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Specific primary documents and questions will be assigned to augment topics discussed in lecture. Please see below or the lecture schedule for specific dates. Each response must be 1-2 or 2-3 pages long depending on the topic. Responses are worth 15 or 20 points depending on length. Discussions are due during class and students must specifically refer to the documents to receive full credit.  Please cite using in-text citations (p. 27) or footnotes.  Failure to include citations will result in a loss of points.
1 - Enlightenment, 11 Sept (2-3 pages)
Condorcet, Future Progress of the Human Mind
Hume, On the Dignity of Human Nature
Locke, Theory of Knowledge, p. 113
Paine, Essays on Religion (just read the section titled "Biblical Blasphemy")
Paine, On The Religion of Deism
Locke,  Letters Concerning Toleration, p. 39

1.  What do these writers assume about human nature?

2.  What do they see as the problems with Christianity?

3.  Where do Rousseau's ideas agree and disagree with traditional American understandings of rights and the role of government?


2 - Guaranteed Rights, 18 Sept (in class only)
Declaration of the Rights of Man

1. Where do these documents agree and disagree with each other?


3 - Radical Revolution,  25 Sept. (2 pages)
Robespierre, Speech on Terror
Declaration of the Rights of Women
Etta Palm D'Aelders, Discourse on the Injustice of Laws in Favor of Men (to be handed out)
Society of the Friends of Blacks, Address to the National Assembly (to be handed out)
Bonaparte, Writings and Sayings

1. What ideas is Robespierre espousing to support the Terror?

2. The French Revolution in many ways is a reflection of the Enlightenment ideas though taken to an extreme.  What ideas in the next 3 documents resemble Enlightenment ones and where have they departed from these ideals?

3.  Where does Napoleon agree and disagree with revolutionary ideas?  What does he mean by the difference between liberty and equality?


4 - Conservative Response - Sept 30 (in class only)
Pope Pius IX , Syllabus of Errors
Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France
Metternich, Carlsbad Decrees
Metternich, Confession of Faith

1. Conservatives, by definition, tend to value tradition and are suspicious of radical, new ideas.  Identify the conservative approaches in these documents.  What do these authors see as the problems with Enlightenment and liberal ideas?


5. Industrial Revolution - 7 Oct (2 pages)
Evidence Given Before the Sadler committee
Gaskell, Mary Barton
Chadwick's Report on Sanitary Conditions
Workhouse Rules, p. 134
Malthus, An Essay on the Principle of Population
Self Help, p. 240
Ricardo, Iron Law of Wages

1.  What attitudes towards the workers/poor are expressed in these documents?

2.  Why do some of these writers oppose reform?


6. Liberalism - 14 Oct (in class)
Mill, On Liberty

1.Why is freedom of speech and opinion so important to Mill? What specific 4 things are to be gained by honoring this tenet?


7. Women's Movement - 26 Oct (2 pages)
Tristen, Why I mention Women
Beeton, Book of Household Management
Pankhurst, Why We are Militant
Gender and Ideology: Conservatism, p. 128
Gender and Ideology: Liberalism, 136

1.  Looking at the documents, why should women not be granted more rights and opportunities?

2.  How are these statements countered in the other documents?


8. Responses to Industrialization- 2 Nov (2 pages)
Tristan, Two Essays
Marx, The Communist Manifesto
Gambetta, Two Speeches
Bernstein, Evolutionary Socialism
Leo XIII, Rerum Novarum

Fourier, Theory of Social Organization

As the Industrial Revolution continued in the nineteenth century, reformers were horrified by its influence.  Identify the issues of special concern to these writers.  What do they propose as solutions to these problems?


9. Nationalism - 9 Nov (in class)
Madame de Stael, Three Essays
Mazzini, The Duties of Man
Renan, What is a Nation?
Hungarian Declaration of Independence
Nationalism, p. 208
Fitche, To the German Nation

1.  How des de Stael differentiate between these different groups?  What are their unique characteristics?

2. Looking at these documents, what is nationalism and how will it change Europe?


10. The Challenge of New Ideas - 23 Nov (2 pages)

Darwin, The Origin of Species

1.  What objections does he identify and how does he respond to these?

2.  Where does creationism (as Darwin defines this term) have problem according to this document?


11. Imperialism – 2 Dec (in class)
Spencer, Social Growth
Morel, King Leopold's Rule in Africa
King Leopold's Investigative Commission
Kipling, The White Man's Burden
Europeans in Africa, p. 274, 75
Technology and Empire, p. 280
Ferry, On French Colonialism

1.  What arguments are given in support of Imperialism?

2. What are some of the influences of this movement as seen in the documents?