'Those who hold the power also write the history' (Plato)

German and Russian Soldiers in WWI

Specific primary documents and questions will be assigned to augment topics discussed in lecture. Please see below or the lecture schedule for specific dates. Each response must be 1-2 or 2-3 pages long depending on the topic. These should be typed, double spaced, and are due at the beginning of the period. Responses are worth 20 or 20 points depending on length. There is not necessarily a correct answer, but students must refer to the documents in question in order to receive full points. Reference as (author, pp#) or by footnote - author, pp#.

All Documents are in Foxtale

1. Marxism, (2-3 pages) - Jan 19
~Marx, The Communist Manifesto

1. Using Manifesto, a) who are the bourgeoisie? b) who are the proletariat? c) How is the working class exploited in the capitalist system? d) what will change in the socialist/communist system?

2. 1905 Revolution, (in class only) - Jan 29
~Programme of the Socialist Revolutionary Party
~Programme of the Russian Constitutional Democratic Party
~The Octobrists
~The National Party
~The Union of the Russian People
~The Mensheviks
~The Bolsheviks
~The Russian Fundamental Law of 23 April 1906

1. These documents are the party platforms for the major political parties in existence at the time of the 1905 Revolution and the actual Law that the Tsar signed in response to this revolution.  In which areas did the response of the Russian Government meet the demands of the parties and where did it fall short? How crucial are these issues?

3. Why Revolution? (2 pages) - Feb 5
~Lenin: Our Programme
~Lenin: What is to be Done?
~Lenin: On his April Theses
~Lenin: State and Revolution
~Luxemburg: Leninism or Marxism?

1.  Where does Lenin agree with Marx and where has he altered Marx's ideas?

2.  What problems does Luxemburg see with Lenin's version of Marxism?

4. How successful was the Revolution? (in class only) - Feb 12
~Fundamental Law of Land Socialization
~Lenin: Organisation of an Extraordinary Commission to Fight Counter-Revolution
~Hanging Order
~Letter from Lenin
~On Party Unity
~Note from Chichern to Lockheart
~Statement by Trotsky on the Intervention
~Soviet Government Statement on Allied Responsibility

1. Looking at the first five documents, how are these decisions justified?  Why is there the need to move away from democratic principles?

2.  The last three documents are from the period of the civil war.  According to the Russians, what are the Allies' motives?

5.  Stalinist Russia, (in class only)
- Feb 26
  Letter from Feigin to Ordzhonikidze
  Grain Problem
  Letter from Gorky to Stalin
  Memoradum on Marietta Shaginian's Novel
  Hymn to Stalin
  Rapproachement Between the Orthodox Church and Soviet Government
  Memorandum on the Crimean Tatars
  Stalin's Purges

1.  Comparing this documents with those in the last discussion, where are Stalin's policies and actions a continuation of Lenin's?

2.  How are the purges, collectivization and sacrifices of the 1930's justified in these documents?  According to these sources, why has the communist utopia been delayed?

6. Cold War, (2-3 pages) - Mar 5
~Churchill: Iron Curtain Speech
~Stalin: Reply to Churchill
~Eisenhower: Message to Congress on the Middle East
~TASS: Statement on the Eisenhower Doctrine
~Khrushchev: Of What Freedom are you Speaking?

1.  These documents are from various crises in the first decades of the Cold War. Outline the Soviet and American/British points of view.  What assumptions is each side making about the other?  What do they accuse each other of doing?

7. Stalin's Legacy, (In class only) - Mar 19
Stalin's New Status

Stalin Voted Third Most Popular Russian
The Rewriting of History
TV Series on Stalin
The Unhistory Man
British Scholar Rails at Police Seizure
Gulag Files Seized during Police Raids

1. The last documents discuss the way Stalin is being remembered in the 21st Century. What do these documents reveal about the way that Russia remembers Stalin?

8. Yeltzin's Mess, Putin's Response, (2 pages) - Apr 4

Documents from Russia in the 1990's

Having it Both Ways
Vladimir Who?
The Long Life of Homo Sovieticus

1) What problems faced Russia in the 1990s?

2) How do these documents portray Putin?