Part 170 Worker Protection Standard

PART 170—WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD


Contents

Subpart A—General Provisions

§170.1   Scope and purpose.
§170.2   Implementation and expiration dates.
§170.3   Definitions.
§170.7   General duties and prohibited actions.
§170.9   Violations of this part.

Subpart B—Standard for Workers

§170.102   Applicability of this subpart.
§170.103   Exceptions.
§170.104   Exemptions.
§170.110   Restrictions associated with pesticide applications.
§170.112   Entry restrictions.
§170.120   Notice of applications.
§170.122   Providing specific information about applications.
§170.124   Notice of applications to handler employers.
§170.130   Pesticide safety training for workers.
§170.135   Posted pesticide safety information.
§170.150   Decontamination.
§170.160   Emergency assistance.

Subpart C—Standard for Pesticide Handlers

§170.202   Applicability of this subpart.
§170.203   Exceptions.
§170.204   Exemptions.
§170.210   Restrictions during applications.
§170.222   Providing specific information about applications.
§170.224   Notice of applications to agricultural employers.
§170.230   Pesticide safety training for handlers.
§170.232   Knowledge of labeling and site-specific information.
§170.234   Safe operation of equipment.
§170.235   Posted pesticide safety information.
§170.240   Personal protective equipment.
§170.250   Decontamination.
§170.260   Emergency assistance.

Subpart D—General Provisions

§170.301   Scope and purpose.
§170.303   Applicability of this part.
§170.305   Definitions.
§170.309   Agricultural employer duties.
§170.311   Display requirements for pesticide safety information and pesticide application and hazard information.
§170.313   Commercial pesticide handler employer duties.
§170.315   Prohibited actions.
§170.317   Violations of this part.

Subpart E—Requirements for Protection of Agricultural Workers

§170.401   Training requirements for workers.
§170.403   Establishment-specific information for workers.
§170.405   Entry restrictions associated with pesticide applications.
§170.407   Worker entry restrictions after pesticide applications.
§170.409   Oral and posted notification of worker entry restrictions.
§170.411   Decontamination supplies for workers.

Subpart F—Requirements for Protection of Agricultural Pesticide Handlers

§170.501   Training requirements for handlers.
§170.503   Knowledge of labeling, application-specific, and establishment-specific information for handlers.
§170.505   Requirements during applications to protect handlers, workers, and other persons.
§170.507   Personal protective equipment.
§170.509   Decontamination and eye flushing supplies for handlers.

Subpart G—Exemptions, Exceptions and Equivalency

§170.601   Exemptions.
§170.603   Exceptions for entry by workers during restricted-entry intervals.
§170.605   Agricultural employer responsibilities to protect workers entering treated areas during a restricted-entry interval.
§170.607   Exceptions to personal protective equipment requirements specified on pesticide product labeling.
§170.609   Equivalency requests.

Authority: 7 U.S.C. 136w.

Source: 57 FR 38151, Aug. 21, 1992, unless otherwise noted.

Subpart A—General Provisions

§170.1   Scope and purpose.

This part contains a standard designed to reduce the risks of illness or injury resulting from workers' and handlers' occupational exposures to pesticides used in the production of agricultural plants on farms or in nurseries, greenhouses, and forests and also from the accidental exposure of workers and other persons to such pesticides. It requires workplace practices designed to reduce or eliminate exposure to pesticides and establishes procedures for responding to exposure-related emergencies.

§170.2   Implementation and expiration dates.

(a) Implementation date. Beginning January 2, 2017, the requirements of §170.301 through §170.609 of this part shall apply to any pesticide product that bears the statement “Use this product only in accordance with its labeling and with the Worker Protection Standard, 40 CFR part 170”.

(b) Expiration date. Sections 170.1 through 170.260 of this part shall expire on, and will no longer be effective after January 2, 2017.

[80 FR 67556, Nov. 2, 2015]

§170.3   Definitions.

Terms used in this part have the same meanings they have in the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, as amended. In addition, the following terms, when used in this part, shall have the following meanings:

Agricultural employer means any person who hires or contracts for the services of workers, for any type of compensation, to perform activities related to the production of agricultural plants, or any person who is an owner of or is responsible for the management or condition of an agricultural establishment that uses such workers.

Agricultural establishment means any farm, forest, nursery, or greenhouse.

