorials, 181-182.

Moffatt, Robert (1795-1883)—Moffatt served as a missionary to South Africa for the London Missionary Society, 1817-1870. He returned to England on furlough in 1839, at which time he supervised the printing of the New Testament and Psalms into the Sechwana language. He traveled and preached throughout England 1840-1842, meeting a young David Livingstone in the process. He sailed for South Africa on 30 January 1843, remaining there until 1870, when he returned to England in retirement. In 1857 he completed the translation of the Old Testament in Sechwana. See Albert Peel, A Hundred Eminent Congregationalists 1530-1924 (London: Independent Press, 1927) 84-85; DEB.

Moore, William (1776-1844)—Moore and his wife, Eleanore, were members of the church at Stogumber (at that time known as Stoke Gomer), Somerset, under Robert Humphrey. Moore studied for a time at Sutcliff’s academy at Olney before completing his training at Bristol Academy. He and his wife were appointed as BMS missionaries to India in 1803, along with the Rowes, Bisses, and Mardons. They all sailed to Serampore from Bristol (via America) in December 1803. After working in Serampore and Bankipore (near Patna), the Moore’s settled at Digah in Bihar, were they formed a new church in March 1812. Mrs. Moore (the former Eleanor Hurford of Taunton) died in August 1812, after which William Moore married Hannah Biss (d. 1818), whose husband, John, had died in 1807. Moore retired in 1839 and died in 1844. See Cox, History, 1:137, 150-151; “Sutcliff’s Academy,” 277; DEB.

Morgan, Thomas (1776-1857)—Originally from Crinow in Pembrokeshire, Wales, Morgan entered Bristol Academy in 1792. He succeeded Samuel Pearce as minister at Cannon Street in Birmingham in 1802, remaining as pastor until 1811. He married Ann Harwood, daughter of John Harwood (d. 1792). The elder Harwood moved to Birmingham from London in 1778, becoming a successful grocer and chandler in partnership with Thomas King (1755-1831). Both men served many years as deacons in the Baptist church at Cannon Street. Morgan resigned in 1811 due to poor health, but in 1815 became the afternoon lecturer at the Baptist church in Bond Street, Birmingham. He became co-pastor with Edward Edmonds in 1820 and served as pastor from 1822 to 1846. He spent his final years in retirement at Church Hill, Handsworth. See Arthur S. Langley, Birmingham Baptists Past and Present, 34-35, 129-130; Butt-Thompson, “The Morgans of Birmingham,” 263; Baptist Annual Register, 1:495-496; Couling, “Biographical Dictionary, 1800-1875.”

Morris, John Webster (1763-1836)—A printer by trade (a vocation he maintained throughout his ministry), Morris began preaching at Clipston in 1784, not far from Carey’s church in Moulton. He joined the BMS committee in 1793, and later edited and printed the BMS’s Periodical Accounts from 1798 to 1809.  In 1802 he removed to the Baptist church in Dunstable, Bedfordshire. After the death of his wife, he developed personal problems mostly as a result of substantial indebtedness. He left the pastorate in 1810, but continued to write and print religious works, as well as preaching on special occasions, much to Fuller’s dismay. Fuller wrote to William Ward on 16 July 1809 that “Poor Morris … is ruined. His pride and extravagance since he has been at D. is beyond anything. He must have sunk the greater part of £1000 in those few years … And now he acts dishonourably to his creditors … and yet goes about preaching!” Among his publications are the Memoirs of . . . Andrew Fuller (1816) and Biographical Recollections of the Rev. Robert Hall (1833). See Payne and Allan, Clipston Baptist Church, 10-12; Fuller to Ward, MSS. BMS, vol. 1, Angus Library, Regent’s Park College, Oxford; DEB.

Morse, Jedediah (1761-1826)—Morse ministered for many years to the Congregational Church in Charlestown, Massachusetts. He was an ardent Federalist, evangelical, and religious writer, assisting in the founding of Andover Seminary, the American Tract Society, and the American Bible Society. He authored America’s first geography, The American Geography; Or, A View of the Present Situation of the United States of America (1789), and in 1790 came out with his important History of America. One of his sons was Samuel F. B. Morse, inventor of the Morse code. See DEB.

Mullett, Thomas (1745-1814)—Mullett was initially a prosperous paper-maker and stationer in Bristol at 18 Bristol-back. He married Mary Evans (1743?-1800), the daughter of Hugh Evans (and Sarah Browne) and sister to Caleb Evans, ministers at the church in Broadmead. At some point in the late 1780s or early 1790s, Mullett removed to London, where he began operating as an American agent in partnership with his wife’s nephew and his son-in-law, Joseph Jeffries Evans (1768-1812). At the time of Mullett’s death in 1814, he was residing in Clapham; he was buried at Bunhill Fields, with John Evans, General Baptist minister at Worship Street, London, delivering his funeral sermon. During his time in London, Mullett and his son-in-law, J. J. Evans, became close friends with the diarist Henry Crabb Robinson. Mullett and Evans appear frequently in the early volumes of Robinson’s diary.

           Originally a Quaker from Taunton, Mullett became a member at Broadmead on 9 May 1769. He soon joined with a select group of men in Bristol and the West Country in founding the Bristol Education Society on 7 June 1770; he served as the Society’s secretary from 1770 to 1778. The Broadmead Subscription Book for 1772-1813 notes that Thomas Mullett paid his pew rents regularly until 1788. Mullett, like Caleb Evans, Robert Hall, and many other members at Broadmead in the 1780s and ’90s, was an ardent advocate of political reform in England and the revolution in America, where he visited on three occasions and met numerous individuals of  “high respectability,” including a meeting with General Washington at Mount Vernon in 1783. As his obituary in the Gentleman’s Magazine notes (an excerpt taken from John Evans’s Address, on the Resurrection of Christ, Delivered in Bunhill-fields, Wednesday, November 23, 1814 at the Interment of Thomas Mullett), during Mullett’s years in Bristol he was heavily involved in the Whig political reform movement. “Few understood better than did Mr Mullett the rights of the subject; none advocated with more manly firmness the principles of civil and religious liberty, which he knew included in all their ramifications the prosperity of mankind. His intellectual powers were of a superior cast . . . Having taken a comprehensive view of what was offered to his consideration, his mind was not harassed by any puerile vacillations; but, conscious of the firmness of the ground on which he stood, he prosecuted his object till it was accomplished. Hence it was that he was looked up to by a number of respectable characters, and not unfrequently, occupied in matters of arbitration between his fellow-citizens in the commercial world.”

           During the late 1760s, Mullett became friends with General Horatio Gates, famed military commander for the American forces during the Revolutionary War, when Gates resided in Bristol, 1766-1770. Four letters from Mullett to Gates, written between 1791 and 1794 and now in the possession of the New York Historical Society, reveal Mullett’s passion for parliamentary reform in England and his sympathy with the French Revolution. Mullett (who apparently served as Gates’s business liaison in England) writes to Gates, at that time living in America, on 17 September 1791, “You’ll be happy to hear that the French Revolution is Compleat, by the Kings having adopted the Revisd Constitution and declaring that he will maintain and defend it against all domestic or foreign foes—That Paris shall be his Residence as he is at length Convinced it is the wish of the Nation that the reform should be as universal as the National Assembly have made it. A decision this, that is full of mortification to the Aristocrats, and death to all hopes they had so long Cherishd of a Counter Revolution. In addition I suppose all the Kings in Europe are in Secret Mourning!”  He then adds, “We have had a revival of the old Cry of Church & King, and down with the Dissenters—and this fury has been Cherishd by the Clergy in many furious pulpit harangues and pamphlets—the disorder broke out at Birmingham, but has been very much check’d by the hangmen at Warwick and Worcester, who were immediately applied to on this Occasion, and who administered with their usual alacrity.”  Mullett writes again to Gates on 24 November 1791, informing Gates about the latest meeting of the London Revolution Society, a meeting Mullett attended. After relating details of some business with a Mr. Jones and Charles Harford, two former friends of Gates who were now, according to Mullett, “infected with the . . . Contagion” of Toryism,” Mullett provides a fascinating account of the current political scene from the eyes of an optimistic, reform-minded Baptist dissenter. France, he says, “is progressing to the perfect establishment of a System that has dethrond despotism, and which has conveyd a Shock to the heart of every tyrant in this quarter of the Globe. Our Court looks with a proportion of Astonishment, and coldly expresses their acquiescence in the French Kings Acceptance of the New Constitution. They also tremble at the idea of reform—they know it is necessary, but fear to begin, uncertain of the Event. In the present reign it may be force—in the Next it may be more gradually accomplishd. There is an encreasing Spirit of approbation of the French—and a visible decay of Old prejudices. You would have felt an elevation at the Revolution Society at the London Tavern on the 4th November. 300 set down in the great Room to dinner; amongst them some of the ablest, and most distinguished of the last National Assembly, particularly M.r Pethion, who is just elected successor to M.r Bailly Mayor of Paris. He made a short speech of Congratulation to Englishmen on the examples they had often given the World of a hatred of Tyrants; he spoke with all the plainness, and firmness of a Republican, and with all the dignity of a Man. Common Sense Paine was invited—his health was drank, with thanks to him for his able defence of the Rights of Man; on which he thankd the Society, & proposd as a toast—the Revolution of the World! The Republic of North America, and its first Citizen, was amongst the most applauded toasts; and Connected with one expressive of a Wish, that “Revolutions may never Cease—while the Cause of them exists!”  I attended on an invitation of an Old Acquaintance, and Member of the Society, and have never witnessd a popular Assembly of more decorum, or with so much of the “feast of reason, and the flow of Soul.” A Variety of letters, and addresses, from Societies, in France, were read, and Conveying such general information, and expressing such sentiments, as prove in my Opinion, that a people so well informd on the principles of freedom, and who have so gloriously asserted them, Cannot again degenerate into Slaves! I intended you half a [Sheet] as this, but you will be tird with a whole one. The subject must be my Apology—You, my dear Sir, have felt the inspiration of it. May you live to enjoy much of that felicity in the Western World, which your efforts contributed to obtain, as well as to hear of, and to applaud that spirit which is extending the freedom & happiness of Europe.”  See “Memoirs of Mr. Thomas Mullett, by the Rev. John Evans,” Gentleman’s Magazine 85 (1815, Part 1): 83-85; Sketchley’s Bristol Directory, 1775 (Bristol: James Sketchley, 1775) 68; “Alphabetical List of Members in 1802,” f. 31; Broadmead Subscription Book, no. 3; Account of the Bristol Education Society, 24; Moon, Education for Ministry, 7, 137; Horatio Gates Papers, New York Historical Society, microfilm edition, 1979.

Newman, William (1773-1835)—Newman was heavily influenced by John Collett Ryland while serving as a tutor at Ryland’s Academy at Enfield. In 1792 Newman was baptized and two years later ordained as a Baptist minister. He assumed the pastorate of the Baptist congregation at Old Ford, Bow, that same year and remained there until his death in 1835. Like so many other Baptist ministers, he too doubled as a schoolmaster, both at Bow and Bromley, Essex. In 1810 he was appointed President of the newly formed Stepney College, a position he held until 1827. Among his publications are A Manual for Church Members (1825) and Rylandia (1835). See Cooper, From Stepney to St. Giles, 26-59; DEB.

Newton, James (1733-1790)— Originally from the Maze Pond church in Southwark, Newton became the assistant pastor to John Tommas at the Baptist congregation in the Pithay, Bristol, in early 1758, where he would remain until his death in 1790. He also served for many years as the classical tutor at Bristol Academy. During his time in Bristol, Newton boarded in the home of Robert Cottle, Joseph Cottle’s father. Cottle considered him his "most revered and honoured friend," a scholar whose "learning was his least recommendation." "Many an evening," Cottle remarks in his Reminiscences, "do I recollect to have listened in wonderment to colloquisms and disputations carried on in Latin between Mr. Newton and John Henderson." Newton was also Hannah More's private instructor in Latin and assisted in editing of many of her works. He willed his library to the Museum at the Baptist Academy. He also composed a number of hymns. See Joseph Cottle, Reminiscences of Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Robert Southey (London:  Houlston and Stoneman, 1847) 53; Henry Sweetser Burrage, Baptist Hymn Writers and their Hymns (Portland, ME: Brown, Thurston, and Co., 1888), pp. 64-65; DEB.

Newton, John (1725-1807)—Newton was originally a sea merchant trafficking in the slave trade. He was converted during a storm on a voyage in 1748; however, for a number of years he continued to captain slave ships. From 1755 to 1760 he was surveyor of the tides in Liverpool and began to exercise his spiritual gifts in meetings in his home, even entertaining George Whitefield. Newton became a Calvinist at this time, but was friendly to John Wesley, numerous dissenters, as well as his Anglican evangelical friends. Newton tried to obtain orders in the church but was rejected; he contemplated becoming a dissenter, but eventually attained the curacy at Olney in 1764. During his years in Olney, Newton became friends with the poet William Cowper (they collaborated on the Olney Hymns in 1779) and John Ryland, Jr., one of his favorite correspondents. In 1780 Newton became curate of St. Mary Woolnoth in London, remaining there until his death in 1807. He influenced a number of Anglican evangelicals, including Charles Simeon, Hannah More, and William Wilberforce. His autobiography, An Authentic Narrative (1764), was immensely popular, as well as his hymn, “Amazing Grace.” See L. G. Champion, “The Letters of John Newton to John Ryland,” Baptist Quarterly 27 (1977-1778): 157-163; DEB.

Nichols, William—A hosier by trade, Nichols had once been a deacon in the Baptist church at Friar Lane in Nottingham. In 1807 he became pastor of the Baptist congregation at Collingham, replacing Thomas Latham. He remained as pastor until his death in 1835. During his time at Collingham he assisted in the formation of the Baptist meeting at Sutton-on-Trent, and preached regularly at Besthorpe and Girton. The Collingham church hosted several meetings of the Baptist Missionary Society during Nichols’s tenure, with sermons preached there by John Sutcliff, Robert Hall, and William Steadman. The Collingham Church Book notes that Nichols discharged his duties “faithfully and affectionately” and was always “ready to employ his efforts in promoting the cause of Christ both in this and other places, assisting in the support of most religious institutions, and owning a readiness to help neighbouring churches who stood in need of his aid, and to whom it pleased God to grant a considerable portion of success during his ministry among us, and was the principal cause of establishing the Baptist interest in Sutton-on-Trent, and which cause was chiefly supported by him for more than twenty years.” See F. M. W. Harrison, The Story of the Collingham Baptist Church in the County of Nottinghamshire (Newark: Collingham Baptist Church, 1970) 10-11.

Okely, Francis (1719-1794)—Okely was born at Bedford and educated for the Anglican ministry at Cambridge. After leaving Cambridge, he founded a religious society in Bedford, initially associating with the Baptists, but by 1743, through the influence of John Cennick, he had joined the Moravians and removed to Germany. He returned to England and preached in Bristol for a while, and later in Manchester, Ashton, and Stockport. In 1757 he returned to Bedford and became affiliated with the Methodists again, but by 1767 he was preaching once again in a Moravian church in Northampton. During his years there (at which time John Ryland, Jr., became acquainted with him), Okely translated numerous works by German writers, including Boehme, Engelbrecht and Hiel. He eventually rejected trinitarianism and the atonement, and came to believe in continued prophetic revelation. See Protestant Dissenters Magazine 1 (1794): 336; DEB.

Oughton, Samuel—Oughton and his wife, Hannah (the niece of Mrs. Thomas Burchell), were appointed as BMS missionaries to Jamaica in 1835, where they initially worked with the Burchells in the parish of Hanover. In 1840 the Oughtons removed to Kingston.  Like Tinson, the Oughtons were also in England on furlough in 1843. Mrs. Oughton died in 1862; Samuel Oughton labored in Jamaica until 1866, after which he retired to Brighton, England. See Clarke, Memorials, 171-174.

Overbury, Robert William (1812-1868)—Overbury studied at Stepney College c. 1830-1833, after which he co-pastored with Joseph Ivimey at Eagle Street in London for one year before assuming the pastorate in 1834, a position he retained until 1853. He later ministered at Morice Square, Devonport (1853-1856), and Salem Chapel, Morice Town, Devonport (1856-1859). He served for many years as a member of the committee of the Baptist Union and the London Baptist Board; he was also a co-founder of the Baptist Tract Society. See Baptist Magazine 33 (1841): 636; DEB.

Page, Henry (1781-1833)—Page served as assistant pastor at Broadmead as well as secretary and tutor at Bristol Academy from 1802-1817. He was the son of John Page, Esq., a prominent member of the Broadmead church and sheriff of Bristol in 1795, the same year Henry was baptized and joined the church. After studying at Bristol for a time, he took an M.A. at Marischal College, Aberdeen, in 1800. He married Ann Selfe in 1802; they had three sons and seven daughters. After his departure from Bristol, Page served as minister of the Baptist church in Worcester until 1827, when he left for the Continent, leaving behind his wife and children. He died in France in 1833.  See Hall and Mowvley, Tradition and Challenge, 43-44.

Palmer, John (1768-1823)—Originally trained in medicine, Palmer succeeded William Smith as pastor of the Baptist congregation at Shrewsbury in 1794, remaining in that capacity until 1822. He worked on several occasions for the Particular Baptist Case Committee and the Committee for Village Preaching in the 1790s. His account of a tour to Ireland appeared in the Baptist Annual Register, 4:656-659.

Parker, John (1725-1793)—Converted under the preaching of William Grimshaw of Haworth, Parker spent several years as a teaching elder of the church at Barnoldswick under Alvery Jackson. Upon Jackson’s death in 1763, Parker succeeded him as pastor, remaining at Barnoldswick until 1790. He removed to Wainsgate, but after one year as minister of the Baptist meeting there, his health failed and he died in 1793.  See Winnard, History, 61-62; Evangelical Magazine 2 (1794): 392-394; J. H. J. Plumbridge, “The Life and Letters of John Parker,” Baptist Quarterly 8 (1936-1937): 111-122; John Parker, Letters to his Friends, by the Rev. John Parker … with a Sketch of his Life and Character, by John Fawcett (Leeds: Thomas Wright, 1794). 

Parsons, George—In August 1838, two weeks after his ordination, George Parsons (from Laverton, near Frome) married Sophia Rawlings of London. They soon departed for Calcutta as BMS missionaries on the Moira, arriving there in late February 1839. His health was poor from the beginning, and in October 1839 the Parsons removed to Monghyr, where he applied to the BMS board for permission to have his brother, John, a village preacher in England at that time, join him at Monghyr. The Parsons brothers were nephews of John Dyer, BMS secretary. George Parsons was apparently gifted in language acquisition, for he was preaching in the native language within one month. His health, however, continued to decline, and he died at Calcutta on 13 November 1840. John Parsons married Jane Rawlings (Sophia’s sister?) and sailed for India in July 1840; they arrived in Calcutta one week after the death of George Parsons. John Parsons served the BMS in India until 1869. Sophia Parsons returned to England in 1842, and did not return to India. See Baptist Magazine 33 (1841): 472; Carey, Oriental Christian Biography, 2:344-356; Ernest A. Payne, “The Journal of Jane Parsons,” Baptist Quarterly 23 (1969-1970): 266-267.

