Rhetorical Strategies

What is Rhetoric?
    Rhetoric is the study of effective speaking and writing. It also includes the ability to persuade. 

   Rhetoric has had different definitions and purposes over the years.  It also had a large variety on what it included. However, it has always been used in training students; to understand language works verbaly and writen, and to be able to apply these resources of rhetoric in their own writings and speech. 

    To be able to understand the writings, one must decipher what is being said, and how this is being said.  Rhetoric examines the how of writen language.  The methods of writen communication is are generaly concerned with style or appearances, and not with the quality. For most, rhetoric is only used to display deceptive emotions and ideas.  However, rhetoric better helps one write truth or reason such as philosophy or religion.

    Rhetoric sometimes is used as a comprehensive form of language, just as much concerned with what one could say as how one might say it.  Hidden means from meanings are used such as how one says something compared to what one says. Rhetoric studies how efective writings are through emotional impact (pathos), organized content (logos), and moral aptitude (ethos). Rhetoric helps one see how writings and ideas work as one, however, the diferation between content and form are what makes it unique.

Introduction- Chapter 3
  • Imagery- Through words, the author is able to paint a picture in the readers of the mountain and its surrounding.  "Cheyenne Mountain sits on the eastern slope of Colorado's Front Range, rising steeply from the prairie and overlooking the city of Colorado Springs."
  • Historical reference-  The author gives multiple peices of history, and dates to give a comparison of events occuring today.  "In the early 1970s..."
  • Repetition-  The main idea of the section is repeted four times to give variety and build up so the reader understands the overall idea.  "Again and again..."
  • Diction-  Word choices and tittles use catchy words to keep the reader interested, and they provide "eye catchers" for the reader. "jaunty"  and "complex"
  • Climax-  The section leads the reader through a series of steps, that in the end presents the reader with the overall idea trying to be made.
  • Syntax- Approprite scentences are used in essential places to keep the reader interested.  "The headquarters of CKE is still located on the property where the Heinz family once grew oranges.  Today there's no smell of citrus in the air, no orange groves in sight" 
  • Logos Schlosser appeals to logos by giving you the facts of what the fast food industry is doing in America today.  Through out the section he gives studies on fast food.
  • Pathos The reader feels emotion when presented with a conflict in the section; Mike Cameron wore a pepsi t- shirt when he was sopposed to wear just red.  In the end Mike was susspended, and many people rejected and punished him for his decision. 
  • EthosSchlosser is considered one of the most reputable names in the journalism industry, therefore his knowlage recieves credibility.
Chapter 4- Chapter 6
  • Imagery- Words are used to paint a picture in the readers head. "Two little Ceasars pizzas and a bag of crazy bread sit in the back seat"
  • Forshadowing/onomatopoeia- Think big is one of the themes in this section, and its said ecstatic.  Think Big"
  • Historical Reference- Dates and information related to past events are used to give more information. "March 14, 1984"
  • Satire- The term "proper" is used to make fun of the fact that in the end, the man became a proper buisness man. 
  • SyntaxA catchy tittle is used more than once to help keep the reader interested.  "why the fries taste good"
  • Biblical ReferenceThe author makes a remark related to religion.  "a ritual to be followed religiously"
  • MetaphorA term is compared to another term, to give emphasis on the subject.  "Turnpike runs through the heart of the flavor industry"
  • Repetition Words are repeated to emphasize a point in the section.  " The color... the color"
  • Diction/Syntax- "a long, ugly gash"
  • Logos Schlosser backs his claims up with cold hard facts.  "The fast food companies purchase frozen fries for about 30 cents a pound, reheat them in oil, then sell them for about 6$ a pound"
  • Pathos- Schlosser uses many short stories that appeal to pathos.  For example when the workers at the Greeley went on strike, the company hired scabs, which led to Ken Monfort to receive death threats.  This appeals to emotion of the readers because the reader feels sorry for Ken. 
Chapter 7- Chapter 9
  • AnecdoteSchlosser starts some peices of this section with past personal events.  Among those was the largest food recall in national history.
  • DictionThe author uses specific words to describe what a visit to the slaughter house is like.  A visial is depicted by the reader, and it allows people to see what the author saw on his visit to the slaughter house.
  • Metaphor A term is used to show the reader how gruesome the slaughter house actually is.  " Whizzards peeling meat off decapitated heads, picking them almost as clean as the white skulls painted by Georgia O'Keeffe."
  • LogosData and statistics are used everywhere in this section.  The author uses real time statistics of the E. Coli outbreaks to display a pig and teriblesituation.  On the 21 of august 1997, the Hudson Food Company recalled a staggering 35 million pounds of tainted ground beef.  Unfortunantly most of it had been consumed.  In February, 1999, IBP recalled 10,000 pounds of ground beef laced with shards of glass.  Schlosser uses these numbers to show the errors of certain meat packing companies that have caused illness and injury to the general public.
  • Pathos Schlosser also uses pathos to evoke certain emotions from Americans reading this book.  He appeals mainly to parents and the families of those parents.  Since the fast food industry is directed to kids, the kids are the ones more susceptible to the E.Coli outbreaks.  Several meat packing companies that supply schools with meat have been responsible for the deaths of several children.
Chapter 10- Afterword
  • ImageryUses words to paint a picture in the readers head. "...conditions that bring to mind the worst abuses of the nineteenth-century Beef Trust"
  • Historical reference- Dates and other information from past events are given to provide more information for the readers. "April 10, 1945"
  • Satire The term is refering to the poisons fast food companies give out.  Its ironic because this is specifically talking about their food, not just the forest destruction.  "...but also more innocuous ones..."
  • Syntax The author uses catchy words to keep the readers attention.  "Infected...epidemic...die."
  • MetaphorA term is compared to another term so that emphasis is given on the subject.  " ...blanked Plauen in some of East Germanys worst air polution"
  • Repetition-  The author repeats a word to emphasize a point.  " They will... they will..."
  • DictionWord choices are used to give bad news more subtle such as the replacement words they used for genetically engineered potatoes; "Frankenfoods"
  • Anecdote-  Schlosser uses many anecdotes throughout the story.  Telling "real people" stories give the reader a more personal connection to the book.  " Dale Lasater stands in a coral full of huge bulls..."
  • PathosIn the beginning of the section, Schlosser describes a little German town.  He tells the reader thet "in the 1920s Plauen had the most millionaires per capita in Germany... and the most suicides."  He goes on telling how the people have high unemployment as well, and how they were once in the Nazi party.  This appeals to the readers emotion because the reader feels sadness towards the towns downfall.
  • LogosThe author uses many facts throughout the story to prove his claims.  "In 1995, The American Academy of Pediatrics declared that..."  This appeals to readers because the facts give the author credibility.