Agricultural plant means any plant grown or maintained for commercial or research purposes and includes, but is not limited to, food, feed, and fiber plants; trees; turfgrass; flowers, shrubs; ornamentals; and seedlings.

Chemigation means the application of pesticides through irrigation systems.

Commercial pesticide handling establishment means any establishment, other than an agricultural establishment, that:

(1) Employs any person, including a self-employed person, to apply on an agricultural establishment, pesticides used in the production of agricultural plants.

(2) Employs any person, including a self-employed person, to perform on an agricultural establishment, tasks as a crop advisor.

Crop advisor means any person who is assessing pest numbers or damage, pesticide distribution, or the status or requirements of agricultural plants. The term does not include any person who is performing hand labor tasks.

Early entry means entry by a worker into a treated area on the agricultural establishment after a pesticide application is complete, but before any restricted-entry interval for the pesticide has expired.

Farm means any operation, other than a nursery or forest, engaged in the outdoor production of agricultural plants.

Forest means any operation engaged in the outdoor production of any agricultural plant to produce wood fiber or timber products.

Fumigant means any pesticide product that is a vapor or gas, or forms a vapor or gas on application, and whose method of pesticidal action is through the gaseous state.

Greenhouse means any operation engaged in the production of agricultural plants inside any structure or space that is enclosed with nonporous covering and that is of sufficient size to permit worker entry. This term includes, but is not limited to, polyhouses, mushroom houses, rhubarb houses, and similar structures. It does not include such structures as malls, atriums, conservatories, arboretums, or office buildings where agricultural plants are present primarily for aesthetic or climatic modification.

Hand labor means any agricultural activity performed by hand or with hand tools that causes a worker to have substantial contact with surfaces (such as plants, plant parts, or soil) that may contain pesticide residues. These activities include, but are not limited to, harvesting, detasseling, thinning, weeding, topping, planting, sucker removal, pruning, disbudding, roguing, and packing produce into containers in the field. Hand labor does not include operating, moving, or repairing irrigation or watering equipment or performing the tasks of crop advisors.

Handler means any person, including a self-employed person:

(1) Who is employed for any type of compensation by an agricultural establishment or commercial pesticide handling establishment to which subpart C of this part applies and who is:

(i) Mixing, loading, transferring, or applying pesticides.

(ii) Disposing of pesticides or pesticide containers.

(iii) Handling opened containers of pesticides.

(iv) Acting as a flagger.

(v) Cleaning, adjusting, handling, or repairing the parts of mixing, loading, or application equipment that may contain pesticide residues.

(vi) Assisting with the application of pesticides.

(vii) Entering a greenhouse or other enclosed area after the application and before the inhalation exposure level listed in the labeling has been reached or one of the ventilation criteria established by this part (§170.110(c)(3)) or in the labeling has been met:

(A) To operate ventilation equipment.

(B) To adjust or remove coverings used in fumigation.

(C) To monitor air levels.

(viii) Entering a treated area outdoors after application of any soil fumigant to adjust or remove soil coverings such as tarpaulins.

(ix) Performing tasks as a crop advisor:

(A) During any pesticide application.

(B) Before the inhalation exposure level listed in the labeling has been reached or one of the ventilation criteria established by this part (§170.110(c)(3)) or in the labeling has been met.

(C) During any restricted-entry interval.

(2) The term does not include any person who is only handling pesticide containers that have been emptied or cleaned according to pesticide product labeling instructions or, in the absence of such instructions, have been subjected to triple-rinsing or its equivalent.

Handler employer means any person who is self-employed as a handler or who employs any handler, for any type of compensation.

Immediate family includes only spouse, children, stepchildren, foster children, parents, stepparents, foster parents, brothers, and sisters.

Nursery means any operation engaged in the outdoor production of any agricultural plant to produce cut flowers and ferns or plants that will be used in their entirety in another location. Such plants include, but are not limited to, flowering and foliage plants or trees; tree seedlings; live Christmas trees; vegetable, fruit, and ornamental transplants; and turfgrass produced for sod.

Owner means any person who has a present possessory interest (fee, leasehold, rental, or other) in an agricultural establishment covered by this part. A person who has both leased such agricultural establishment to another person and granted that same person the right and full authority to manage and govern the use of such agricultural establishment is not an owner for purposes of this part.