Patrick, Joseph—Patrick was originally from Andrew Fuller’s church at Kettering. He began ministering at Southill, Bedfordshire, in April 1804, but his pastorate was troubled from its early days. According to the “Memorials” of the church written by John Warburton, minister at Southill from 1846 to 1892, “there was a great disturbance among the people” during Patrick’s ministry. “It was considered by the major part of the people that Mr. Patrick had swerved from the principles he professed when he first came among them. Some took part with Mr. Patrick, thus causing disquiet among them.” Two deacons, Warburton notes, “one Sunday afternoon, stood at the bottom of the pulpit stairs to prevent Mr. Patrick going up, telling him he had departed from the truth, and that he should not enter the pulpit. This caused an uproar.” Most likely, Patrick was too moderately Calvinistic for the tastes of many within the congregation. During his time at Southill, however, many were added to the church and a new chapel opened in 1805. Patrick would leave Southill in 1811 and remove to the Baptist congregation at Fenny Stratford, Bucks., becoming their first official pastor. William Heighton of Road, Northampton, preached that day, among others. The church had been formed in 1805 and at the time of Patrick’s ordination consisted of 28 members. For Warburton’s history, see Strict Baptist Chapel Southill (n.p., 1993), 5-6;  Baptist Magazine 4 (1812): 128.

Payne, Alexander – He was supplying at this time after the departure of the previous minister John Ayer. He came from Lawrence Butterworth’s congregation in Worcestershire and would join the Walgrave chuch on May 29, 1785. He was ordained on July 6, 1785, with the John Evans, Sutcliff, Ryland, Jr., and Fuller attending. A new chapel was built at Walgrave in 1786, with Fuller and Ryland preaching. Payne remained at Walgrave for 33 years, and during his ministry no less than nine men were called to preach among the Baptists. See W.A. Wicks, Concise History of the Baptist Church, (Walgrave (Northampton: Taylor & Son, 1892), 21-23.

Pearce, Samuel (1766-1799)—Converted as a teenager in the Baptist church at Plymouth, Pearce soon committed himself to the ministry. He began his studies at Bristol Academy in 1786, and in 1790 became pastor of the Baptist congregation at Cannon Street in Birmingham. He immediately became involved with the political reform movement, publishing a radical pamphlet titled The Oppressive, Unjust, and Prophane Nature, and Tendency of the Corporation and Test Acts, exposed, in a sermon preached before the Congregation of Protestant Dissenters, meeting in Cannon-Street, Birmingham, February 21, 1790. He was an ardent evangelical Calvinist, devoting himself to itinerant preaching and the establishing of Sunday schools around Birmingham. He was one of the founders of the BMS, assisting Andrew Fuller in editing the Periodical Accounts and in fundraising. He studied Bengali in the hope of joining Carey in India, but the BMS committee decided that he should remain in England. Though his health declined after 1796, he still remained active in promoting Baptist causes throughout England, Ireland, and Asia, as letters 52 and 57 attest. See Arthur Mursell, Cannon Street Baptist Church, Birmingham. Its History from 1737 to 1880 (London: n.p., 1880); Tom Wells, “Samuel Pearce (1766-1799),” ed. Haykin, in The British Particular Baptists, 2:183-199; DEB.

Pearce, William Hopkins (1794-1840)—The son of Samuel Pearce (see above), W. H Pearce was trained as a printer at the Clarendon Press at Oxford before arriving in India as a BMS missionary in 1817 to join William Ward at the Serampore Press. Before he left for India, however, he joined with William Johns (see above) in publishing the first tract in England on the subject of the sati [suttee], titled A Collection of Facts and opinions relative to the Burning of Widows with the dead bodies of their husbands, and to other destructive customs prevalent in British India (1816). In 1818 he joined William Yates and the younger group at Calcutta, where he worked with the Calcutta Education Press and the Baptist Mission Press until his death. He served for a time as pastor of the Baptist church at South Colings, and was a leader in the area of native female education in India. He authored a Bengali textbook titled Geography. See Cox, History, 2:286-293; The Bengal Obituary (Calcutta: Holmes and Co.; London: W. Thacker & Co., 1851) 254; DEB.

Peggs, James (1793-1850)—Peggs was one of the first missionaries sent to India by the General Baptist Missionary Society, serving in Orissa from 1821 to 1825, when ill health forced his return to England. Previously he had ministered to a congregation in Norwich. After his return, he served as pastor of General Baptist congregations at Coventry (1828-1834), Bourne (1834-1841), Ilkeston (1841-1846), and Burton (1846-1850). He became best known for his philanthropic activities, especially in distributing printed religious materials paid for by subscriptions, as letters 166, 210, and 211 demonstrate.  He published more than thirty titles and distributed more than 30,000 copies of his pamphlets. He contributed a history of the General Baptist mission in India to the second volume of F. A. Cox’s History. See “An Index to Notable Baptists, Whose Careers began withing the British Empire before 1850,” Baptist Quarterly 7 (1920-1921): 224; DEB.

Peirce, James (1673-1726)—Peirce came from a Nonconformist family in London. He lost his parents at an early age and was taken in by his minister, Matthew Mead, who eventually sent him to the University of Utrecht and then to Leyden. After five years of study, he returned to London, preaching occasionally at Miles Lane.  He was ordained in 1699 and two years later began his ministerial career, first in a mixed dissenting congregation in Cambridge (1701-1706) and then in a Presbyterian chapel in Newbury (1706-1713) before coming to the James’ Presbyterian meeting in Exeter in 1713. A few years after his arrival in Exeter, a controversy erupted within the congregation over Peirce’s growing Arianism, much of which derived from the influence of the Cambridge minister William Whiston. In March 1719, he and his associate minister, Joseph Hallett II, were expelled from the church in Exeter for failing to subscribe to orthodox trinitarianism. Immediately, a new church was formed at the Mint in Exeter (some 300 attendants came with Peirce from the James’ Meeting). See Murch, History, 421-431; Allan Brockett, Nonconformity in Exeter 1650-1875 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1962) 69-95; 156-157.

Pengilly, Richard (1782-1865)—Originally from Cornwall, Pengilly became a Baptist in 1802, part of a small group that formed a Baptist church in Penzance. He studied at Bristol Academy (1803-1807) before accepting the pastorate of the Baptist church at Tuthill Stairs, Newcastle, where he was ordained on 12 August 1807. He remained there until April 1845, when he became chaplain for the Penzance Workhouse, a position he retained until 1857. He spent his final years at Croydon. His publication, Scripture Guide to Baptism, went through numerous editions in his lifetime. See Douglas, History, 298; DEB.

Phillippo, James Mursell (1798-1879)—Phillippo was from Norfolk and trained for the ministry at Horton Academy, Bradford. He arrived in Jamaica as a BMS missionary in 1823, working at Spanish Town, planting churches and establishing schools. During his ministry in Jamaica, which lasted more than fifty years, he baptized over 5000 people and educated about the same number in his schools. He worked closely with William Knibb and Thomas Burchell in leading the fight for the abolition of slavery throughout the British Commonwealth in the early 1830s. He also had plans for a university in Jamaica patterned after University College, London. See E. B. Underhill, Life of James Mursell Phillippo (London: Yates and Alexander, 1881); DEB.

Pike, John Deodatus Gregory (1784-1854)—Pike was born at Edmonton, Middlesex, and studied for the ministry at Wymondley. He pastored the General Baptist church in Derby, 1810-1854, which, at the time of letter 182, had just opened a new chapel in St. Mary’s Gate. When the General Baptist Missionary Society was formed in 1816, Pike became the first secretary, a position he held until his death in 1854. He also edited the General Baptist Repository and Missionary Observer. His best-known publication was Persuasives to Early Piety (c.1820). His son, James Carey Pike (1817-1876), who studied at Stepney College, succeeded him as secretary of the GBMS.  See John Baxter Pike and James Carey Pike, A Memoir and Remains of the Late Rev. John Gregory Pike, Author of "Persuasives to Early Piety" (London: Jarrold and Sons, 1855); Payne, First Generation, 133-140; “The Origin of the General Baptist Missionary Society,” Baptist Quarterly 1 (1922-1923): 270-275 (a transcription of Pike’s account of the origin of the GBMS); G. P. R. Prosser, “The Formation of the General Baptist Missionary Society,” Baptist Quarterly 22 (1967-1968): 23-28; DEB.

Poynder, John (1779-1849)—Poynder was a successful London lawyer. Raised an evangelical Anglican, he served as a solicitor for Bridewell Prison and Bethlehem Hospital for almost forty years. During that time he also published Literary Extracts (1844), displaying his interest in English literature. Poynder, like his friend William Alers Hankey (see above), served on numerous committees for evangelical organizations, including the Church Missionary Society, the Reformation Society, and the Protestant Association. He took an active interest in Indian affairs, especially the efforts to abolish the practice of sati [suttee], which finally occurred in 1829, as well as the practice of the British government in allowing portions of tax revenues to support the Juggernaut. See DEB.

Prichard, James Cowles (1786-1848)—Prichard studied medicine at Bristol in 1802 and later at St. Thomas’s Hospital and Edinburgh University, where he took an M.D. in 1808. He began his medical practice in Bristol in 1810, focusing on ethnology and insanity. His research led to his first publication, Researches into the Physical History of Man (1813). He was originally a Quaker, but became an Anglican later in life. He may have been a Unitarian at some point, for in 1811 he married Anne Maria Estlin, daughter of John Prior Estlin, who ministered at the Unitarian chapel at Lewin’s Mead in Bristol from 1771 to 1817. Among Prichard’s other publications are An  Analysis of the Egyptian Mythology (1819); Treatise on Diseases of the Nervous System (1822); Treatise on Insanity and Other Disorders Affecting the Mind (1835); and Natural History of Man (1843).

Priestley, Joseph (1733-1804)—Probably the most famous scientist, philosopher, and Unitarian minister of his day, Priestley was educated at Daventry Academy. He then ministered to Independent congregations at Needham Market, Suffolk, and at Nantwich between 1755 and 1761. After a period where he served as a tutor at Warrington Academy in Lancashire, he assumed the pastorate at Mill Lane in Leeds in 1767. He resigned in 1772 to accept a position under the sponsorship of William Petty, 2nd Earl of Shelbourne, for the purpose of devoting himself to scientific experiments. In 1780, now espousing Unitarian doctrines, he returned to the ministry, this time at the New Meeting in Birmingham. Tragically, his home, along with his manuscripts and scientific apparatus, was burned during the Birmingham Riots in July 1791. He removed to London, but emigrated to America in 1794, where he died in Northumberland, Pennsylvania, in 1804. Among his numerous philosophical, scientific, and religious works was The Doctrine of Philosophical Necessity Illustrated  (1777), referred to by Joshua Toulmin in letter 22.

Prince, George K. (1800/01-1865)—A English medical doctor in Jamaica and active supporter of the BMS work there, Prince traveled with John Clarke in 1840 to Fernando Po, West Africa, to determine its feasibility for a BMS mission. After considerable expeditions in the area, they left Fernando Po in the summer of 1842 and arrived in England that September. After several months of speaking engagements and fundraising, Clarke returned to Jamaica in August 1843 to gather recruits for Fernando Po before continuing on to Fernando Po; Prince, however, returned directly to West Africa from England in the late spring, 1843. In 1848 he and his wife (a native of Jamaica) left West Africa, and later emigrated to America, where he died at Davenport, Iowa, in 1865. See DEB.

Pritchard, George (1773-1852)—After holding pastorates in Colchester and at Shouldham Street, London, Pritchard removed to the Baptist church at Keppel Street, London, in 1817, becoming at the same time a member of the London Baptist Board. He remained at Keppel Street until 1837. At the time of letter 188, he was residing in Pentonville. He authored biographies of William Newman, Joseph Ivimey, James Smith of Ilford, and John Chin. See Whitley, Baptists of London, 128; Baptist Magazine 33 (1841): 636; Couling, “Biographical Dictionary, 1800-1875.”

Pugsley, Nathaniel Knight (1787-1868)—Pugsley was originally from Kentisbeare, Devon. He was educated at Hoxton Academy (1812-1815) and commenced his ministry at the Orchard Street Congregational Church in Stockport in 1815. He resigned, however, in 1819 and, with a group from Orchard Street, organized a new congregation at Hanover Chapel, which officially opened in October 1821. Pugsley remained at Hanover until 1858, maintaining an active involvement in the Stockport Sunday School. See Urwick, Historical Sketches, 306-307.

Pyne, John—Pyne ministered to the Particular Baptist congregation at Shrewsbury from 1762-1773, after which he and a group of members succeeded from the church to form another Baptist congregation in Shrewsbury. Sutcliff briefly followed Pyne as minister to the former congregation in the summer of 1774 before he removed to Olney in 1775. Pyne assumed the pastorate of the Baptist church in Bewdley in 1781, remaining there until 1788, when he removed to Bristol due to a lack of financial support. See Haykin, One Heart, 64-65; Claremont Baptist Church, Shrewsbury, (Shrewsbury: n.p., 1920) 7; A. J. Klaiber, “Baptists at Bewdley, 1649-1949,” Baptist Quarterly 13 (1949-1950): 120.

Raffles, Thomas (1788-1863)—Raised a Wesleyan Methodist, Raffles studied at Homerton Academy, 1805-1809, after which he began his long career as a Congregational minister, first at Hammersmith for three years, then at Great George Street in Liverpool, 1812-1863. One of the leading Congregational ministers of his day, he was a noted preacher, pastor, educator, and antiquarian. He was involved with the formation of Blackburn Academy (later Lancashire Independent College) in 1816, where Joseph Fletcher and William Hope served as tutors. Raffles was also chairman of the Congregational Union in 1839, and authored several books, including Memoirs of the Life and Ministry of the Late Rev. Thomas Spencer, of Liverpool (Liverpool, 1813). His massive collection of autograph letters and portraits is now held by the John Rylands University Library of Manchester, from which the majority of the letters transcribed in this book were taken. See Raffles, Memoirs of the Life and Ministry of the Rev. Thomas Raffles; DEB.

Raffles, Sir Thomas Stamford (1781-1826)—Raffles began working for the East India House as a clerk and was eventually appointed secretary to the office in Penang, Sumatra, in 1805. He became fluent in Malay and in 1807 became secretary to the governor. He served as lieutenant governor of Java in 1811 and director of Sumatra from 1813 to 1816. Due to poor health, he returned to England in 1816 and published his History of Java, for which he was knighted in 1817. He returned to Sumatra as governor in 1818, establishing schools and importing missionaries. The directors in England, however, became disenchanted with Raffles over his reformist ideas. On his return to England in 1824, his ship caught fire and all his papers and belongings, valued between £20,000-30,000, were lost. His difficulties with the Directors increased as well, and he died shortly thereafter of apoplexy in 1826.

Ransford, Thomas—A hat manufacturer in Wine Street, Bristol, Ransford lived at 8 Orchard Street. He was a leader in the Broadmead church, as was his father, Edward Ransford (1738-1813), who served as a deacon for the last 23 years of his life and left a legacy to the church (see letters 107 and 123). The younger Ransford married Ann Gay, a member of Broadmead, but she died in 1793. There was also an Edward Ransford, Jr., in the church, who was approved for baptism and membership on 9 October 1788. See Matthew’s Bristol Directory for 1794, 68; Broadmead Church Book, 1779-1817, ff. 57, 60.

Reed, Andrew (1817-1899)—Reed was the son of Andrew Reed, Sr. (1787-1862), an Independent minister. He studied at Mill Hill Academy before commencing his career at the Old Meeting, Norwich, where he ministered from 1840 until 1855. He later ministered to Independent churches in Middlesex, London, Lancashire, and Sussex, from 1855 to 1881. His brother, Charles Reed (1819-1881), became well known for his work on the London School Board and the Sunday School Union as well as serving as M.P. for Hackney (1868-1874) and St. Ives (1880-1881). See Congregational Yearbook (1900): 211.

Reyner, Joseph (1754/5-1837)—Originally from Yorkshire, Reyner was a lifelong Independent, though very friendly with such Baptists as the Haldanes of Scotland and Fuller of Kettering. He was a successful cotton importer and shipper, with offices at 11 Philpot Lane, Fench Street, then later in Duck’s Foot Lane and Old Swan Stairs, London. Reyner served many years as a deacon and trustee of Kingsland Chapel. His business partner was Joseph Hardcastle, another evangelical leader. Reyner was the first treasurer of the Religious Tract Society (1799-1827) and chaired its annual meetings from 1800 to 1825. He also assisted Joseph Hughes in the founding of the British and Foreign Bible Society in 1804, and was active in the London Missionary Society, among other philanthropic ventures (he was a member of nineteen religious and philanthropic societies).  He supported the BMS as well; his firm, Hardcastle and Reyner, subscribed £10.10 in 1800-1801. Universal British Directory, 1/2:266; Periodical Accounts, 2:205; DEB.

Rhees [Rhys], Morgan (1760-1804)—Rhees was born in Wales and admitted to Bristol Academy in 1786. He was ordained at Pen-y-garn in 1787 and became an itinerant minister. He was an admirer of the French Revolution, even opening a meetinghouse in Boulogne and founding a society for distributing the New Testament to French citizens in the early 1790s. When he returned from France he immigrated with a colony of Welsh people to America in 1794. William Rogers welcomed Rhees to Philadelphia, where his eloquent preaching attracted great crowds. He traveled widely in America, preaching wherever he went. In connection with Dr. Benjamin Rush, he purchased a tract of land in Pennsylvania, which he called Cambria, and formed a church there. Later he removed to Somerset, Pennsylvania, where he died in 1804. He was buried in Philadelphia. He married a daughter of Col. Benjamin Loxley, a distinguished officer of the Revolution. Like his countryman, Iolo Morganwg, Rhees promoted the recovery of the ancient Welsh bardic tradition. As Gwyn Williams describes him, Rhees was the “hammer of slavery, preacher of Sunday and Welsh schools, promoter of the John Canne Bible, missionary to the French, [and] editor of Wale’s first political journal in its own language.”  See Cathcart, Baptist Encyclopedia, 977; Gwyn A. Williams, The Search for Beulah Land: The Welsh and the Atlantic Revolution (New York: Holmes & Meier, 1980) 53-80 (quotation above taken from p. 72); DEB.

 Richards, William (1749-1818)—Born into a Baptist family in Wales, Richards attended Bristol Academy in 1773, after which he commenced his pastoral ministry at Pershore in 1775.  He left the next year for King’s Lynn, where he remained the rest of his life as minister to the Particular Baptist congregation there. His health, however, began to fail in 1795, and he spent most of the next three years in Wales, returning again to Wales in 1800 and 1801. He did not preach in King’s Lynn after 1802, although he never formally dissolved his pastoral position. After his wife’s death in 1805, Richard’s spent the next seven years largely in seclusion. During his career he moved away from strict Calvinism and Trinitarianism, endorsing Arianism and Sabellianism. The Unitarian Biographical Dictionary identifies him as an avowed Unitarian. He was an admirer of the political system of America and its tolerance of religion, eventually receiving an honorary degree from Rhode Island College. During the 1780s and ’90s he was a political radical and reformer, opponent of the slave trade, admirer of the French Revolution, and supporter of Catholic Emancipation. High Calvinists dominated his congregation at King’s Lynn, however, a situation that eventually created considerable problems for Richards as he espoused an Arian position. Among his publications are Reflections on French Atheism and on English Christianity (1794); Food for a Fast-Day; or, A Few Seasonable Hints for the Use of Those Good People who Believe in the Propriety and Efficacy of Public Fasts (1795); A Word in Season:  or a Plea for the Baptists (1804); The History of Lynn, Civil, Ecclesiastical, Political, Commercial, Biographical, Municipal, and Military, from the Earliest Accounts to the Present Time (1812);  and Plain Hints and Brief Observations on Primitive Christianity in Some of its Leading Objects and Characteristic Bearings  (1818). See John Evans, Memoirs of the Life and Writings of the Rev. William Richards, LL.D. (Chiswick: Charles Whittingham, 1819); The Baptists in King’s Lynn (Kings Lynn: [n.d.], 1939) 10, 12; George Carter, Unitarian Biographical Dictionary (London:  Unitarian Christian Publishing Office, 1902) 103-104; John Oddy, The Reverend William Richards (1749-1818) and his Friends: A Study of Ideas and Relationships (Nottingham: [n.d.], 1973); idem, “The Dissidence of William Richards,” Baptist Quarterly 27 (1977-1978): 118-127; DEB.

