Project Overview

The ability to direct a viewer's attention has important applications in computer graphics, data visualization, image analysis, and training.

This research is funded by a National Science Foundation Faculty Early Career Development (NSF CAREER) award (IIS-0952631). 

We developed a novel technique called Subtle Gaze Direction (SGD) that combines real-time eye-tracking with subtle image-space modulation to direct a viewer's attention about a digital image. SGD has minimal impact on the viewing experience as the technique does not affect the overall appearance of the scene being viewed. All modulations occur in the low-acuity peripheral regions of the field of view so the viewer is never allowed to scrutinize the modulations. The technique is fast; viewers typically attend to target regions within 0.5 seconds of the onset of the modulation. And despite measures taken to ensure subtlety, the technique is quite accurate, typically resulting in fixations within a single perceptual span of the target. 

Currently we are developing and testing various approaches to extend the concept of gaze manipulation beyond digital imagery to include real world environments.

Thus far, several experiments have been conducted using gaze manipulation. Our results have been published in the following venues:

Journal papers:





Reynold Bailey, Ann McNamara, Nisha Sudarsanam, and Cindy Grimm, "Subtle Gaze Direction", ACM Transactions on Graphics, Vol. 28, No. 4, August 2009. [PDF
 



Ann McNamara, Reynold Bailey, and Cindy Grimm, "Search Task Performance Using Subtle Gaze Direction with the Presence of Distractors", ACM Transactions on Applied Perception, Vol. 6, No. 3, August 2009. 
[PDF]


Conference papers:

 





Brendan John, Srinivas Sridharan, and Reynold Bailey, " Collaborative Eye-Tracking for Image Analysis", ACM Symposium on Eye-Tracking Research and Applications (ETRA 2014). [PDF]
 



Thomas Booth, Srinivas Sridharan, Ann McNamara, Cindy Grimm, and Reynold Bailey, "Guiding Attention in Controlled Real-World Environments", ACM Symposium on Applied Perception (SAP 2013). [PDF] [Supplemental Video]
 




Ann McNamara, Thomas Booth, Srinivas Sridharan, Stephen Caffey, Cindy Grimm, and Reynold Bailey, "Directing Gaze in Narrative Art", ACM Symposium on Applied Perception (SAP 2012). [PDF]
 



Srinivas Sridharan, Reynold Bailey, Ann McNamara, and Cindy Grimm, "Subtle Gaze Manipulation for Improved Mammography Training", in Proceedings of the 7th ACM Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications (ETRA 2012). [PDF] [Supplemental Video] [In the news]
 



Reynold Bailey, Ann McNamara, Aaron Costello, Srinivas Sridharan, and Cindy Grimm, "Impact of Subtle Gaze Direction on Short-Term Spatial Information Recall", in Proceedings of the 7th ACM Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications (ETRA 2012). [PDF]  [Supplemental Video]
 




Ann McNamara, Reynold Bailey, and Cindy Grimm, "Improving Search Task Performance Using Subtle Gaze Direction", in Proceedings of the 5th Symposium on Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization (APGV), 2008. 
[PDF]