"In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful" Qur'an 1:1

Discussion 1 - 24 January - 2 pages

The Hatt-I-Seriff Decree Initiates the Tanzimat

An Ottoman Government Decree Defines the Official Notion of a “Modern” citizen

Qasim Amin Argues for the Emancipation of Women in Egypt, 1900

Bahithat al Badiya Advocates Greater Educational and economic Rights for Egyptian Women, 1909

1. According to the first two documents, what aspects of the Ottoman Empire need reform or change in order for the nation to again be successful?

2.  Examining the last two documents, what changes do these writers contend are needed for women?   Why do these authors believe that women are the linchpins to reform?

Discussion 2 - 31 January - In Class Only

Herzl, "Zionism: The Vision of an Eventual Jewish State (1896)"

Ahad Ha-Am’s “The Jewish State and the Jewish Problem (1897)"

The Unconverted

A New Battle over Who Qualifies as Jewish

Israel Civil Marriage Ban

Unprecedented Clashes as non-Orthodox Rabbis Bring Torah Scrolls Into Western Wall

These documents explore the discussion of a Jewish state at the end of the 19th century and the current controversies over defining who is a Jew in Israel today.

1. Looking at the first two documents, what are Herzl's arguments for a Jewish state and what are Ahad Ha-Am’s concerns?

2. Where are Ahad Ha-am's concerns reflected in the current newspaper articles?

Discussion 3, 7 February, 2-3 pages

Hussein-McMahon Correspondence, July 1915-August 1916

Sykes-Picot Agreement, 1916

Balfour Agreement, 1917

British White Paper, 1922

Anglo-American Committee, Jewish Attitudes, 1946

Anglo-American Committee, Arab Attitudes, 1946

1. The first three documents are extremely controversial.  Outline what was promised to the Arabs, what was promised to the Jews, and what the British and French wanted.

2.  What are the arguments for an Arab State and a Jewish State presented in the last two documents?