Riland, John (1736?-1822)—Riland was an Anglican evangelical minister at St. Mary’s, Birmingham, and author of Extracts from Various Devotional Writings of Joseph Hall (Birmingham, 1784). Some letters that passed between Riland and the Rev. Francis Blick were attached to A Sermon on John VII: 17: Delivered in the Parish Church of Sutton Coldfield, January 30, 1791 (Birmingham, 1791). An interesting letter to Riland appeared in the Protestant Magazine (February 1782), in which the writer questions statements made by Riland in a recent publication in which he argued that England’s laws were “inadequate” to protecting women and preventing lewdness, especially prostitution. Riland was a major factor in the formation of the Birmingham Sunday School Society in the mid-1780s. On 4 July 1791, at a meeting of the Birmingham chapter of the Committee to Promote the Abolition of the Slave Trade, Riland appears among the individuals receiving public thanks from the Committee (a printed copy of the resolutions passed that day can be found in the William Smith Papers, VI, Duke University). Whether this  “Riland” was a relation of John Ryland, Jr., is unknown. See Thomas Walter Laquer, Religion and Respectability: Sunday Schools and Working Class Culture, 1780-1850 (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1976) 27.

Rippon, John (1751-1836)—Born into a Baptist family in Tiverton, Rippon arrived at the Bristol Baptist Academy in 1769 and three years later replaced the legendary John Gill as pastor of the Baptist church at Carter Lane, Southwark, where he remained the rest of his life. Unlike Gill, however, Rippon was an evangelical Calvinist after the model of Andrew Fuller and John Ryland, Jr. He became one of the leading Baptist figures in London during his long tenure at Carter Lane, which eventually relocated to New Park Street in 1833, where C. H. Spurgeon would later preach. One of Rippon’s early achievements was his work as editor of the Baptist Annual Register from 1790 to 1802, the first periodical to chronicle the activities of the Particular Baptists and their involvement in the evangelical revival in England and America, as well as in India and Sierra Leone through the work of the BMS. Rippon was also a well known hymn writer, with his Selection of Hymns (1787) going through twenty-seven editions in his lifetime. He was the Baptist Union’s first chairman in 1813, and was a consistent advocate of Baptist unity. He also published a work on the life of John Gill (1838), as well as a short history of Bristol Academy. See Ken R. Manley, Redeeming Love Proclaim: John Rippon and the Baptists, Studies in Baptist History and Thought, vol. 12 (Carlisle: Paternoster, 2004); Sharon James, “John Rippon (1751-1836),” ed. Haykin, in The British Particular Baptists, 2:57-75; DEB.

Roberts, Thomas (1780-1841)—Roberts attended Bristol Academy, 1798-1799. He eventually succeeded John Sharp as pastor of the Baptist congregation in the Pithay in Bristol in 1807 and remained there the rest of his life, moving the church to King Street in 1817.  He was an immensely popular preacher and a favorite of Samuel Taylor Coleridge. As J. G. Fuller writes, “On Mr. Robert’s settling in Bristol, it very soon appeared that he was quite adequate to the position to which he had been called. The congregation very quickly increased, until at length it was usual for the meetinghouse to be crowded to overflowing, every standing-place even being occupied. Neither did his preaching please the majority merely. As a striking instance in proof of the contrary, it may be mentioned that the late highly-gifted and accomplished Mr. Coleridge, being repeatedly a hearer, more than once expressed the high admiration which he felt, assuring a gentleman from whom we had the fact, that Mr. Roberts was the only extemporary preacher he had ever listened to with pleasure . . .” See J. G Fuller, A Memoir of the Rev. Thomas Roberts, M.A. Pastor of the Baptist Church in King Street, Bristol: With an Enlarged History of the Church (London:  Houlston and Stoneman, 1842) 27-28.

Robinson, Edward (1794-1863)—Robinson was a prominent biblical scholar and prolific author. A graduate of Hamilton College in 1816, he began his academic career as an instructor of Hebrew at Andover Theological Seminary (1823-1826). After four years of study abroad, mostly in Germany, he returned to Andover, becoming founding editor of the Biblical Repository. He came to New York in 1837 as the chair of biblical studies at the newly formed New York Theological Seminary (now Union Theological Seminary). Among his works are A Harmony of the Gospels in Greek (1834); A Greek and English Lexicon of the New Testament (1850); and Biblical Researches in Palestine, Mount Sinai, and Arabia Petraea (1841), for which he had taken an extensive leave of absence from the seminary in 1838, returning to New York in the fall of 1840. He also published an American edition of Calmet’s Dictionary of the Holy Bible (1832) and the posthumous Physical Geography of the Holy Land (1865). Robinson was the first American scholar to achieve an international reputation in biblical studies. See Robert T. Handy, A History of Union Theological Seminary in New York (New York: Columbia University Press, 1987) 11-14.

Robinson, John—Robinson was a Baptist bookseller, first at Horsleydown, then at Shad, Thames, from 1765-1772. In 1765 he published John Gill’s Baptism a Divine Commandment, which he followed with a second edition in 1766. He also sold Samuel Stennett’s funeral sermon on the death of John Gill (1771).  He was a member at Carter Lane and was for many years an officer of the Particular Baptist Fund. See Horsleydown and Carter Lane Church Book, f. 22.

Robinson, Robert (1735-1790)—By the late 1770s, as a result of the popularity of his writings, Robinson (Baptist minister at St. Andrew’s Street, Cambridge, 1759-1790) had become one of the more influential and controversial Baptist ministers in England, both in matters of church polity and political dissent. His close friendships in the 1780s with Cambridge Socinians William Frend and Robert Tyrwhitt (both of Jesus College) and the former Particular Baptist turned Unitarian George Dyer of Emmanuel College, as well as his appreciation of the brilliant Unitarian Joseph Priestley, led many Baptists and former Evangelical friends of Robinson to consider him dangerously close to adopting a Unitarian position on the nature of Christ and man. An outspoken political reformer, Robinson was a founding member of the Society for Constitutional Information (1780), an important arm of the radical reform movement in England. Among his writings are Arcana: or the Principles of the Late Petitioners to Parliament for Relief in the Matter of Subscription (1774), A Plea for the Divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ (1776), A Plan of Lectures on the Principles of Nonconformity (1778), Christian Submission to Civil Government (1780), and The Doctrine of Toleration (1781), and Slavery Inconsistent with the Spirit of Christianity (1788). See Stephen Bernard Nutter, The Story of the Cambridge Baptists and the Struggle for Religious Liberty (Cambridge: W. Heffer and Sons, 1912); L. G. Champion, “Robert Robinson: A Pastor in Cambridge,” Baptist Quarterly 31 (1986-1986): 241-246; Church Book: St. Andrew’s Street; DEB.

Robinson, William (1784-1853)—Robinson and James Chater (1779-1829) arrived as BMS missionaries in India on board the Criterion in August 1806, but were ordered to leave during a crackdown on missionary activity by the representatives of the East India Company. Robinson and his wife were originally from Olney. He studied under Sutcliff from June 1804 to July 1805.  After working for a time in Dacca, he settled in Bhutan, Bengal, in March 1810. The Robinson’s left there in 1813, assisting for a time in the missions in Java and Sumatra. Eventually, Robinson returned to Bengal. By the late 1820s he had lost BMS support, but he continued to promote Baptist missions, working in Dacca until 1839. He buried four wives during his time in Sumatra. Apparently Robinson was too political for Fuller’s taste in the tense years prior to the renewal of the East India Charter in 1813. Writing to William Ward on 10 June 1810, Fuller says of Robinson, “His democratical notions of I know not what liberty & equality are utterly unsuitable for a christian missionary.” See Stanley, History, 54-55, 168; Gravett, Three Hundred Years, 27; Cox, History, 1:156, 167, 191-192, 202; Fuller to Ward, MSS. BMS, vol. 1, Angus Library, Regent’s Park College, Oxford; DEB.

Rogers, William (1751-1824)—Born in Rhode Island, Rogers was the first student at College of Rhode Island (now Brown University), studying under James Manning. After his graduation in 1769, he served for a time as principal of an academy at Newport, Rhode Island. In December 1771 he succeeded Morgan Edwards as pastor of the First Baptist Church in Philadelphia, where he was ordained on 31 May 1772. He resigned in 1775 and the next year became a chaplain in the American army, a position he retained until 1781. He preached occasionally and served in various societies, but never served as pastor again. In 1789 he was appointed professor of oratory and English literature at the College of Philadelphia, and in 1792 to its successor, the University of Pennsylvania, where he remained until his retirement in 1811. In 1790 he served as vice-president of the Pennsylvania Society for the Abolition of Slavery. During his years in Philadelphia, he was active in evangelism, politics, and missions, serving in 1816-1817 as a delegate to the Pennsylvania State General Assembly. He served as vice president of the General Missionary Convention and was instrumental in the founding of the American Baptist national organization. Rogers was a frequent correspondent of John Rippon, William Carey, and Samuel Pearce, doing much to promote the Serampore Mission within the Philadelphia Baptist Association and among Baptists throughout America. Rogers welcomed Morgan Rhees to Philadelphia and introduced him to Isaac Backus in June 1795 as “one of our ministers from Wales.” Rogers’s wife, Hannah, a former member of the society of Friends, died on 10 October 1793, a victim of the yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia that year. See Act of Incorporation and Constitution of the Pennsylvania Society, for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery … Also, a List of Those who have been Elected Members of the Society (Philadelphia: Merrihew & Thompson, 1860), 16; Hayden, “Kettering 1792 and Philadelphia 1814,” 9-11, 17-18; Hywel Davies, “The American Revolution and the Baptist Atlantic,” Baptist Quarterly 36 (1995-1996): 141-142, 146; Baptist Annual Register, 2:57-61; Brackney, ed., Historical Dictionary, 357-358; DEB.

Romaine, William (1714-1795)—Like Augustus Toplady and John Newton, Romaine was an evangelical Calvinist minister in the Church of England. Influenced by the preaching of George Whitefield in the 1750s, he soon faced significant opposition to his preaching among his fellow Anglican ministers, resulting in the loss of several of his pulpit ministries because of his religious “enthusiasm.” He finally settled as vicar of St. Anne’s, Blackfriars, in London, in 1766, and remained there until his death in 1795. Romaine joined with John Newton (after his arrival in London in 1780) to become one of the leading voices of the evangelical revival among Anglicans in London. Newton, however, never advocated the more extreme Calvinism that Romaine preached. Among Romaine’s writings are The Life of Faith (1763), The Walk of Faith (1771), and The Triumph of Faith (1795). See DEB.

Roscoe, William (1753-1831)—Roscoe was born at Mt. Pleasant, Liverpool, and became well known as a literary scholar and art historian. He also possessed a keen interest in botany, specializing in the study of one particular group of plants, the Scitamineae.  Regarding this species, he was “the first to bring order out of chaos”; as a result, a new order of plants was named after him—Roscoea. Roscoe published his researches in Monandrian Plants of the Order Scitamineae (1828). He was one of the founders of the Liverpool Botanic Gardens in 1802 and was elected a fellow of the Linnean Society in 1804. Roscoe was also actively involved in the radical politics of the 1790s, maintaining an ardent opposition to the slave trade. He served one year as an M.P. for Liverpool in 1806. He was also one of the founders of the Athenaeum, the Library, and the Royal Institution at Liverpool. He died at Toxteth Park, Liverpool, in 1831. He and Carey corresponded about plants and other matters for a number of years. Their letters, written between 1820 and 1827, can be found in the Liverpool Public Library; copies can also be found in the S. Pearce Carey Collection at the Angus Library, Regent’s Park College, Oxford. See H. Stanfield, Handbook and Guide to the Herbarium Collection in the Public Museums, Liverpool (Liverpool: The Museum, 1935) 59; Farrer, William Carey: Missionary and Botanist, 92.

Rowe, John (1788-1816)¾Rowe, from Somersetshire, was baptized at Yeovil in 1807 and entered Bristol Academy in 1810. John Ryland struggled for several years to find a candidate to assist Moses Baker in Jamaica. At the base of a letter from William Wilberforce to Ryland, 19 November 1807, he writes in reference to Jamaica, “I cannot but think it is of great importance for us to send out some one speedily.  I have waited with great anxiety several years for some one to send.” He would find his man in Rowe. As the Broadmead Church Book notes on 8 December 1813: “John Rowe, a member of the church at Yeovil, late a student in the Academy, who married Sarah Gundry, one of our members, was ordained in our Meeting House by prayer and laying on of hands, in order to his going as a missionary to Jamaica.” The Rowes sailed on 31 December 1813 and arrived in Jamaica on 23 February 1814; his ministry, however, was short-lived, as he succumbed to a fever on 27 June 1816. Baker would later say of Rowe, “Though at a place where the most minute parts of his conduct were liable to the severest scrutiny, he conducted himself with such prudence and meekness as, at length, to gain the confidence and respect of the most prejudiced.” See Wilberforce-Ryland Correspondence, MS. G.97a., Bristol Baptist College Library; Broadmead Church Book, 1779-1817, f. 345; Periodical Accounts, 6:72-73; Clarke, Memorials, 18-30; Leslie Brooke, Baptists in Yeovil:  History of the Yeovil Baptist Church (Bath: Ralph Allen, 2002) 13-14; DEB.

Rowe, Joshua (1781-1823)—After his baptism by John Saffery in Salisbury in 1800, Rowe was accepted by the BMS as a missionary to India. After studying at Bristol Academy, he sailed with Richard Mardon, William Moore, and John Biss and their families on 3 January 1804 for India. He worked as secretary to the Serampore Mission for several years, but never mastered Bengali and was eventually removed to make way for J. C. Marshman. He did learn Hindi and some other languages, however.  Rowe, along with Eustace Carey and others, supported the BMS in its controversy with the Serampore Mission; his son, Joshua, was nevertheless educated at Serampore College and eventually joined the staff there in 1830. See Cox, History, 1:137; DEB.

Rowe, William H. (1777-1817)—After completing his studies at Bristol Academy, Rowe was ordained at Redruth in 1803.  He itinerated in Cornwall for many years, and was greatly interested in the India missions, naming his son after William Carey.   He died in 1817.  His final pastorate was at Weymouth, Dorsetshire. A letter from Rowe to his friend, John Saffery, 24 August 1799, written shortly after his arrival as a student at Bristol and Saffery’s marriage to Maria Grace Andrews, can be found in the Reeves Collection, R/11/14, Angus Library, Regent’s Park College, Oxford. See also Baptist Magazine 9 (1817): 186; 10 (1818): 1-9.

Ryland, Benjamin (d. 1832)—Ryland was originally from London and associated in his early days with the Baptist meeting at Cripplegate (under John Reynolds) and the Independent congregation at White Row, Spitalfields (under Edward Hitchin). At some point in the 1780s, he moved to Cambridge and attended St. Andrew’s Street, under the ministry of Robert Robinson. In 1791 he removed to Biggleswade, Bedfordshire, where his brother-in-law, James Bowers, had become pastor of the Baptist congregation in November 1786. Robert Robinson delivered Bower’s ordination sermon; one of Robinson’s members, Richard Foster, had become involved, along with some of his relations, with the Baptist church in Biggleswade the previous year. After settling in Biggleswade, Ryland developed a successful business of general stores (mostly drapery and tailoring) and within a short time became a trustee of the Baptist church. He apparently had absorbed the reform-minded politics of Cambridge associated with St. Andrew’s Street for Ryland became a distributor of Benjamin Flower’s radical newspaper, The Cambridge Intelligencer, in 1793 (Ryland may have known Flower previously, for both would have attended at White Row, Spitalfields, in the 1770s). Apparently, Ryland and Bowers did not agree, and eventually Ryland left the Biggleswade meeting and began attending the church at Potton, under the Rev. R. Whittingham, a curate of the evangelical vicar, John Berridge. Bowers left Biggleswade in 1794 to pastor an Independent congregation in Haverhill, Essex. He was succeeded at Biggleswade by Thomas Mabbott. Ryland may have eventually moved toward Unitarianism, for he subscribed to Mrs. Alice Flowerdew’s Poems in 1803 (Flowerdew was a member of John Evans’s General Baptist congregation at Worship Street). Whether he was a relation of John Ryland, Jr., is unknown. His descendant, Henry Ryland (1856-1924), gained fame as a Pre-Raphaelite painter. See Universal British Directory, 2:379; Baptist Annual Register, 2:1; Chaplin, History, 20-25.

Ryland, John Collett (1723-1792)—Raised in Bourton-on-the-Water and baptized into the Baptist congregation there by Benjamin Beddome, Ryland received his pastoral training at Bristol Academy, 1744-1745. He then spent the next thirteen years as minister of a Baptist congregation at Warwick. In 1759, he moved to Northampton, serving both as pastor of the Baptist church at College Lane and headmaster of the academy. Ryland left Northampton in 1786, turning the church and school over to his son, John Ryland, Jr., and taking up residence in Enfield, where he operated another dissenting academy until his death in 1792. Ryland authored numerous publications during his years in Northampton and Enfield, both in religion and education, including Essay on the Dignity and Usefulness of Human Learning, Addressed to the Youth of the British Empire in Europe and America (1769), Contemplations on the Beauties of Creation (1777), The Character of the Rev. James Hervey, A. M. late rector of Weston Favel in Northamptonshire (1790), A Body of Divinity in Miniature, Designed for the Use of the Youth of Great Britain and France  (1790), and An Address to the Ingenuous Youth of Great-Britain (1792). For more on J. C. Ryland, see Bagster, Samuel Bagster of London; William Newman, Rylandiana: Reminiscences Relating to the Rev. John Ryland, A.M. of Northampton (London: G. Wightman, 1835); Stephen Albert Swaine, Faithful Men; or, Memorials of Bristol Baptist College, and Some of Its Most Distinguished Alumni (London: Alexander and Shepheard, 1884); Culross, The Three Rylands; W. T. Whitley, “J. C. Ryland as Schoolmaster,” Baptist Quarterly 5 (1930-1931): 141-144; Peter Naylor, “John Collett Ryland (1723-1792),” ed. Haykin, in The British Particular Baptists, 1:185-201.

Ryland, John, Jr. (1753-1825)—Trained at the academy in Northampton by his father, John Collett Ryland, the younger Ryland became one of the leading figures among the Particular Baptists of his generation, helping to move most of the denomination into the kind of evangelical Calvinism promoted by his own preaching as well as that of Robert Hall, Sr., Andrew Fuller, and John Sutcliff. Ryland was a precocious student as a child and maintained a keen interest in theological scholarship throughout his life.  He succeeded his father as pastor of the church in Northampton in 1785, and in December 1793 moved to Bristol to assume the pastorate of the two congregations at Broadmead, as well as the presidency of the Baptist Academy there. He was one of the founders of the BMS and, after Fuller’s death in 1815, became a joint secretary. Through his role as pastor and teacher at Bristol, Ryland became one of the most influential figures in the lives of scores of ministers and missionaries who trained at the Academy. He was also a close friend of two leading evangelical Anglicans of his day who ministered at different times in Olney during his years at Northampton, John Newton and Thomas Scott. Besides his important memoir of Andrew Fuller, Ryland authored numerous short works, sermons, and books, such as The Duty of Ministers to be Nursing Fathers to the Church (1796); The Partiality and Unscriptural Direction of Socinian Zeal (1801). See J. E. Ryland, Pastoral Memorials: Selected from the Manuscripts of the late Rev.d John Ryland, D.D. of Bristol: with a Memoir of the Author, 2 vols. (London: B. J. Holdsworth, 1826); Grant Gordon, “John Ryland (1753-1825),” ed. Haykin, in The British Particular Baptists, 2:77-95; DEB.

Ryland, Jonathan Edwards (1797-1866)—The son of John Ryland, Jr., J. E. Ryland served a number of years as a tutor under William Steadman at Horton Academy. He later became well known for his editions of the works of various writers, such as Pastoral Memorials (2 vols; 1826-1828), a collection of the writings of his father, John Ryland, Jr.; The Life and Correspondence of John Foster (1852); Memoirs of John Kitto (1854); and various works by August Neander, Johann Peter Lange, August Tholuck, and Ernst Wilham Hengstenbert.

Saffery, John (1763-1825)—An active supporter of the BMS and popular hymn writer, Saffery served as pastor of the Baptist church at Brown Street, Salisbury, 1790-1825, succeeding Henry Phillips (1720-1789). He was originally from Portsea. His first wife was Elizabeth Horsey, daughter of Joseph Horsey, Baptist minister at Portsea. After her death in 1798, he married Maria Grace Andrews (1772-1858), poet, novelist, and hymn writer, the following year. Saffery was succeeded at Brown Street by his son, Philip (see next entry). See G. A Moore and R. J. Huckle, Salisbury Baptist Church 1655-2000 (Salisbury: n.p., 2000) 21-27; Brian Talbot, “John Saffery (1763-1825),” ed. Haykin, in The British Particular Baptists, 3:43-83; DEB.

Saffery, Phillip J. (b. 1800)—P. J. Saffery succeeded his father as pastor of the Baptist church in Salisbury, serving from 1826 to 1836. He may have ministered to a church near London after leaving Salisbury before joining the Baptist church at Waltham Abbey in the early 1840s. About this time he became the field representative for the BMS for the north of England, and in 1843 moved to Leeds, joining the church at South Parade under the ministry of J. E. Giles. As letter 207 demonstrates, Saffery traveled extensively throughout the north of England in the 1840s raising funds for the BMS. Saffery removed to Hammersmith in the early 1850s. Shortly thereafter he ended his relationship with the BMS and became a field representative for the Religious Tract Society. No obituary appeared after his death, the date of which is unknown, but it is sometime in the 1870s, as evidenced by the dates of letters between Saffery and his mother and sister, which can be found in the Saffery Papers, Angus Library, Regent’s Park College, Oxford. See W. T. Whitley, ed., A Baptist Bibliography, 2 vols. (London: Kingsgate Press, 1916-1922) 2:242; W. Jackson, One Hundred and Fifty Years of Baptist History at Waltham Abbey (London: Elliot Stock, [1880]) 15, 17; John Julian, A Dictionary of Hymnology (London:  John Murray, 1908) 112, 986-997.

Saker, Alfred (1814-1880)—Saker worked as a draughtsman in the Admiralty dockyard at Devonport and was a member of Thomas Horton’s congregation. He answered the call to the African Mission after hearing John Clarke and Dr. Prince speak at Horton’s church during their tour of England in 1842-1843. Saker and his family sailed, along with Clarke and several other missionaries, on board the Chilmark in July 1843, stopping first in Jamaica before reaching their final destination at Fernando Po. Saker would become one of the BMS’s more celebrated missionaries of the nineteenth century. He died at Peckham, near London, in 1880. See Payne, First Generation, 76-78; Stanley, History, 106; DEB.

Salmon, Thomas (1800-1854)—Salmon was originally from Norfolk. He served as a Methodist evangelist from 1821 to 1824, after which he became a missionary for the London Missionary Society in Surat, India, from 1825 to 1833. He then returned to England and ministered to Independent churches at Wheathampstead, Hertfordshire (1835-1838) and Coleshill, Warwickshire (1838-1842), before removing to New York, where he died in 1854.

Sandys, John (d. 1803)—Sandys came from the Baptist congregation at Tottlebank. He was a student at J. C. Ryland’s Academy at Northampton in the late 1760s and studied in London under William Clarke (with assistance from the Particular Baptist Fund) before entering the ministry. While in London, he attended Clarke’s congregation at Unicorn Yard. According to the Unicorn Yard Church Book, he joined on Monday, 11 March 1771, signing the Church Book on 25 June 1772 and on 25 March 1773. He left shortly afterwards to serve as a tutor in John Fawcett’s school at Hebden Bridge before supplying as interim pastor for the Baptist congregation in Shrewsbury, just prior to the arrival of John Sutcliff in the summer of 1774. Many in the congregation, however, remained loyal to Sandys, and by January 1775 Sutcliff had resigned. Sandys was then called as pastor early in 1777. An entry in the Unicorn Yard Church Book for 6 April 1777 adds some details concerning Sandys’s call: “The Church being stayd after the Celebration of the Supper a Letter received from the Church, at Shrewsbury, requesting the Dismission of Bror John Sandys with a View to take the pastoral care of them was read & assented to & a Letter dismissing him from us then being drawn up & read was signd by each Bror Present.” Sandys remained at Shrewsbury until 1781, erecting a new meetinghouse in Dog Lane while he was there. Sandys did not leave on the best of terms, for some members of his church (in league, unfortunately, with some other Baptist ministers) accused Sandys of improper conduct regarding a £50 note which had been stolen from him during a trip to Birmingham in the fall of 1780. Left destitute by the theft, Sandys received £25.5 from his friend Robert Mosely, a deacon at Cannon Street in Birmingham. Mosely told Sandys to use the funds however he wanted. Sandys inquired of William Clarke, his former tutor in London, if he was responsible for repaying the £50 note to the Shrewsbury church, and Clarke told him he was not. As a result, Sandys, whose salary at Shrewsbury was only £34 a year, used the money for himself, which angered many of his members who believed the money belonged to the church. For the next two years, accusations of impropriety continued to plague Sandys (who was considered as a replacement for James Turner at Cannon Street in Birmingham in 1781). He applied to several London ministers, who, in collaboration with Mosely, cleared Sandys of any misuse of funds, an action that supposedly satisfied the Shrewsbury church. In the meantime, Sandys assisted in churches in Colchester and Adelphi. From 1786 to 1791 he served as pastor of the Baptist church in Beechen Grove, Watford, Hertfordshire. In 1791 Sandys became Isaac Gould’s assistant at Fore Street, Harlow. Not long after his arrival in Harlow, new accusations concerning the Mosely affair surfaced once again, creating an unwelcome distraction for Sandys. In 1793, John Martin, Baptist minister at Grafton Square (later Keppel Street), London, published several letters by Mosely and John Harwood (also a deacon at Cannon Street), as well as letters by Martin himself to Henry Keene, a deacon at Maze Pond, in an effort to clear Sandys’s name once and for all. After the death of Isaac Gould in November 1794, Sandys took over pastoral duties at Fore Street, but, as Finch notes, his temperament did not suit many in the congregation; he stayed for less than a year before removing to Hammersmith, where he began a new work at Brentford Park in June 1799. By 1802 he was no longer pastor, which may have been due to declining health, for he died c. 1803. See Unicorn Yard Church Book, f. 214r, f. 219r, f. 222r, f. 237v; Jones, Autobiography, 13; Whitley, Baptists of London, 108; Thomas Finch, Brief Biographical Memorials, of the Ministers and Proceedings of the Protestant Dissenting Congregation, of the Baptist Denomination, Harlow, Essex (Bishop’s Stortford: W. Thorogood, 1820) 41-42; G. H. Young and J. W. Barker, A Short History of Harlow Baptist Church 1662 1962 (Harlow: Harlow Baptist Church, 1962) 10-11; Haykin, One Heart, 85-86, 90; Claremont Baptist Church, Shrewsbury, 4; Edward Spurrier, Memorials of the Baptist Church Worshipping at Eld Lane Chapel, Colchester (Colchester: F. Wright, 1889) 37, 40; R. F. Skinner, Nonconformity in Shropshire 1662-1816 (Shrewsbury: Wilding & Son, 1964) 25-28; Baptist Annual Register, 3:23; John Martin, The Case of the Rev. John Sandys, a Dissenting Minister, at Harlow, Essex. In Four Letters to Henry Keene, Esquire (London: J. Martin, Jr., and William Button, 1793); Congregational Library, DWL, MSS. ii. c. 5 and MSS. ii. A. 10, ff. 31-41, for letters by J. C. Ryland and John Sandys, concerning Sandys’s application to the Particular Baptist Fund in 1769-1770 for financial assistance during his time of study with William Clarke in London.

Saunders, Alexander (1805-1846)—Saunders was a Baptist layman in London whose brother, John (1806-1859) (after ministering to some churches in London) served as a missionary in Australia, 1834-1848, in loose conjunction with the BMS (he provided his own financial support), the Society being reluctant at that time to sanction mission work among the “non-heathen.”  The younger Saunders opened the first Baptist chapel in Sydney on 23 September 1836 and the church was constituted that December. Always ecumenical in his approach to missions, Saunders also served as the ministerial agent for the LMS in Sydney from 1838 to 1840, which possibly provides some poignancy to his brother’s letter to Angus (see letter 163). In the early 1820s, both brothers became members of the Baptist church at Camberwell, under the ministry of Edward Steane. Letters between the two brothers can be found in the Saunders Letterbook, Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales. One letter from Alexander to John, dated 17 February 1838, appealing for funds for Baptist churches in Australia, appeared in the Baptist Magazine 30 (1838): 127-128. A letter from John in Sydney appeared in the Missionary Herald (May 1843): 284-285. Saunders had sent £50 from his church for the Jubilee Fund, proposing that “by this act the chain of love is made to encircle the globe: Australia, the last link is enwreathed with Africa, either India, America, and all-beloved home.” Alexander Saunders collected £18 for the BMS in November 1840 and contributed £5 in April 1841. He served as a deacon in the church at Camberwell, an officer for the Bath Society for Aged Ministers, and secretary and treasurer of a fund formed for promoting the sell of the Selection Hymn Book, produced for the benefit of widows and orphans of Baptist ministers. In 1844 the proceeds enabled Saunders to transfer £180 to the fund. See Baptist Magazine 34 (1842): 665; 35 (1843): 655; 38 (1846): 236; 36 (1844): 423; Missionary Herald (January 1841): 45; (July 1841): 371; J. D. Bollen, “English Australian Baptist Relations, 1830-1860,” Baptist Quarterly 25 (1973-1974): 292-296; B. G. Wright, “Saunders, John (1806-1859),” ed. Douglas Pike and John Ritchie, in Australian Dictionary of Biography, (Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1967), 2:418; Ken R. Manley, From Woolloomooloo to “Eternity”: A History of Australian Baptists, 2 vols. Studies in Baptist History and Thought, vol. 16.1-2 (Milton Keynes UK: Paternoster Press, 2006) 1:23-35.

Saunders, Samuel (1780-1835)—Saunders spent his early years in Clapham; he was baptized in a Baptist church there (under the ministry of John Ovington) in 1801. He soon entered Bristol Academy (with the assistance of Joseph Hughes at Battersea) and in 1803 was ordained at Penzance, Cornwall. He did not stay long at Penzance, however, for after the death of John Kingdon, the church at Badcox Lane in Frome called him in 1806 to be their minister. Saunders left Frome in 1826 to become pastor of the Baptist church at Byrom Street in Liverpool, remaining there until his death in 1835. See Charles M. Birrell, “Memoir of the Late Rev. Samuel Saunders,” Baptist Magazine 32 (1840): 1-5.

Savage, James (d. 1796)—Savage was the BMS’s India House counselor. He also was the Secretary of the Good Samaritan Society in Shoe Lane for many years, and as a result was instrumental in the calling and placing of John Fountain as a missionary for the BMS in India. As S. Pearce Carey writes, “[John] Fountain, an eager helper of his Social Mission in Shoe Lane, off Fleet Street, had so impressed him by his versatile vivacity that he [Savage] offered to send him to India as a lay helper to Carey, to which Fountain eagerly agreed. Alas!  it was all frustrated by Mr. Savage’s sudden death” (in 1796—see letter 52).  See Carey, William Carey, 168.

Scamp, William (1774-1860)—Scamp was originally from Devonport, Devon. After studying with David Bogue at Gosport, he came to Havant, where he was ordained in 1803 and remained as pastor of the Independent church there until his death in 1846.

Scott, James (1710-1783)—Born in Berwickshire, Scott attended Edinburgh University, 1728-1729, after which he served as a private tutor for several years. He began ministering to Independent congregations in 1739, first at Stainton, Westmoreland, then at Horton-in-Craven, Yorkshire (1741-1751), Tockholes, Lancashire (1751-1754), and lastly at the Upper Meeting at Heckmondwike (1754-1783). He was also the tutor at the Academy there (the leading institution of the Northern Education Society) from 1756-1783. Some of Scott’s early students at Heckmondwike were Thomas Waldegrave, Timothy Priestley, and Richard Plumbe. According to Josiah Bull’s biography of John Newton, “In the year 1756, at the suggestion, and through the influence of some friends of the gospel truth in London, who were anxious to stay the progress of Socinian and Arian opinions then prevailing in Yorkshire, Mr. Scott was led to superintend the studies of pious and orthodox young men, who might thus be prepared for the work of the ministry in that part of the country. Labouring in this good work till the year 1783, when he died, Mr. Scott was the means of introducing more than sixty ministers into the church of Christ. The institution thus originated still continues, and flourishes at the Rotherham College.” See Josiah Bull, John Newton of Olney and St. Mary Woolnoth: An Autobiography and Narrative (London: Religious Tract Society, 1868) 96; Miall, Congregationalism in Yorkshire, 146-157, 273, 284, and 346; Nightingale, Lancashire Nonconformity, 2:1289; DEB.

Sharman, Edward—In September 1781, Sharman, along with William and Andrew Pell, formed a new Baptist church at Guilsborough, northwest of Northampton. Later, Sharman ministered at the Moulton church in the 1790s after Carey’s removal to Leicester. He signed the minutes of the Northamptonshire Association for 31 May 1792, the meeting at which Carey preached his famous sermon on missions. Carey and Sharman had also worked together on the Leicestershire Committee of Protestant Ministers for the repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts in 1789-1790. Sharman was preaching at Moulton in 1794 but by 1798 he had been replaced by John Barker and was no longer a Particular Baptist. Andrew Fuller, writing to William Carey in Bengal on 2 May 1796, notes that Sharman, now at Cottesbrooke, had become a Unitarian and recently published a pamphlet against the divinity of Christ; he had also influenced several other Baptists friends known to Fuller and Carey.  Fuller writes, “I reckon, though, it be a blundering performance, it must be answered, and if it be we will send you the book & its answer together, He has lately lost his wife. Some think him touched with insanity.” Sharman eventually emigrated to New England, and continued to engage in ecclesiastical and religious controversy, publishing one more text before his death c. 1820. Sharman’s publications were A Letter on the Doctrine of the Trinity; Addressed to the Baptist Society at Guilsborough, Northamptonshire (London: printed for J. Johnson, St. Paul's Church-Yard, 1795); A Second Letter on the Doctrine of the Trinity; Addressed to the Baptist Society, at Guilsborough, Northamptonshire, Worship the Father (Market Harborough: Printed for the author by W. Harrod, and sold by Johnson, St. Paul's Church-Yard, London; Collis and Dash, Kettering; Flower, Cambridge; Swinney, Birmingham; Phillips, Leicester; Abel, Northampton, 1796); A Caution against Trinitarianism (Market-Harborough: printed for the author by W. Harrod; and sold by Johnson, St. Paul's Church-Yard, London, 1799); A Second Caution against Trinitarianism; or, An Inquiry whether that System has not some tendency to lead people unto Deism and Atheism. In a letter addressed to the Rev. Mr. Fuller, Kettering. By a Northamptonshire farmer (Market-Harborough: printed for the author by W. Harrod; and sold by Johnson, St. Paul's Church-Yard, London, 1800); and The Christian World Unmasked, or, An Enquiry into the Foundation of Methodist Camp-Meetings (Watertown, NY: Printed for the author, 1819). See Baptist Annual Register, 2:10; 3:28; Fuller Correspondence, 1793-1815, MSS. BMS, Vol. 1, Angus Library, Regent’s Park College, Oxford.

Sharp, John (1741-1805)—After ministering to Baptist congregations in Oakam (1770-1785) and Manchester (1785-1797), Sharp assumed pastoral duties at the Baptist meeting at the Pithay in Bristol on 21 April 1797, first as co-pastor with John Tommas until the latter’s death in August 1800, and then as senior pastor until his own death in November 1805. See DEB.

Shepherd, John (1764-1836)—Shepherd came to Liverpool from Manchester, where he had been working as a horticulturalist. He was a close friend of Dr. John Bostock (see letter 119) and William Roscoe. In 1800, Dr. James Currie (1756-1805) and Dr. John Rutter, along with Roscoe and Bostock, formed a committee for establishing the Liverpool Botanic Gardens, and in 1803 the Garden officially opened, with Roscoe as president and Shepherd as curator. Widely known as an expert cultivator, Shepherd would remain curator until his death in 1836. The Liverpool Botanic Gardens became a model emulated from Philadelphia to St. Petersburg.  Shepherd and William Carey corresponded for over 20 years, exchanging plants on a regular basis. “By 1820,” Stanfield argues in his book on the Liverpool museums, “Carey had made large contributions to the Botanic Garden. Carey and Roscoe were also friends and exchanged plants.” At one point (c. 1820) Shepherd sent Carey over 1000 grafted fruit trees, all of which survived. The Garden also contains collections sent by William Roxburgh (1751-1815), another friend of Carey. F. A. Cox quotes from a paper by Jonathan Carey, appended to Eustace Carey’s Memoir of William Carey, in which Jonathan writes of his father’s passion for plants:  “In objects of nature, my father was exceedingly curious. His collection of mineral ores and other subjects of natural history, was extensive, and obtained his particular attention in seasons of leisure and recreation. The science of botany was his constant delight and study; and his fondness for his garden remained to the last. No one was allowed to interfere in the arrangements of this his favourite retreat, and it is here he enjoyed his most pleasant moments of secret devotion and meditation. The garden formed the best and rarest collection of plants in the east, to the extension of which, by his correspondence with persons of eminence in Europe and other parts of the world, his attention was constantly directed; and in return, he supplied his correspondents with rare collections from the east. On this science he frequently gave lectures, which were well attended, and never failed to prove interesting. His publication of ‘Roxburgh’s Flora Indica’ is a standard work with botanists.” See Stanfield, Handbook, 39; Cox, History, 1:377; Annie Lee, “John Shepherd,” Lancashire and Cheshire Naturalist 17 (1925): 157-160, 198-200; Farrer, William Carey: Missionary and Botanist, 91.

Sheppard, John (1785-1879)—Sheppard was a significant Baptist author and layman from Frome, Somerset, where Sheppards had lived since the late 17th c.  After finishing school in 1800, he began working in the woolen trade (his family were prosperous factory owners and merchants) and in 1806 he, along with his widowed mother, joined the Baptist congregation at Sheppard’s Barton, Frome, where many of his relatives worshiped. At that time the church was led by John Foster (1770-1843), who had succeeded Job David as pastor in 1804. Foster and Sheppard would maintained a life-long friendship. Sheppard inherited enough of a fortune from his uncle to cease working and enroll at the University of Edinburgh, where he studied medicine, philosophy and Hebrew. While at Edinburgh, he became friends with Thomas Chalmers and Pinkerton the antiquary. In 1816 and 1817, he toured parts of Europe and studied briefly at Gottingen. From 1823 until his death he devoted himself to religious writing, lay preaching, and foreign travel. He died at Frome on 30 April 1879. His major works include: Athaliah, translated from Racine (1815); Letters on a Tour of France (1817); Thoughts Preparative to or Persuasive to Private Devotion (1823; An Autumn Dream (a long poem) (1837); A Cursory View of the State of Religion in France (1838); On Dreams (1847); On Trees, their Uses and Biography (1848); The Foreign Sacred Lyre (1857); and The Christian Harp (1858). See T. G. Rooke, “Memoir of John Sheppard,” in Thoughts Preparative to or Persuasive to Private Devotion, by John Sheppard, 5-34 (London: Religious Tract Society, 1881); Ryland, Life and Correspondence; Timothy Whelan, “Thomas Poole’s ‘Intimations of Immortality’ in a Letter to John Sheppard, February 1837,” Romanticism 11 (2005): 199-223; DEB.

Sherring, Richard B.—A man of considerable wealth, Sherring, along with his wife, Hester, joined Broadmead Baptist Church in Bristol on  6 January 1820; by 1825 he had become a deacon. He was a prominent Baptist layman in denominational affairs and a generous benefactor of the BMS, contributing £100 in April 1842, another £100 in November of that year to the Kettering collection of the Jubilee Fund, and £1000 to the Bristol collection that same month. At a Jubilee meeting in Bristol in June 1842, in which William Knibb was the featured speaker, Sherring pledged £500 toward the new mission in Western Africa. In September 1842, he gave £150 for the purchase of the proposed schooner for the work in Fernando Po. At another meeting in London in January 1843, Sherring further donated another £100, for a total in less than one year of £1950. He recognized literary greatness as well, for in 1844 he also donated to the BMS a bust of Robert Hall and John Foster, the complete works of Milton, and two volumes from the library of Samuel Taylor Coleridge. He served on the committee of the Bath Society for Aged Ministers in 1844 as well as that of the Baptist Colleges and Educational Institutions. As late as 1857 he was serving as an honorary member of the BMS Committee. See Missionary Herald (July 1842): 402; (August 1842): 453; (November 1842): 615; (January 1843): 60; (March 1843): 180; (August 1844): 439; Baptist Magazine 36 (1844): 658, 659; 49 (1857): 803. Some letters between Sherring and Andrew Leslie can be found at Bristol Baptist College Library, shelfmark Z.c.29. (My thanks to Roger Hayden for information on Sherring’s Broadmead membership.)

Short, Charles (d. 1802)—Short was an agent for the East India Company at Debhatta, about forty miles from Calcutta. Upon Carey’s arrival in India, Short offered the group his home as a temporary habitation. Short would later marry Dorothy Carey’s sister, Catherine Plackett (who had traveled with the Carey’s to India), on 15 November 1794. Though a Deist when he met Carey, Short would later be converted and spend his remaining years assisting in the work of the BMS in India.  He and his wife left India in 1798, due to Short’s declining health, but he returned, much to Carey’s surprise, in 1801, only to die the next year. Catherine Short returned from India and settled at Clipston, remaining there until her death. See Payne and Allan, Clipston Baptist Church, 11.

Simmons, John—Simmons ministered for a time in Wigan, Lancashire, then at Braunston, Northamptonshire, throughout the 1790s. He was instrumental in bringing the Braunston church into the Northamptonshire Baptist Association in 1790. His son, John Edmund Simmons, studied at Bristol and eventually ministered at Stoney Stratford, Buckinghamsire, from 1823 to 1830, and then at the Union Chapel, Bluntisham, Huntingtonshire. He wrote the circular letter for the Northamptonshire Association in 1823, 1843, and 1857. See Congregational Magazine (1831): 818; Congregational Magazine (1835): 817; T. S. H. Elwyn, Northamptonshire Baptist Association (London: Carey Kingsgate Press, 1964) 102-104; A Brief Record of the Stony Stratford Baptist Church, 1767-1957 (Northampton: n.p., 1957) 16.

Skinner, Thomas (1752-95) – he was originally from Devon. He was ordained in 1779 as the first pastor of the congregation at Clipston, Northamptonshire. Between 1783 and 1793 he ministered to the congregation at Towcester, Northamptonshire (with Fuller attending his ordination) before ending his ministerial career at Newcastle. 

Skinner, William (d. 1834)—Skinner was a prominent banker in Stephen Street, Bristol, residing for many years at Ashley Place. He was a leading member of the Independent congregation (the “Little Church”) that worshiped with the Baptist congregation at Broadmead (see letter 80). He signed as one of the Brethren of the Independent congregation in the calling of Robert Hall as assistant minister to Broadmead on 12 October 1783. Mary Skinner, his wife, signed as one of the “sisters.”  Many years later, when the congregation at Broadmead during the ministry of Robert Hall decided to organize more completely as a separate church body, the members of the Independent congregation met together on 20 January 1830 and chose two deacons—William Skinner and Charles Reed. A later entry, for 24 June 1834, reads: “Died Mr Wm Skinner an aged and highly respected Deacon of this Church, who after a long and exemplary Christian course, was gathered like a shock of Corn, fully ripe for his Masters use” (f. 22). Skinner was a solid supporter of the BMS, joining with two other men in January 1809 to provide funds for three missionaries independently of the Society. See Broadmead Church Book, 1779-1817, f. 38; Broadmead Independent Church Book, 1830-1853 (MS., Bristol Record Office, Bd/M2/2), f. 3; Cox, History, 1:181, 227, 299-300; see also a letter from Kreeshnoo in Calcutta to Skinner in Bristol, June 1812, in Periodical Accounts, 5:110-113.

Smith, James—Smith became a deacon at the Baptist meeting at Little Wild Street, Lincoln’s-Inn Fields, London, in 1773, becoming a leading figure in the church and serving for many years as one of the treasurers of the Baptist Fund. See Woollacott, Brief History, 41.

Smith, James (1770-1850)—A native of Cornwall, Smith was called to the ministry at seventeen. After studying at Bristol Academy, he began his pastoral work at Pershore, Worcestershire. After a brief stint at Alcester, Warwickshire, he removed to Astwood, Worcestershire, in 1813, where he remained the rest of his life. An entry in the BMS Committee Minutes on 17 February 1842 notes that Smith contributed £50, but that was probably from a collection in his church. In February 1844, his contribution was only £1. See BMS Committee Minutes, Vol. H (Oct. 1841-Dec. 1842), f. 78; Missionary Herald (April 1844): 220.

Smith, James (1781-1839)—Smith was the third itinerant minister hired by the Essex Baptist Association for Home Missions (formed in 1796). The first two itinerants were James Pilkington at Rayleigh and William Bolton at Thorpe le Soken. Smith began his work at Bures in 1802, and then spent some time at Rochford Hundred, Great Wakering (where he opened a day school), Barling (where his preaching led to a mob scene instigated by the local magistrate), and finally at Ilford in 1808, a church founded in 1801 by members of the Harlow and Mile End congregations. Smith replaced John Hutchings and remained at Ilford until 1834. At the time of his arrival in Ilford, no established Anglican work existed, causing fears among some that all of Ilford might become overwhelmingly Baptist due to Smith’s efforts. His practice of open communion, however, led some members to succeed and form the Ebenezer Strict Baptist Church. For the most part, though, Smith’s ministry at Ilford was successful, with membership reaching nearly 100 by 1830. Smith was also engaged in considerable village preaching while at Ilford, assisting in the founding of the Loughton church, led by one of Smith’s members, John King. In 1834, Smith removed to the Ebenezer Chapel, Shoreditch, London (in 1836 it became the Providence Chapel, Hackney Road), where Smith preached until his death in 1839.  See Doris Witard, Bibles in Barrels:  A History of Essex Baptists  (N.p.: Essex Baptist Association, 1962) 57; Frank H. Smith, The Story of Ilford (High Road) Baptist Church 1801-1951 (Ilford: C. W. Clark, [1951]) 10-11; Couling, “Biographical Dictionary, 1800-1875.”

Smith, John—A student of John Sutcliff at Olney, Smith ministered to the Baptist church at Burton-on-Trent, Staffordshire, not far from Tutbury. Smith joined the Olney church on 16 April 1807, coming from the Baptist church at Boston (at that time dissolved). He was dismissed to the church at Burton-on-Trent on 23 February 1809 (see letter 80) and ordained on 20 May 1809. He is probably the same John Smith who ministered to the Baptist church at Ecton, Northamptonshire, from 1827 to 1835 (and possibly longer). See Baptist Magazine 1 (1809): 341; 27 (1835): 549-561; Olney Church Book, ff. 97, 101.

Smith, Opie—A wealthy brewer of “porter, beer, and brandy” in Horse Street, Smith was a member of the Particular Baptist congregation at Somerset Street in Bath for some fifty years and a deacon for more than thirty years, serving under the ministries of Robert Parsons (1752-1789) and John Paul Porter (1791-1832). He was a great benefactor of churches in Cornwall and assisted for many years with the financial support of the Western Baptist Association and its efforts to send itinerant preachers into Cornwall, especially Redruth, Penzance, and Helston. In 1803 he purchased Saffron Court in Falmouth, reviving the nearly defunct Baptist interest there and providing the stimulus for a new chapel, which was completed in early 1804. Thomas Griffin, an open communion Baptist, was called to be its first pastor. Robert Redding, at that time the Baptist minister at Truro and a closed communionist, had assisted the congregation prior to Griffin. Griffin remained at Falmouth until 1814. See Universal British Directory, 2:108; Fereday, Story of the Falmouth Baptists, 65-69; The Case of the Baptist Church, Meeting in Somerset Street, Bath (London: n.p., 1829) 13-14; Price, “Early Years of the Baptist Union,” 171.

Smith, Thomas—After ministering to the Baptist church at Shipston-on-Stour, Worcestershire, Smith pastored the Baptist congregation at Tiverton, 1807-1812. While at Tiverton, he commenced the Baptist Magazine in 1809, which eventually led to his removal to London in 1812, where he continued for some time as editor of the Magazine. His interest in the BMS and missions in general was reflected in The History and Origin of the Missionary Societies: Containing Faithful Accounts of the Voyages, Travels, Labours, and Successes of the Various Missionaries who have been sent out, for the Purpose of Evangelizing the Heathen, and Other Unenlightened Nations, in Different Parts of the Habitable Globe (London: Printed for Thomas Kelly & Richard Evans by Charles Baynes, 1824-1825).

Soul, Joseph (1805-1881)¾Soul was a leader within the abolitionist movement of the mid-nineteenth century. In 1840 he addressed an important convention of the Anti-Slavery Society and was included in Benjamin Robert Haydon’s famous portrait of that event. Besides his duties with the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, he served for more than thirty years as secretary of the Orphan Working School, Haverstock Hill, North London. See Missionary Herald (December 1843): 658.

Soule, Israel May (1806?-1873)—After studying at Stepney and  ministering  for a time at Lewes, Sussex, Soule succeeded Joseph Hughes as pastor of the Baptist church at Battersea in 1834. He remained there until his death in 1873. He became a member the London Baptist Board in 1838. See Baptist Magazine 33 (1841): 636; Couling, “Biographical Dictionary, 1800-1875.”

Stanger, Jr., William Wright (1809-1877)—The son of William Stanger and grandson of the Rev. John Stanger (1743-1823), Baptist minister at Bessels Green (1766-1823), W. W. Stanger was a member of William Newman’s congregation at Bow. During the mid-1840s, Stanger served as the chief accountant for the BMS (which explains his presence in several letters in Part Six of this volume). Stanger was also active in the work of the Bible Society. See J. H. Y. Briggs, “Chapel-goers, Chapels and the Local Community,” Baptist Quarterly 33 (1989-1990): 61; Minutes of the BMS Committee, vols. H-J (1841-1847), Angus Library, Regent’s Park College, Oxford.

Steadman, William (1764-1837)—Raised in Shropshire, Steadman, after completing his studies at Bristol Academy, became pastor of the Baptist congregation at Broughton, Hampshire, in 1789. During his time at Broughton, he developed a close friendship with John Saffery, pastor at Brown Street in Salisbury. In 1797 the two men itinerated throughout the West Country, primarily in Cornwall, as part of a new home missionary effort by the Particular Baptists. Steadman left Broughton for Plymouth Dock in 1798. In 1805 he removed to Bradford, Yorkshire, to become the first president of the new academy at Bradford and pastor of the Baptist congregation there. Though his heart lay with missions and the work of the BMS, Steadman’s eyesight and domestic situation would never have allowed him to serve in that capacity. He became secretary of the Yorkshire and Lancashire Association, and actively supported the BMS and the Bible Society. During his tenure at Horton Academy, over 150 students entered the academy. He was awarded an honorary D.D. by Brown University in 1815. See Steadman, Memoir of the Rev. William Steadman; Walter Fancutt, “William Steadman’s Hampshire Years,” Baptist Quarterly 16 (1955-1956): 365-369; Sharon James, “Revival and Renewal in Baptist Life: The Contribution of William Steadman (1764-1837),” Baptist Quarterly 37 (1997-1998): 263-282; idem, “William Steadman (1764-1837),” ed. Haykin, in The British Particular Baptists, 2:163-181; DEB.

Steane, Edward (1798-1882)—In 1823 Steane began his long pastorate of the Baptist congregation at Denmark Place Chapel in Camberwell, where W. B. Gurney was a member.  After serving as one of the editors of the New Baptist Miscellany, Steane served as secretary of the Baptist Union from 1835 to 1882 and as President in 1860. He was instrumental in the founding of the Evangelical Alliance in 1846, serving as the first editor of its periodical, Evangelical Christendom. He published numerous sermons and other works during his long ministry at Camberwell, including Constitutional Principles of the Christian Church (1838); funeral sermons on W. H. Pearce, BMS missionary in India, and the Rev. John Dyer, Secretary of the BMS; and Memoir of the Life of Joseph Gutteridge, Esq. of Denmark Hill, Surrey (1850). See J. H. Y. Briggs, The English Baptists of the Nineteenth Century (Didcot: Baptist Historical Society, 1994) 233-234; DEB.

Stennett, Joseph (1692-1758)—The eldest son of Joseph Stennett (1663-1713), influential pastor of the seventh-day Baptist congregation at Pinners’ Hall, London, the younger Stennett, after a time as pastor of the Baptist meeting in Exeter, came to the congregation at Little Wild Street in 1737, where he remained until his death. His son, Samuel Stennett (1727-1795), succeeded him as pastor. See B. A. Ramsbottom, “The Stennetts,” ed. Haykin, in The British Particular Baptists, 1: 133-143.

Stennett, Joseph (d. 1824)—The son of Samuel Stennett (see above), Joseph was raised in his father’s congregation at Little Wild Street in London. He attended Bristol Academy in 1780 before becoming a Ward Scholar at Aberdeen (1781-1784). He assisted in his father’s church at Little Wild Street until 1798, when he became pastor of the Baptist congregation at Coate, Wiltshire, succeeding Thomas Dunscombe. He left Coate in 1810 to pastor at Calne; he retired to Bristol in 1824. See B. A. Ramsbottom, “The Stennetts,” ed. Haykin, in The British Particular Baptists, 1:133-143.

Steevens, Thomas (1745-1802)—Steevens was a native of Northampton, but was baptized at Devonshire Square in London in July 1771 by John McGowan. He came to Colchester in late December 1773, and was ordained there in August 1774, remaining as pastor until his death in 1802. During his tenure the church absorbed the General Baptists and the Sabbatarians in the area. In September 1791 the Colchester church consisted of 112 members. See Spurrier, Memorials, 28-38, 49.

Stevens, John (1776-1847)—Stevens, originally from Northamptonshire, came to St. Neots in 1799 after preaching at Oundle for two years. On 1 October 1800 a church was formed with 13 members. He resigned in 1805 and removed to the Baptist church in Boston, Lincolnshire (see letter 80). In 1811 he moved to London to pastor a Strict Baptist congregation meeting in Grafton Street. Stevens moved his congregation to York Street, Westminster, in 1813, and in 1824 to a new building in Meard’s Court off Wardour Street, following a split in his congregation at York Street. He subscribed to the BMS in 1804-1805. As John Briggs notes (from private correspondence with this writer), Stevens’s career, in which he moved from his origins among the Particular Baptists to a position adhering to the principles of the Strict Baptists, is a good illustration of how the Strict Baptist position came to be defined within the denomination during the first half of the nineteenth century. See Biblical Magazine 3 (1811): 460; Periodical Accounts, 3:137; Manual of the Baptist Denomination for the Year 1848 (London: Houlston and Stoneman, 1848) 45; Whitley, Baptists of London, 134.

Stillman, Samuel (1737-1807)—Originally from Philadelphia, Stillman pastored the First Baptist Church in Boston, 1765-1805. He was instrumental in the formation of Rhode Island College in 1764, as well as an organizer and officer of the Massachusetts Baptist Missionary Society, the first such society in America. In 1788 he served as a representative from Boston to the Constitutional Convention, and in 1799 was invited to give the eulogy at George Washington’s funeral. Among his publications are Thoughts on the French Revolution (1794) and Select Sermons on Doctrinal and Practical Subjects (1808). See DEB.

Stuart, Charles (1746-1826)—A parish minister in the Church of Scotland at Cramond, Stuart resigned over doctrinal differences in the late 1770s and joined the Scotch Baptist congregation in Edinburgh. He was greatly influenced by reading Archibald McLean’s Defence of Believers’ Baptism, and later became a close friend of Andrew Fuller and an active supporter of the BMS. He edited the Edinburgh Quarterly Magazine from 1798 to 1800. In 1800-1801 he subscribed £2.2 to the BMS, and in 1804-1805 was heavily involved in procuring funds in Scotland for the translation work at Serampore. See Yuille, History, 49, 306; Periodical Accounts, 2:207; 3:147; DEB.

Sturgeon, Thomas (d. 1846)—Sturgeon joined the Baptist church at Waltham Abbey in 1829. For about ten years he was a faithful layman, working with the Sunday school and house-to-house visitation. He removed to Bilston in 1840 to become master of the British school there. After one year, he resigned to accept an appointment as a BMS missionary to the new mission at Fernando Po, sailing on the Palmyra on 2 December 1841 and arriving in West Africa in April 1842. The Missionary Herald published numerous letters by Sturgeon in 1842-1844, in which he detailed the progress of the mission at Fernando Po. He quickly established a school, educating approximately seventy scholars by the end of 1842. Sturgeon died, however, after serving just four years in Africa. See Missionary Herald (August 1842): 452-453; Missionary Herald (October 1842): 558-559; (February 1844): 105; Cox, History, 2:379, 395.

Summers, William—A London tinman, Summers became a close friend and correspondent of Samuel Pearce in the 1780s, accompanying him in 1796 on his preaching tour of Ireland for the Evangelical Society. This was the last of many preaching tours that Pearce engaged in, often for the purpose of collecting money for the BMS. Summers was a steady supporter of the BMS, subscribing £1.1 in 1800-1801 and in 1804-1805. See Periodical Accounts, 2:207; 3:136; Universal British Directory, 1/2:303.

Sutcliff, John (1752-1814)—Born in Yorkshire, Sutcliff was influenced as a young man by John Fawcett and Dan Taylor. He studied at Bristol Academy, 1772-1774, serving as a supply preacher at Trowbridge during part of his time at Bristol. After preaching at Shrewsbury for six months and Cannon Street, Birmingham, for another six months, he accepted the pastorate of the Baptist congregation at Olney early in 1775, remaining there until his death in 1815. Influenced, as were so many other English Baptist ministers at this time, by the writings of Jonathan Edwards, he reprinted Edwards’s Humble Attempt (Northampton, 1789) and led the effort to promote an evangelical Calvinism among the Particular Baptist churches of the Midlands. He was a founding member of the BMS Committee, which explains why so many of his letters in this collection involve BMS matters, especially the letters from Andrew Fuller and John Ryland, Jr. He had a large library of his own and was actively involved in promoting printed Baptist materials throughout the world. He kept a “residential academy” for many years at Olney, much like Fawcett’s in Hebden Bridge. See Sutcliff Centenary. Baptist Chapel, Olney, June 22nd, 1914, (Northampton: n.p., 1914; Michael A. G. Haykin, One Heart; idem, “‘A Habitation of God, through the Spirit’: John Sutcliff (1752-1814) and the Revitalization of the Calvinistic Baptists in the late Eighteenth Century,” Baptist Quarterly 34 (1991-1992): 304-319; idem, “John Sutcliff (1752-1814),” ed. Haykin, British Particular Baptists, 3:21-41; “Sutcliff’s Academy at Olney,” Baptist Quarterly 4 (1928-1929): 276-279; Hayden, Continuity and Crisis, 246; DEB.

Swain, Joseph (1761-1796)—Originally from Birmingham, Swain came to London as an apprentice to his brother, an engraver. He was baptized by John Rippon at Carter Lane on 11 May 1783, and shortly thereafter called to the ministry, organizing the Baptist meeting at Walworth in late 1791.  He was ordained there on 8 February 1792. The church grew considerably and the chapel was enlarged three times during his short tenure, increasing from 27 to over 200 members.  He was the author of several works, including Experimental Essays on Divine Subjects, in Verse and Prose, and Hymns for Social Worship (1791); Walworth Hymns (1792); and Redemption:  A Poem (1797). See DEB.

Swigle [Swiegle], Thomas Nicholas (d. 1811)—Swigle was a black Baptist minister in Jamaica who preached to a congregation of 700 near Kingston, laboring for many years in association with Moses Baker and some other black preachers in Jamaica before the arrival of the BMS missionaries. Swigle had been baptized by George Liele and began as his assistant and deacon. In 1797 he was being assisted in his church-planting work in Kingston by two of his own members, James Pascall and John Gilbert. Several letters by Swigle to Rippon were printed in the Baptist Annual Register between 1793 and 1802. In 1802 Swigle was prohibited for a time from preaching by the passage of a bill in Jamaica that made it illegal, under penalty of hard labor and flogging, for dissenters to instruct any person in a state of slavery. Eventually, the bill was overturned. See Baptist Annual Register, 3:212-214; Cox, History, 2:18-19; Clarke, Memorials, 30-31; Ernest A. Payne, “Baptist Work in Jamaica before the Arrival of the Missionaries,” Baptist Quarterly 7 (1934-1935): 23-24.

Symonds, Joshua (1739-88) served as minister of the Old Meeting (Independent/Baptist) at Bedford from 1766 to his death in 1788. He was born at Kidderminster and by eighteen was living in Bromsgrove, in Worcestershire, under the ministry of Joseph Jenkins.  He attended John Conder’s academy at Mile-End in London in 1760 and joined the Independent church at Stepney, under Samuel Brewer.  He first came to the Bedford church in March 1766, and a year later was installed as pastor.  He was originally paedobaptist, but switched to believer’s baptism in 1772 (the Old Meeting had a long tradition of being a “mixed” congregation).  Some members, however, withdrew to form a new society in Bedford (which later became Howard Congregational Church) under Thomas Smith, Joshua Nicholls, Baptist minister at Kimbolten, was called out of the Bedford church under Symonds’s ministry in 1780. John Ryland preached his funeral sermon in 1788, Christ, the great source of the Believer’s Consolation; and the grand Subject of the Gospel Ministry.  A sermon occasioned by the death of the Rev. Joshua Symonds, pastor of the Congregational Church which assembles at the Old Meeting in Bedford. . .With an Address and an Appendix containing a brief History of the church by John Sutcliff (London, 1788).

Taylor, Charles (1756-1823)—Taylor became well-known for his edition of Calmet’s Great Dictionary of the Holy Bible (1797), which went through numerous English and American editions, including an edition in Charlestown, Massachusetts, printed and sold by Samuel Etheridge, Jr.  He also authored Fragments, being Illustrations of the Manners, Incidents, and Phraseology, of Holy Scripture . . . Intended as a Continued Appendix to Calmet’s Dictionary of the Holy Bible (1799-1803) as well as Concluding Facts and Evidences on the Subject of Baptism (1815). His brother, Isaac Taylor (1759-1829), was an Independent minister and engraver at Colchester (1796-1810) and Ongar (1811-1829).

Taylor, Dan (1738-1816)—Taylor grew up in a small Yorkshire village, hearing the likes of William Grimshaw of Haworth, George Whitefield, and John Wesley as a boy, and consequently adopted Methodism. In the 1760s he became a Baptist, but because he still held Arminian views, he could not find a home among the Particular Baptist congregations of Yorkshire and was baptized at Gamston General Baptist Church, Nottinghamshire. He eventually formed his own General Baptist congregation at Wadsworth, near Birchcliffe, late in 1762. Appalled at the lack of evangelical fervor and orthodox beliefs among so many of the General Baptists, Taylor was instrumental in forming the “New Connection” in 1770. He served as chairman of this group repeatedly and as president of its academy from 1798 to 1812, as well as editor of the General Baptist Magazine from 1798 to 1800. He removed to Halifax in 1783 and then to the General Baptist congregation at Church Lane, White Chapel, London, in 1785. Along with his pastoral and teaching duties, Taylor also operated a bookshop in White Chapel for many years. A tireless itinerant preacher and voluminous writer, Taylor fought continually against the Arian, Socinian, and Unitarian influences within the General Baptist churches of his day.  Though he disagreed with their Calvinism, Taylor was on good terms with many Particular Baptists, especially John Sutcliff. A collection of letters between Taylor and George Birley (see entry above), composed between 1771 and 1808, can be found at the Angus Library, Regent’s Park College, Oxford (D/Hus 1/6). See also Baptists of Yorkshire, ed. Shipley, 104-197; Frank Beckwith, “Dan Taylor (1738-1816) and Yorkshire Baptist Life,” Baptist Quarterly 9 (1938-1939): 297-305; Frank Rinaldi, The “Tribe of Dan”:  A Study of the New Connexion of General Baptists 1770-1891 (Winona Lake: Paternoster, 2006); DEB.

Taylor, Henry (d. 1789)—Taylor ministered to the Baptist congregation at Crawshawbooth, Lancashire, before succeeding James Turner as pastor at Cannon Street in Birmingham in 1782. David Crosley trained both Taylor and Turner for the ministry in Rossendale. Taylor would maintain a successful ministry at Cannon Street until 1789, when Samuel Pearce succeeded him. He resigned, however, in order to return to the Methodists, from whom he had originally belonged. He drowned, not long after leaving Birmingham, during a crossing to Ireland. See Langley, Birmingham Baptists, 32; Mursell, Cannon Street Baptist Church, 9.

Thomas, James (1799-1858)—The son of Thomas Thomas (see below), James Thomas served as a BMS missionary to India, 1826-1858. His wife died in September 1840, leaving him with seven young children. His second wife was Martha Wilson, who was sent to India in 1839 by the Society for Promoting Female Education in the East to teach in English schools (see letters 162, 171). His letters from Calcutta appeared frequently in the pages of the Missionary Herald throughout the 1840s.

Thomas, John (1757-1801)—Originally from Gloucestershire, Thomas was converted under the ministry of Samuel Stennett at Little Wild Street, London. He was trained as a surgeon and served a brief term as a missionary in India in the 1780s, during which time he acquired considerable proficiency in Bengali. His inability to remain financially stable forced his return to England in 1792, after which he met Carey, with whom he returned to India in 1793 under the auspices of the BMS.  Financial difficulties continued to plague Thomas, forcing both Thomas and Carey, through the assistance of Robert Udney, an indigo agent for the East India Company, to become managers of indigo plantations at Mudnabatty, Malda.  Thomas died shortly after he and Carey moved to Serampore to establish the new mission there. Before his death, however, Thomas was instrumental in the conversion of Krishna Pal, the first Hindu convert for the mission. See DEB.

Thomas, Thomas (1759-1819)—The son of Timothy Thomas of Abderduar, Thomas Thomas attended Bristol Academy, 1778-1780. He served as the Baptist minister at Pershore (1781-1789) and Mill Yard (1789-1799) before becoming a schoolmaster (and itinerant preacher) at Peckham. In 1813 he became one of the first secretaries of the Baptist Union. See Ernest A. Payne, The Baptist Union: A Short History  (London: Carey Kingsgate Press, 1959) 24, 26; C. M. Hardy, “Former Secretaries of the Baptist Union,” Baptist Quarterly 1 (1922-1923): 219; Hayden, Continuity and Crisis, 247.

Thomas, Timothy (1753-1827)—Thomas, whose wife was the half-sister of Caleb Evans of Broadmead in Bristol, pastored the Baptist congregation at Devonshire Square, London, from 1781 until his death in 1827. For many years he also conducted a school in Islington (see letter 91).  His father, Joshua Thomas (1719-1797), pastored the Baptist meeting at Leominster, 1753-1797. The latter was a Baptist historian of some note, publishing A History of the Baptist Association in Wales from . . . 1650 in 1795. Like his cousin, Thomas Thomas, Timothy also attended Bristol Academy. See “Dissenters’ Schools, 1660-1820,” 227; Hayden, Continuity and Crisis, 247.

Thompson, Josiah (1724-1806)—Born at Shrewsbury, Thompson was ordained in February 1746 at the Baptist church in Unicorn Yard, London. He resigned in 1761 (he had been assisted by Caleb Evans from 1757-1759) and removed to Bury Street, where in 1764 he succeeded Thomas Porter as the afternoon preacher in the Independent church in Bury Street. After a few years, he retired to Clapham, where he lived off a considerable inheritance until his death in 1806. He did not preach mucdh after his move to Clapham, but was asked three times to present addresses before the King on behalf of the Protestant Dissenting Ministers. His chief work, which was never published but exists in manuscript at Dr. Williams’s Library, was “The State of the Dissenting Interest in the Several Counties of England and Wales . . . The First Part, c. 1774.”  In this work Thompson acquired information on over 600 dissenting congregations in England and Wales at the time of the application to parliament in 1772 for the relief of dissenting ministers (see letter 11). See Wilson, History and Antiquities, 1:326; 4:236.

Thompson, Thomas (d. 1846)—Thompson was appointed in December 1843 as a BMS missionary to Fernando Po. He and Thomas Milburn [Milbourne], (the latter married Catherine Knibb), were set apart for mission work by the church at Tuthill Stairs, Newcastle, in October 1843, a notice of which appeared in the Missionary Herald (December 1843): 683-684. He would sail in February 1845 from England to Cameroons on the maiden voyage of the Dove, an ironclad sailing schooner purchased by the BMS to transport missionaries to and from England and West Africa and the West Indies. An account of a portion of the maiden voyage, written by Thompson, appeared in the Juvenile Missionary Herald (1845): 155-156. Sadly, Thompson did not serve long in West Africa, dying there on 13 March 1846. See Breed, “The Dove,” 441-442.

Tidman, Arthur (1792-1868)—Tidman served many years as minister of the Congregational Church at the Barbican, London; he was one of many who pressed for the founding of the Congregational Union in 1831, serving as one of its first secretaries. He resigned as secretary in 1833 to begin his work with the LMS, assisting William Ellis for two years before sharing the office of Foreign Secretary with Joseph John Freeman, 1841-1846. Between 1846 and 1865, Tidman served alone as Foreign Secretary for the LMS. His final three years he shared secretarial duties with Joseph Mullens. See Congregational Year Book 24 (1869): 281-285; Lovett, History of the London Missionary Society, 647.

Tinson, Joshua (1794-1850)—Tinson was sent by the Baptist church at Shortwood to study with Joseph Kinghorn in Norwich in 1817. A year later, he entered Bristol Academy. He was set apart as a BMS missionary to Jamaica in 1822, preaching  primarily at Hanover Street, St. Thomas Parish, until his death in 1850. While on furlough in England, from August 1841 to January 1843, he completed plans with the BMS for the opening of a college at Calabar, Jamaica, which commenced under Tinson’s leadership in October 1843 with eight students (see letter 219). Tinson served as principal at Calabar until 1850. See Clarke, Memorials, 82-85; H. O. Russell, “A Question of Indigenous Mission: The Jamaican Baptist Missionary Society,” Baptist Quarterly 25 (1973-1974): 88; DEB.

Tommas, John (1723/1724-1800)—Born near Skipton, Yorkshire, Tommas was raised by parents who were originally Anglicans but became dissenters, eventually joining the Baptist church at Barnoldswick, during the ministry of Alvery Jackson, under whom Tommas was converted, baptized and educated. Tommas was called out to the ministry in 1745 and ordained at Gildersome in 1747, his first pastorate. He came to the church in the Pithay in Bristol in 1753, replacing the aged John Beddome, and remained there until his death in 1800. See “Sketch of the Life of the Late Rev. John Tommas, Pastor of the Baptist Church in the Pithay, Bristol,” Annual Register 3 (1798-1800): 313-319.

Tooke, Horne (1736-1812)—Initially a minister in the Church of England, Tooke entered the political scene as a result of his support of the controversial populist John Wilkes during the famous Middlesex election of 1768. By 1771 Tooke’s support of Wilkes had lessened considerably, and he and several other former associates of Wilkes formed the first Constitutional Society. His subsequent public quarrels with Wilkes resulted in Tooke’s loss of church preferment and popular support. He spent a year in jail for his opposition to the war with the American colonies, and after repeated failed attempts to gain entrance to the bar, he received an inheritance from his father that enabled him to live somewhat comfortably. He remained a political agitator, however, joining the Society for Constitutional Information (the successor to his earlier Constitutional Society) in 1780, pushing relentlessly for a reform of parliament and the protection of the rights of citizens and the curtailment of aristocratic privilege. He lost to Charles James Fox in the election for Westminster in 1790, but continued to attend the meetings of the Society, which openly sympathized with the French Revolution. He was arrested in May 1794, along with John Thelwall, Thomas Hardy, and several others, for treason, but was acquitted in December of that year.  He served as an M.P. briefly in 1801-1802 before retiring to his house in Wimbledon, where he died in 1812.

Toulmin, Joshua (1740-1815)—Toulmin was trained for the ministry as an Independent, and though he had already adopted some heterodox opinions, he still began his ministry at Colyton in a Calvinistic church. After only a year, though, he removed to the General Baptist chapel at Taunton, where he remained for forty years, becoming a leading Unitarian minister and author. He was an active political reformer during the 1780s and ’90s. In 1814 he became senior pastor, working with John Kentish, at the New Meeting, Birmingham, Joseph Priestley’s former congregation. Toulmin published over sixty books and numerous periodical pieces. See David L. Wykes, “Joshua Toulmin (1740-1815) of Taunton: Baptist Minister, Historian and Religious Radical,” Baptist Quarterly 39 (2001-2002): 224-243.

Towgood, Micaiah (1700-1792)—Towgood was born in Axminster, Devon, and educated at Taunton. He began his pastoral work at the Cross Chapel, Moretonhampstead, Devon, in 1722. In 1736 he removed to Crediton, Devon, and in 1749 came to George’s Meeting, Exeter, where he remained as pastor until 1782, also serving for many years as tutor at the Exeter Academy. He espoused Unitarian beliefs for most of his ministerial career. Among Towgood’s numerous publications are A Dissent from the Church of England Fully Justified (1753) and A Calm and Plain Answer to the Enquiry, Why are You a Dissenter from the Church of England? Containing Some Remarks on its Doctrine, Spirit, Constitution, and Some of its Offices and Forms of Devotion (1772).

Townsend, George (1744-1783)—Townsend was from the parish of Halifax, Yorkshire, and was one of four original students to attend John Fawcett’s academy, where he was baptized and admitted to Fawcett’s congregation at Hebden Bridge. He was invited by the Accrington church for a trial ministry in 1775, and soon became the regular minister, remaining there until his death in 1783. John Fawcett preached his funeral sermon. See Wylie, Baptist Churches of Accrington, 36-38.

Trestrail, Frederick (1803-1890)—Baptized at Falmouth as a teenager, Trestrail left for Bristol Academy in 1827, during Robert Hall’s tenure as president of the Academy and pastor of Broadmead. He pastored briefly at Little Wild Street in London in 1831, and at Clipston for four years, before moving to Newport, Isle of Wight, for reasons of health. He later served as secretary of the Baptist Irish Society (1844-1849), secretary of the BMS (1849-1869), and president of the Baptist Union (1880). He also pastored the Baptist church in Newport for twelve years before retiring to Bristol. He is mainly known for his Reminiscences of College Life in Bristol (1879). See DEB.

Trinder, Thomas (1740-1794)—Trinder came to Northampton from Gloucestershire in 1762 to work as an usher in Ryland’s academy. After joining the congregation at College Lane, however, he removed to London in April 1764, where he joined Edward Hitchin’s Independent congregation at White Row, Spitalfields. He soon returned to Northampton and in 1768 married Martha Smith, a member of the College Lane church and governess of a girl’s boarding school at Northampton, 1765-1789. Trinder did not rejoin the church at College Lane, however, until 1775, and was not baptized until 1783. In 1777, he and Joseph Dent (who married John Collett Ryland’s daughter, Elizabeth) were made deacons. Trinder died in 1794, leaving £500 to the church at Northampton to be distributed among the poor.  His spiritual autobiography appeared in the Baptist Annual Register, 2:286-303.  See also the College Lane Church Book, ff. 43, 190; Payne, College Street Church, Northampton, 19; Elwyn, Northamptonshire Baptist Association, 26-27; Baptist Annual Register, 1:135-142.

Trowt, Thomas (1784-1816)—Trowt, a native of Kingsbridge, Devon, joined the Baptist church in How’s Lane, Plymouth (at that time pastored by John Dyer) in December 1811. After spending several years working in Kingsbridge and Plymouth, Trowt answered the call to the mission field, entering Bristol Academy in August 1813. He was set apart by the Pithay congregation in Bristol as a BMS missionary in April 1814, arriving in Java on 16 September 1814. Before he left Bristol, he married John Dyer’s sister-in-law, Eliza Burnell. John Ryland, who spoke at Trowt’s dedication service, observed that “since Mr. Trowt came to Bristol … at the expense of the Baptist Missionary Society, he has discovered much ardent piety, and remarkable diligence in the acquisition of learning.” Trowt’s service in Java, however, was short-lived; he died from dysentery at Samarang in October 1816. See Periodical Accounts, 5:295-296 (for Ryland’s quotation above); 6:355-396 (“Memoir of Mr. Thomas Trowt”); Baptist Magazine 6 (1814): 256-58; Cox, History, 1:253, 310-311; Carey, Oriental Christian Biography, 2:368-372. Some letters to Trout by Fuller, Carey, Marshman, and others, can be found at Bristol Baptist College Library.

Tucker, Francis—Tucker was set apart at Stepney as a BMS missionary to Calcutta in 1839. He ministered for a time at the Circular Road Chapel in Calcutta, where he was warmly received. His health declined, however, forcing his return to England in December 1840. He settled in Manchester and was instrumental in the formation of the Union Chapel, Oxford Street, Manchester, serving as the church’s first pastor. By February 1842 he was no longer receiving pecuniary support from the BMS. He attended a Jubilee meeting of the BMS in Manchester on 7 June 1842, and brought forth many of the resolutions at the Annual Public Meeting of the BMS in London on 1 May 1845. He would later serve as pastor of the Camden Road Baptist Chapel, Camden Town, London. Union Chapel in Manchester would continue to prosper, however, largely due to the popular ministry of Alexander Maclaren (1826-1910). Tucker was in close fellowship in London with the Congregationalists, attending and even speaking during the annual meeting of the London Missionary Society in May 1860. He was the father of Leonard Tucker, BMS missionary to India and Jamaica. See Cox, History, 2:307, 400; Nightingale, Lancashire Nonconformity, 250; Payne, “Journal of Jane Parsons,” 267, 322; Sellers, “Other Times, Other Ministries,” 187; Baptist Magazine 33 (1841): 35; 34, 138, 140; (1842): 400; Missionary Herald (1845): 83ff; Missionary Magazine and Chronicle (June 1860): 473-477; BMS Committee Minutes, Vol. H (Oct. 1841-Dec. 1842), f. 83.

Tuppen, Thomas (1742-1790)—Tuppen was from Brighthelmstone, Sussex, and became a preacher in Whitefield’s Connexion, supplying at Whitefield’s Tabernacle in London and in Sussex and other places. He preached in the Portsea Tabernacle, Hants., between 1768 and 1785 (he was ordained there in 1769). His final pastorate was at Bath from 1785 to 1790. See Evangelical Magazine 2 (1794): 517.

Turner, James (1726-1780)—Turner came from Bacup to the Baptist congregation at Cannon Street in Birmingham in 1755, and was ordained there that year. At that time, the church numbered about 40 members, but under Turner’s ministry the church greatly prospered, and in 1763 the chapel was enlarged, with another enlargement set to begin at about the time of his death in 1780, when membership was over 150. The tablet erected in his memory in the church notes that “he was a clear, judicious, acceptable, and successful preacher and he was a defender of all the doctrines of the everlasting Gospel.” Henry Taylor succeeded Turner in 1782. Taylor was followed by Samuel Pearce in 1789. For more on Turner, see J. E. Hale, Cannon Street Baptist Church, Birmingham. Its History from 1737 to 1880 (London: n.p., 1880).

Turner, Samuel Hulbeart (1790-1861)—After graduating from the University of Pennsylvania in 1807, Turner became an ordained priest of the Episcopal Church in America in 1814. After serving five years in Chestertown, Maryland, he returned to Philadelphia for a year as a superintendent in a theological school before being appointed professor of Historic Theology at the General Theological Seminary of the Episcopal Church in 1819. After a year in New Haven, Connecticut, the seminary relocated to New York City in 1821, with Turner now serving as professor of Biblical Learning and Interpretation of Holy Scriptures, a position he held until his death in 1861. Among his numerous published writings are a translation of Johann Jahn’s An Introduction to the Old Testament (1827); The Claims of the Hebrew Language and Literature (1831); A Companion to the Book of Genesis (1846); and Thoughts on the Origin, Character, and Interpretation of Scriptural Prophecy in Seven Discourses (1851).

Ustick, Thomas (1753-1803)—Ustick graduated from the Baptist College in Rhode Island (now Brown University) in 1771, after which he pastored Baptist churches in Connecticut and Massachusetts before settling in Philadelphia in 1782, where he served as senior pastor of Philadelphia’s First Baptist Church from 1782 until his death in 1803. He also operated a bookshop and was a librarian. From 1784 to 1791 he served in an ex officio capacity as a trustee of the College of Philadelphia (later the University of Pennsylvania). Like his friend William Rogers (see letter 51), he also was a member of the Pennsylvania Society for the Abolition of Slavery. See Act of Incorporation and Constitution of the Pennsylvania Society, 23.

Vaughan, Robert Alfred (1795-1868)—Vaughan was a prominent Congregational minister, eminent scholar, and prolific writer. He was privately educated by William Thorpe in Bristol, after which he pastored churches in Worcester and Kensington (1819-1833) before becoming professor of modern history at University College, London, in 1834. He left in 1843 to assume the presidency of Lancashire Independent College, Manchester. In 1857 he returned to London, ministering for a time at Uxbridge before retiring. He was one of the founding editors of the British Quarterly Review (1845-1886), remaining with the journal for twenty years. Among his publications are Religious Parties in England: Their Principles, History, and Present Duty (1839); Congregationalism: or, The Polity of Independent Churches Viewed in Relation to the State and Tendencies of Modern Society (1842); The Modern Pulpit Viewed in Relation to Society (1842); and The Age of Great Cities; or, Modern Society Viewed in its Relation to Intelligence, Morals, and Religion (1843), which was reviewed in the Baptist Magazine 35 (1843): 302-306. His edition of Milton’s Paradise Lost was reprinted numerous times in the last half of the nineteenth century. See Albert Peel, The Congregational Two Hundred (London:  Independent Press, 1948) 149; DEB.

Vaughan, Samuel—Vaughan was the proprietor of the estate at Flamstead where Moses Baker preached regularly to a large congregation of slaves. Vaughan allowed Baker much freedom in ministering to the slaves in the early 1800s, except in the area of marriage, to which Vaughan had to give his assent. Vaughan received much criticism from other slave-owners about what was occurring on his estate, but he allowed it nevertheless. He wrote in 1802, “The labours of Mr. Baker have been pursued nearly eight years, viz. from the 15th of October, 1794, and with increasing advantages to the property and to the negroes.” Vaughan assisted in protecting Thomas Burchell from angry mobs in March 1832 during the riots directed at the missionaries and their chapels. For Vaughan’s statement on Baker, see Clarke, Memorials, 29; also Cox, History, 2:117.

Vernor, Thomas (d. 1793)—Vernor opened his first bookshop at 31 Newgate Street, London, in 1766, later operating shops in Ludgate Hill and Bishopsgate Street. According to the Eagle Street Church Book, in 1767, Vernor, “stationer on Ludgate Hill, gave a satisfactory account of a work of God on his soul while destitute of ye means of grace at Gibralter & was accepted” as a member of the church, then under the ministry of Andrew Gifford. Vernor moved his shop to St. Michael’s Alley, Cornhill, in 1772 and then to Birchin Lane in 1786. He died in 1793 and the firm was taken over by Thomas Hood, also a dissenter, who operated the business, then known as Vernor and Hood, until his death in 1811.  See Eagle Street Church Book, f. 120v; John Nichols, Literary Anecdotes of the Eighteenth Century, 9 vols. (London: J. Nichols, 1812-16) 3:665; Henry Robert Plomer, et. al., A Dictionary of the Printers and Booksellers who were at Work in England, Scotland and Ireland from 1726 to 1775 (London: The Bibliographical Society, 1968) 251.

Wade, Josiah (1760/61-1842)—Wade was an attendant at the Broadmead church, where he paid for pew subscriptions in 1787, 1788, and 1790, and later at the Baptist meeting in the Pithay, where he worshiped with Joseph Cottle. Wade was especially devoted to the ministry of Thomas Roberts during his tenure as pastor at the Pithay. He came to know John Foster and Samuel Taylor Coleridge in the 1790s as well. During the summer of 1794, shortly before Coleridge’s initial visit to Bristol with Robert Southey, both Cottle and Wade contributed monies to rebuild the Baptist meeting house in Salisbury. Coleridge lived with Wade during his visit to Bristol in 1813-1814, when Coleridge was attempting to control his opium addiction. Two letters of Coleridge, both written from Bath in December 1813—one to Josiah Wade and the other to Thomas Roberts (1780-1841), graduate of the Academy in Bristol—provide a telling look at Coleridge’s opium addiction as well as Coleridge’s longstanding connections with prominent Baptist figures.  In the letter to Wade, dated 8 December 1813, Coleridge writes: “Pray for my recovery—and request Mr. Robarts’s [sic] Prayers—but for my infirm wicked Heart, that Christ may mediate to the Father to lead me to Christ, & give me a living instead of a reasoning Faith!—and for my Health as far only as it may be the condition of my Improvement & final Redemption.” More information on Wade and Coleridge comes from a letter by John Foster to the Rev. Josiah Hill, dated May 1842, in which Foster writes: 

You have heard mention of Mr. Wade, near the Hotwells, Coleridge’s friend. I attended his funeral on Monday morning … [Foster had visited him during his last sudden illness] I thought he recognized me just for a moment; as indicated by a slight transient smile.  I do not remember how or when I became acquainted with him, many years since. I had always found him extremely kind and hospitable. For years I had dined with him about once a month, usually in the company of Roberts, to whom he had been a faithful friend, and an attendant on his ministry. A few months before his death he made me a present of a very splendid set of engravings which had cost him thirty pounds. His age was eighty-one. He was not a literary nor properly speaking an intellectual man; it having been from mere generous good-will to a man floating loose on society, that he had, some forty years since, put his house and purse at the free service of Coleridge, and partly his associates … He did not make formally what we denominate a profession of religion, but there were favorable indications in the manner in which he expressed himself in his illness.

The letter reveals an interesting linkage between Foster, Cottle, Wade, and Roberts and the activities of the BMS in India. See Broadmead Subscription Book, no. 3, 1772-1813; for Cottle’s and Wade’s signatures in the collection book for Salisbury, see Saffery-Whitaker Papers, acc. 180, B/4, Angus Library, Regent’s Park College, Oxford; E. L. Griggs, ed., Collected Letters of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, 6 vols. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1956-1971) 3:462; Ryland, Life and Correspondence, 2:275-276 (for Foster letter quoted above); Whelan, "John Foster,” 644-646.

Wake, Thomas—Wake began his ministry as pastor of the Baptist church at Smarden, Kent. In 1794 he removed to the Baptist meeting at Leighton Buzzard, where he remained until 1827; his final ministry was at Kislingbury, Northamptonshire, 1827-1831. In 1797 he assisted in the formation of the Bedfordshire Union; he was also active in village preaching. See Baptist Annual Register, 2:2; Baptist Magazine 27 (1835): 160-164, 203-207.

Waldegrave, Thomas (1732-1812)—Waldegrave was originally from Norwich and a Catholic by birth. He became a dissenter after attending the Old Meeting  (Independent) in Norwich as a teenager and hearing Whitefield preach. In 1756 he became one of the first students to attend James Scott’s Heckmondwike Academy. While at Heckmondwike, Waldegrave began preaching at nearby Tockholes, and (as letter 6 suggests) was ordained there in 1762. He remained at Tockholes until 1771, when he moved to the Independent meeting at Whiting Street, Bury St. Edmunds. A young Henry Crabb Robinson heard Waldegrave preach on many occasions, but was largely unimpressed with the evangelical Waldegrave, describing him some years later as “an ignorant, noisy, ranting preacher.” Around 1800 Waldegrave’s mental faculties began to fail and Charles Dewhirst, a student from Hoxton Academy, replaced him on 28 May 1801. See Evangelical Magazine 22 (1814): 262-267; J. Duncan, “History of the Congregational Church in Bury St. Edmunds (Its First 150 Years)”  (Typescript, Dr. Williams’s Library, London, 5106.5K.39); Thomas Sadler, ed., Diary, Reminiscences, and Correspondence of Henry Crabb Robinson, 3rd ed., 2 vols. (London and New York: Macmillan, 1872), 1: 5; Clyde Binfield, “Six Letters of Robert Robinson: A Suggested Context and a Noble Footnote,” Baptist Quarterly 40 (2003): 51-54.

Wallich, Nathaniel (1786-1854)—Wallich, like William Carey, was a well-known botanist and horticulturalist. He sent numerous specimens of plants from India back to the Botanic Gardens in Liverpool. Originally from Copenhagen, he went to India in 1807 as surgeon to the Danish Settlement at Serampore. When the East India Company took over Serampore in 1813, Wallich became the surgeon for the Mission Station at which Carey was superintendent. On the death of Dr. William Roxburgh in 1815, Wallich became curator of the Botanic Garden in Calcutta. In 1828 he brought over 8000 specimens of plants with him to England; the next year he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society. He continued to work in India between 1835 and 1842 before returning to England in retirement in 1847. The 1825 Report of the Botanic Garden noted “the kindness and assiduity of our friends and correspondents there [India], amongst whom there are none that have conferred upon us such signal and long continued favours, as the Rev. Dr. Carey, of Serampore, and Dr. Wallich, who may truly be said to have vied with each other, in the joint and friendly interest they have taken in supplying us with every valuable and curious plant which that country, so rich in its vegetable productions, could afford”  (quoted by G. H. Parry, chief librarian, Liverpool Public Libraries, in a letter to S. Pearce Carey, 9 March 1933,  in the S. Pearce Carey Collection, Angus Library, Regent’s Park College, folder marked “Botanical Carey”). See also Stanfield, Handbook and Guide, 46-47; Farrer, William Carey: Missionary and Botanist, 100-108.

Wallis, Beeby (1735-1792)—Wallis was a deacon in the Kettering church for twenty-four years, serving as interim minister for five years at one point. He was baptized by John Brown in 1768 and would later serve as treasurer of the Northamptonshire Baptist Association Fund. As J. W. Morris writes in his biography of Andrew Fuller, Beeby Wallis’s father “was a respectable member of the same community.  His grandfather, Thomas Wallis, was pastor at the time the learned Dr. Gill and Mr. Brine were members of the church, and were called to the ministry during his presidency. His great-grandfather, Mr. William Wallis, was the first minister and founder of the church at Kettering, in the year 1696. His grandfather, Thomas Wallis (d. 1726), succeeded his father as pastor, during which time both John Brine and John Gill were called to the ministry from the Kettering church. Mr. Beeby Wallis died without issue, and only collateral branches of his family exist. . . . About six months after the death of this valuable man, the Baptist Missionary Society was formed under the roof of his hospitable mansion, and warmly patronised by his pious widow.” See “Mr. Beeby Wallis, A Deacon of the Church at Kettering,” Baptist Annual Register, 1:488-491; Andrew Fuller, The Blessedness of the Dead, Who Die in the Lord. A Sermon Delivered at Kettering, in Northamptonshire, at the Funeral of Mr. Beeby Wallis (London: Collis, 1792); Morris, Memoirs, 45-46; W. T. Whitley, “The Wallis House, 1792,” Baptist Quarterly 1 (1922-1923): 167.

Ward, Nathaniel (b. 1798)—BMS missionaries Charles Evans and Richard Burton had been asked by Sir Thomas Raffles, then governor of Sumatra, to open a station at Fort Marlborough to begin work on a translation of the Java New Testament. William Ward’s nephew, Nathaniel, from Derby, had arrived in Sumatra with his printing press in April 1819 (see letter 124). The younger Ward worked along with Gottlob Brückner in Sumatra for many years before the BMS closed its mission there. Ward remained behind on his own, sustaining himself through agriculture while continuing to work on a translation of the Bible. Andrew Fuller visited Derby in 1812, mainly for the purpose of meeting the then fourteen-year-old Nathaniel, at that time apprenticed to a Mr. Smith, carpenter and joiner.  Fuller describes the meeting in a letter to William Ward at Serampore on 15 July 1812:  “The boy has a fine open countenance, and apparently heatlthy constitution. He bears a great resemblance to what I can conceive my dear brother Ward to have been at his age.” See Cox, History, 1:354; “Calendar of Letters,” Baptist Quarterly 7 (1934-1935): 45.

Ward, William (1769-1823)—Born and raised in Derbyshire, Ward became editor of the Derby Mercury in the late 1780s; he later edited the Staffordshire Advertiser and the Hull Advertiser, displaying throughout his brief career in journalism a strong affinity for radical reform politics. After his baptism at Hull in 1796, he abandoned politics and newspapers and entered John Fawcett’s academy at Wainsgate to study for the ministry. Apparently he was still involved enough in civil matters, however, to publish a pamphlet titled The Abolition of the Slave Trade, Peace, and a Temperate Reform Essential to the Salvation of England (1796). In 1797 he began assisting the ailing Samuel Pearce in Birmingham, but his mind had for some time been focused on Carey’s mission in India. Ward had met Carey at Carter Lane in London on 31 March 1793; five years later, in October 1798, Ward wrote to Carey, informing Carey that he was coming to India. With Joshua Marshman and several others, Ward arrived at Serampore on 13 October 1799, and would soon join with Carey in building the work of the Serampore Mission. His main work involved the Mission Press, considered by many as the most important press in Asia in the nineteenth century. His Account of the Writings, Religion, and Manners, of the Hindoos (Serampore, 1811), was considered well into the twentieth century as the standard guide to Bengal.  He married the widow of John Fountain in 1802.  He also founded the first western-style newspaper in an Indian language, the Samachar Darpan. While on furlough in England in 1819-1821, Ward helped found the British India Society. He died of cholera shortly after his return to India in 1823. See Eustace Carey, Memoir, 85-86, 282; S. Pearce Carey, William Carey, 112, 172; A. Christopher Smith, “William Ward, Radical Reform, and Missions in the 1790s,” American Baptist Quarterly 10 (1991): 218-244; idem, “William Ward (1769-1823),” ed. Haykin, in The British Particular Baptists, 2:255-271; DEB.

Warhurst, Caleb—He was ordained in 1756 and began to assist James Winterbottom at the Baptist meeting at Coldhouse, in Manchester. Upon Winterbottom’s death in 1759, Warhurst, an Independent and friend of John Newton, became pastor, remaining there until April 1762, when a group of Independents broke from the Baptists at Coldhouse and formed a new meeting in Cannon Street, with Warhurst as pastor. John Byrom of Manchester records in his diary that Newton, then worshiping mostly with the Independents, came to the opening of the Cannon Street chapel on 20 April 1762. Warhurst died in 1765.  A letter from Titus Knight (and nine other members of the church at Halifax) to Caleb Warhurst at Manchester, 3 June 1763, requests that Warhurst visit Halifax to assist a Bro. Edwards in ordaining a Mr. Knight (MS., Congregational Library, MSS. II. Misc. Letters 1669-1819, a. 40, f. 13, Dr. Williams’s Library, London). Warhurst was succeeded at Cannon Street by Timothy Priestley, brother of Joseph Priestley, the Unitarian. See Halley, Lancashire: Its Puritanism and Nonconformity, 519; Urwick, Historical Sketches, 293.

Warne, Joshua—Warne was a deacon at the Baptist meeting at Carter Lane, Southwark, during the ministry of John Gill. Warne, along with George Keith, Gill’s son-in-law, would leave Carter Lane after Gill’s death and join the new Baptist congregation at Dean Street in January 1774. Warne served as secretary of the Particular Baptist Fund, 1774-1783. See Horsleydown and Carter Lane Church Book, ff. 22-27.

Webb, Joseph (1779-1814)—Originally from Andover, Hampshire, Webb attended the Baptist church at Broughton, first under Josiah Lewis, then William Steadman. In 1793 Steadman married Webb’s sister. Webb was baptized in 1796 and became a member of the church at Broughton, and in April began to reside with Steadman as one of his pupils. He accompanied Steadman and Saffery on their first itinerating tour of Cornwall in July and August 1797, preaching his first sermon at that time. He entered Bristol Academy in August 1797. In February and March 1801, Webb supplied at Cannon Street in Birmingham. After completing his studies at Bristol in the summer of 1801, he was called to the Baptist congregation at Tiverton, where he was ordained. That same year he married Christiana Jones, daughter of a Mr. Jones of Wilder Street, Bristol, a member of the church in Broadmead. The Tiverton church was greatly reduced in numbers when Webb went there, but within a short while the attendance had increased to more than 400 and side galleries were added to the chapel. In July 1804, due to health reasons, Webb left Tiverton and returned to Bristol. In 1806 he removed to Birmingham and in 1807 began teaching students in his home. His health remained poor, however, and he never resumed preaching. A letter from Webb to F. A. Cox, dated 5 February 1801, from Bristol, was printed in the Baptist Magazine 7 (1815): 413-415. See W. H. Rowe, “Memoir of the Rev. Joseph Webb,” Baptist Magazine 7 (1815): 221-231.

Weitbrecht, John James (1802-1852)—Originally from Germany, Weitbrecht and his wife, Mary Edwards Weitbrecht (widow of LMS missionary Thomas Higgs) served as CMS missionaries in Burdwan, India, 1834-1852. The Weitbrecht’s sailed for England on furlough in December 1841, returning to India in October 1844. Weitbrecht gained some recognition for his publication, Protestant Missions in Bengal Illustrated (1844). Mrs. Weitbrecht continued in India long after her husband’s death, publishing some important works on the role of women in Indian missions and on the condition of women in India, especially those who were under the restrictive isolation of the zenana. She writes in The Women of India and Christian Work in the Zenana (1875) that “everywhere [zenana] means the same thing, namely, that women are not to be trusted, but must be shut up as birds in a cage¾must be hidden from the sight of all but their own husbands … Yet it is only lately that we have begun to realise, even in the faintest degree, the thickness of the gloom in which these poor women have been for so many long centuries simmered.” She died in Notting Hill, London, in 1888, aged 79. Among Mrs. Weitbrecht’s publications are Female Missionaries in India: Letters from a Missionary’s Wife Abroad to a Friend in England (1843); Missionary Sketches in North India with References to Recent Events (1858); and a Memoir of her husband (1857). See Frederic Boase, Modern English Biography, 6 vols. (New York: Barnes and Noble, 1965) 6:819; Anna Johnston, Missionary Writing and Empire, 1800-1860 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003) (quotation from Mrs. Weitbrecht above taken from p. 88); DEB.

Welsh  [Welch], Thomas—Welsh was originally from Folkestone and was trained as a businessman.  He began studying with Sutcliff in Olney in 1810 and in June 1811 left for King’s Lynn to become the minister at the Baptist church there. He was ordained on October 1811, but resigned in February 1813, “owing to dissatisfaction on the part of some members” (the church  under its former pastor, William Richards, had acquired a substantial number of Arians). He then moved to the Baptist congregation at Newbury, where he was ordained in August 1813 (see letter 108). Welsh was present at the death of John Sutcliff in Olney on 22 June, hearing Sutcliff’s last words. Welsh would remain at Newbury until 1839. See Baptists in King’s Lynn, 15; Sutcliff Centenary, 7; B. R. White, “Samuel Whitewood, 1794-1860, at Andover,” Baptist Quarterly 25 (1973-1974): 232.

West, John (1754-1835) was originally from the Baptist church at Soham; upon Fuller’s removal to Kettering, West assumed the pulpit there in 1784. He removed to Carlton in 1787, and eventually pastored congregations in Berkshire and in Ireland, working heavily on behalf of the Baptist Irish Society between 1814 and 1835.

Whitford, John—Like William Hague (see entry above), Whitford was originally a Methodist preacher affiliated with both John Wesley and George Whitefield (James Ashworth notes in letter 18 that Whitford came to Yorkshire “16 years since,” which would have been 1759, while he was serving as a Methodist minister).  Whitford eventually became an Independent minister, first at Clockheaton, Yorkshire, 1762-1766 (where he also conducted a school), then at Thornton, Bradford, and Kipping, 1766-1775. Unfortunately, at the latter place his “resignation became a necessity.” He also had a short stay at the Independent congregation at Duke’s Alley, Bolton, in Lancashire, 1775-1776. He then became a Baptist under the influence of John Allen from Bewdley, ministering at Bicester, Oxfordshire, in the 1780s. He continued to preach, planting churches and supporting missions, until 1821. See Miall, Congregationalism in Yorkshire, 234, 249; Nightingale, Lancashire Nonconformity, 3:19.

Wiffen, Jeremiah Holmes (1792-1836)—A Quaker from Woburn, Bedfordshire, Wiffen opened a school in 1811 at Woburn. In 1813 he published, along with Thomas Raffles and James Baldwin Brown, Poems by Three Friends, followed by Elegiac Lines (1818) and Aonian Hours in 1819. Wiffen’s collection of poems, Julia Alpinala (1820) included a poetic tribute to Wordsworth titled “Sonnet to W. Wordsworth, Esq.” In the summer of 1821 Wiffen was appointed librarian at Woburn Abbey. His translation of Tasso’s Jerusalem Delivered appeared in 1824. Near the end of his life he published Historical Memoirs of the House of Russell (1833). See Samuel Rowles Pattison, The Brothers Wiffen: Memoirs and Miscellanies (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1880).

Wilks, Mark (1748-1819)—Wilks was born at Gilbralter, the son of an army officer. He moved with his family back to Birmingham in 1756 and later was apprenticed as a button-maker. In his early twenties he left the Anglican Church and was baptized and admitted to the Baptist church at Cannon Street in Birmingham, under the ministry of James Turner. He was also greatly attracted to the Methodists at this time. He was invited by the Countess of Huntingdon to study at her college at Trevecca, eventually becoming one of her ministers in 1776 at the Tabernacle in Norwich. After he married in 1778, he was forced to leave the Countess’s connexion, and a group pulled out of the Tabernacle and formed St. Paul’s Chapel, a Calvinistic Methodist church, in 1780, with Wilks as founding pastor. In 1788, he constituted the church as a Particular Baptist church, at which time many of his followers deserted him. He would remain at St. Paul’s until his death in 1819. To help support himself, he turned to farming at Costessey for the next ten years, taking no salary from the church. After that, he received £50 per annum. In the early 1790s, Wilks became actively involved in the movement for political reform, an interest that led to two significant publications, The Origin and Stability of the French Revolution. A Sermon Preached at St. Paul’s Chapel, Norwich, July 14, 1791 (Norwich, 1791); and Athaliah, or The Tocsin Sounded by Modern Alarmists. Two Collection Sermons Towards Defraying the Expense of the Defendants in the Late Trials for High Treason, Preached on the 19th of April, 1795 in St. Paul’s Chapel, Norwich (Norwich, 1795). As his daughter notes in her “Memoir” of Wilks, “It is indeed alleged that a Christian minister ought not to interfere with the politics, either of his own or any other nation—that it is his duty to attend to the spiritual instead of the temporal interests of his fellow creatures. But can it be said that the one is not dependent on the other, and that where a nation is enchained by slavery and despotism, religion, if it can at all survive in a soil so unpropitious, will not partake of its sterility, and be feeble and unhealthy?” The church at St. Paul’s grew, and in 1814 they moved into a new chapel in Colegate, St. Clement’s. Wilks was also an early and avid supporter of the BMS throughout his ministry. See Sarah Wilks, Memoirs of Rev. Mark Wilks.  With an Appendix (London: Francis Westley, 1821);  Harold F. Oxbury, From St. Paul’s to Unthank Road (Norwich: n.p., 1925) 11-15.

Wilks, Matthew (1746-1829)— The brother of Mark Wilks (see previous entry), Matthew Wilks was an Independent minister for most of his life, first at the Moorfields (built by George Whitefield) and later at the Tottenham Court Road Chapel. He was also involved in the creation of the Evangelical Magazine (1793), the London Missionary Society (1795), the Religious Tract Society (1799), the Irish Evangelical Society, and the British and Foreign Bible Society (1804). He was an active supporter of itinerant preaching, serving for twenty-five years as the honorary secretary of the Village Itinerancy. He vehemently opposed Lord Sidmouth’s bill in 1811 for the licensing of non-conformist chapels. His son, John (a radical MP for Boston in the 1830s), was the first secretary of The Protestant Society for the Protection of Religious Liberty, an organization that fought for the repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts in 1828. His other son, Mark, was a Congregational minister in London. See DEB.

Willcocks, Thomas (d. 1845)—Willcocks studied at Homerton Academy in 1810 before assuming the pastorate of the Baptist church at Pembroke Street in Devonport in 1811, where he remained until his retirement in 1837. He authored three works late in life: Moral and Sacred Poetry (Devonport, 1829), with Thomas Horton; History of Russia, from the Foundation of the Empire, by Rurik, to the Present Time (Devonport, 1832); and Psalms and Hymns for Public and Private Worship (Devonport, 1839).

Williams, Edward (1750-1813)—Williams was a Welshman who served as an Independent minister at Ross-on-Wye, Herefordshire (1776) and Oswestry (1777-1791), keeping an academy during much of that time. Like Ryland, Fuller, and Sutcliff, Williams was a committed evangelical Calvinist. In 1792 he removed to Birmingham to pastor the Carrs Lane Independent church, at which time he was awarded an honorary D.D. from Edinburgh University. His most important publication was An Essay on the Equity of Divine Government and the Sovereignty of Divine Grace, which Edwards proposed for publication by subscription in an advertisement in February 1792. He also published that same year A Discourse on the Christian’s Reasons for Glorying in the Cross of Christ, Containing a Vindication of Christian Societies and Ministers who Insist on the Importance of Preaching Christ Crucified (Shrewsbury, 1792).

Williams, Thomas (1755-1839)—Willliams was a London Calvinistic preacher (Independent), writer, and bookseller, operating from 10 Stationer’s Court, Ludgate Street, London, from 1800 to 1818. In 1793 he was one of the founding editors of the Evangelical Magazine. In 1794 he published a stinging attack on Thomas Paine entitled The Age of Infidelity: In Answer to Thomas Paine’s Age of Reason, Part 1.  The following year William Button published Williams’s The Age of Credulity, as well as his An Historic Defence of Experimental Religion; in which the Doctrine of Divine Influences is Supported by the Authority of Scripture, and the Experience of the Wisest and Best Men in all Ages and Countries (2 vols; (1795). Williams followed this in 1796 with The Age of Infidelity:  Part II. In Answer to the Second Part of The Age of Reason  (also printed by Button). He should not be confused with another London bookseller by the same name who, in 1797, was tried for sedition for printing Paine’s Age of Reason. In 1801 Williams was serving as the depositary for the Religious Tract Society. He consistently maintained close ties with Particular Baptists, especially Andrew Fuller, J. W. Morris, and William Newman. In 1804-1805 Williams was a subscriber to the Baptist Missionary Society. See Baptist Annual Register, 3:543; Periodical Accounts, 3:137.

Wilson, John Broadley (1765-1835)—Baptized by Isaiah Birt in Plymouth, Wilson was for many years an official in the ordnance department at Devonport dockyard after his removal to Clapham. He served as treasurer of the BMS from 1826 to 1834 (see letters 83 and 146); he was also elected the first treasurer of the London Baptist Building Fund in 1824. He worshiped for many years at Rowland Hill’s Surrey Chapel. See Stanley, History, 210; Seymour J. Price, “The Centenary of the Baptist Building Fund,” Baptist Quarterly 3 (1926-1927): 86; DEB.

Wilson, Thomas (1764-1843)—A London silk merchant who attended the Tabernacle in London (founded by George Whitefield), Wilson was the son of Thomas Wilson (1731-1794). The elder Wilson helped build a dissenting chapel at Derby in 1784. The younger Wilson succeeded his father as treasurer of Hoxton Academy in 1794, and remained so until his death. He retired from business in 1798, living then at 16 Artillery Place, near Finsbury Square. In 1799 he was instrumental in building a new chapel at Hoxton (opened 24 April 1800) and gave the ground for the Hoxton Academy when it moved to Highbury in 1826. After 1804 he often served as a lay preacher and was instrumental in building numerous chapels around London and in other cities and locations in England. He became one of the first directors of the London Missionary Society in September 1795 (he later served as treasurer of the LMS from 1832 to 1843); he served as treasurer of the British and Foreign Bible Society, the Religious Tract Society, the Congregational Library; and he was one of the founders of the University of London. Mrs. Elizabeth Wilson (to whom letter 61 is addressed) was the daughter of Arthur Clegg, timber merchant and founding member of the Mosley Street Chapel  (Independent) in Manchester (see letter 6). The Wilsons were married in 1791. Thomas Wilson was, like many dissenters in the 1790s, a strong advocate for political reform and the rights of the people; he was also opposed to England’s war with France in 1793. As letter 61 reveals, Wilson maintained close connections with Independents and Baptists, subscribing in 1804-1805 to the Baptist Missionary Society. His son, Joshua Wilson, was also a major figure in British Congregationalism. See Joshua Wilson, Memoir of the Life and Character of Thomas Wilson, Esq., Treasurer of Highbury College (London: John Snow, 1849); Periodical Accounts, 3:137; DEB.

Winter, Thomas (1790-1863)—Winter joined the Baptist church at Wellington in 1806. He was ordained in 1814 and began ministering at Saltash, Cornwall. In 1816 he removed to the church at Beckington in Somersetshire, and in 1823 became pastor of the Baptist church at Counterslip, Bristol, where he remained for 37 years. He baptized over 2000 persons in his ministerial career.

Woodman, Isaac (1715-1777)—Woodman attended Bristol Academy, 1738-1740, after which he served as pastor of the Baptist church at Warwick from 1740 to 1746. In 1749 (ordained in 1753) he began a long ministry at Sutton-in-Elms, Leicestershire, remaining there until his death in 1777. He was awarded an A.M. from Rhode Island College in 1770. He was a founding member of the Northamptonshire Baptist Association in October 1764, signing the first Circular Letter in 1765. Woodman also wrote Circular Letters in 1771 on “Original Sin” and in 1775 on “Perseverance.” John Rippon would later publish “Twelve Directions for a Christian’s Holy Walking” by Woodman in the Baptist Annual Register, 3:113-117. See Elwyn, Northamptonshire Baptist Association, 11-13, 99; Langley, “Baptist Ministers,” 148-149; Hayden, Continuity and Crisis, 249.

Woolley, Edward—Woolley studied at Stepney College before being appointed a BMS missionary in November 1840. After seven years in Jamaica, however, he left for America, where he died c. 1860 in one of the Western states. See Clarke, Memorials, 183-184.

Yates, Catherine (1797-1838)—Originally from Bristol, she was the daughter of William Grant, BMS missionary who died in India in 1801. Her mother then married John Chamberlain, but she died in 1806. Catherine was raised primarily by Hannah Marshman in Serampore. She married BMS missionary William Yates (1792-1845) in 1816 in India. In 1821 she established, along with several other missionary wives, the Calcutta Female Juvenile Society for the Education of Native Females, and served as superintendent for many years. See Carey, Oriental Christian Biography, 3:148-152; 1:29-48.

Yates, William (1792-1845)—After serving an apprenticeship to a shoemaker, Yates studied at Bristol Academy and then sailed for India as a BMS missionary, arriving in 1815, the first missionary to settle in India after the passage of the new charter for the East India Company in 1813. He was not willing to submit to the Serampore Mission’s rules of conduct, and so he broke with Carey, Marshman, and Ward, setting up a separate mission in Calcutta, along with James Penney, John Lawson, Eustace Carey, and W. H. Pearce. Yates, a skilled linguist, published a number of textbooks in the native languages of India. After the death of his wife, Catherine, in 1839, he married Martha Pearce, the widow of his colleague, W. H. Pearce, in 1841. Yates’s health declined and he was told to return to England in 1845, but he died on the journey and was buried at sea on 3 July 1845. See Carey, Oriental Christian Biography, 3:148-152; 1:29-48; DEB.

 


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______. “‘I have confessed myself a devil’: Crabb Robinson’s Confrontation with Robert Hall, 1798–1800.” Charles Lamb Bulletin, New Series 121 (2003): 2-25.

______. Politics, Religion, and Romance: The Letters of Benjamin Flower and Eliza Gould Flower, 1794–1808. Aberystwyth: National Library of Wales, 2009.

______. “Robert Hall and the Bristol Slave-Trade Debate of 1787–1788." Baptist Quarterly 38 (1999–2000): 212-224.

______. “Six Letters of Robert Robinson from Dr. Williams’s Library, London.” Baptist Quarterly 39 (2001–2002): 347-359.

______. “Thomas Poole’s ‘Intimations of Immortality’ in a Letter to John Sheppard, February 1837.” Romanticism 11 (2005): 199-223.

White, B. R. “Samuel Whitewood, 1794–1860, at Andover.” Baptist Quarterly 25 (1973–1974): 232-236.

Whitebrook, J. C. “The Life and Works of Mrs. Ann Dutton.” Transactions of the Baptist Historical Society 7 (1920–1921): 129-146.

Whitley, W. T., ed. A Baptist Bibliography. 2 vols. London: Kingsgate Press, 1916–1922.

______. The Baptists of London 1612–1928. London: Kingsgate Press, 1928.

______. The Baptists of North-West England. London: Kingsgate, 1913.

______. “J. C. Ryland as Schoolmaster.” Baptist Quarterly 5 (1930–1931): 141-144.

______. “The Wallis House, 1792.” Baptist Quarterly 1 (1922–1923): 158-170.

Williams, Gwyn A. The Search for Beulah Land: The Welsh and the Atlantic Revolution. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1980.

Winnard, E. The History of the Baptist Church, Barnoldswick, 1500–1916. Burnley: [n.p.], 1916. 

Witard, Doris. Bibles in Barrels: A History of Essex Baptists. [n.p.]: Essex Baptist Association, 1962.

Woollacott, Christopher. A Brief History of the Baptist Church in Little Wild Street, Lincoln’s-Inn Fields, from 1691 to 1858. London: Houlston and Wright, 1859.

Wright, B. G. “Saunders, John (1806–1859).” In Australian Dictionary of Biography, 2 vols, edited by Douglas Pike and John Ritchie, 2:418. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1967.

Wright, Philip. Knibb “the Notorious”: Slaves’ Missionary 1803–1845. London: Sidgwick and Jackson, 1973.

Wright, T. The Life of William Huntington, SS. London: Farncombe, 1909.

Wykes, David. “Joshua Toulmin (1740–1815) of Taunton: Baptist Minister, Historian, and Religious Radical.” Baptist Quarterly 39 (2001–2002): 224-243.

Wylie, Robert J. V. The Baptist Churches of Accrington and District. Accrington: W. Shuttleworth, Wellington Press, 1923.

Young, G. H., and J. W. Barker. A Short History of Harlow Baptist Church 1662–1962. Harlow: Harlow Baptist Church, 1962.

Yuille, George. History of the Baptists in Scotland from Pre-Reformation Times. Glasgow: Baptist Union Publications Committee, 1926.

 




[1]Information on some of the entries below has come from Donald M. Lewis, ed., The Blackwell Dictionary of Evangelical Biography: 1730-1860, 2 vols. (Oxford: Blackwell, 1995) [cited as DEB]; The New Oxford Dictionary of National Biography; and the Surman Index, Dr. Williams’s Library, London. 

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