Restricted-entry interval means the time after the end of a pesticide application during which entry into the treated area is restricted.

Treated area means any area to which a pesticide is being directed or has been directed.

Worker means any person, including a self-employed person, who is employed for any type of compensation and who is performing activities relating to the production of agricultural plants on an agricultural establishment to which subpart B of this part applies. While persons employed by a commercial pesticide handling establishment are performing tasks as crop advisors, they are not workers covered by the requirements of subpart B of this part.

§170.7   General duties and prohibited actions.

(a) General duties. The agricultural employer or the handler employer, as appropriate, shall:

(1) Assure that each worker subject to subpart B of this part or each handler subject to subpart C of this part receives the protections required by this part.

(2) Assure that any pesticide to which subpart C of this part applies is used in a manner consistent with the labeling of the pesticide, including the requirements of this part.

(3) Provide, to each person who supervises any worker or handler, information and directions sufficient to assure that each worker or handler receives the protections required by this part. Such information and directions shall specify which persons are responsible for actions required to comply with this part.

(4) Require each person who supervises any worker or handler to assure compliance by the worker or handler with the provisions of this part and to assure that the worker or handler receives the protections required by this part.

(b) Prohibited actions. The agricultural employer or the handler employer shall not take any retaliatory action for attempts to comply with this part or any action having the effect of preventing or discouraging any worker or handler from complying or attempting to comply with any requirement of this part.

§170.9   Violations of this part.

(a) Under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (7 U.S.C. 136 et seq.) (FIFRA) section 12(a)(2)(G) it is unlawful for any person “to use any registered pesticide in a manner inconsistent with its labeling.” When this part is referenced on a label, users must comply with all of its requirements except those that are inconsistent with product-specific instructions on the labeling. For the purposes of this part, EPA interprets the term “use” to include:

(1) Preapplication activities, including, but not limited to:

(i) Arranging for the application of the pesticide;

(ii) Mixing and loading the pesticide; and

(iii) Making necessary preparations for the application of the pesticide, including responsibilities related to worker notification, training of handlers, decontamination, use and care of personal protective equipment, emergency information, and heat stress management.

(2) Application of the pesticide.

(3) Post-application activities necessary to reduce the risks of illness and injury resulting from handlers' and workers' occupational exposures to pesticide residues during the restricted-entry interval plus 30 days. These activities include, but are not limited to, responsibilities related to worker training, notification, and decontamination.

(4) Other pesticide-related activities, including, but not limited to, providing emergency assistance, transporting or storing pesticides that have been opened, and disposing of excess pesticides, spray mix, equipment wash waters, pesticide containers, and other pesticide-containing materials.

(b) A person who has a duty under this part, as referenced on the pesticide product label, and who fails to perform that duty, violates FIFRA section 12(a)(2)(G) and is subject to a civil penalty under section 14. A person who knowingly violates section 12(a)(2)(G) is subject to section 14 criminal sanctions.

(c) FIFRA section 14(b)(4) provides that a person is liable for a penalty under FIFRA if another person employed by or acting for that person violates any provision of FIFRA. The term “acting for” includes both employment and contractual relationships.

(d) The requirements of this part, including the decontamination requirements, shall not, for the purposes of section 653(b)(1) of title 29 of the U.S. Code, be deemed to be the exercise of statutory authority to prescribe or enforce standards or regulations affecting the general sanitary hazards addressed by the OSHA Field Sanitation Standard, 29 CFR 1928.110, or other agricultural, nonpesticide hazards.

Subpart B—Standard for Workers

§170.102   Applicability of this subpart.

Except as provided by §§170.103 and 170.104, this subpart applies when any pesticide product is used on an agricultural establishment in the production of agricultural plants.

[60 FR 21952, May 3, 1995]

§170.103   Exceptions.

Exceptions. This subpart does not apply when any pesticide is applied on an agricultural establishment in the following circumstances:

(a) For mosquito abatement, Mediterranean fruit fly eradication, or similar wide-area public pest control programs sponsored by governmental entities;

(b) On livestock or other animals, or in or about animal premises;

(c) On plants grown for other than commercial or research purposes, which may include plants in habitations, home fruit and vegetable gardens, and home greenhouses;

(d) On plants that are in ornamental gardens, parks, and public or private lawns and grounds that are intended only for aesthetic purposes or climatic modification;

(e) By injection directly into agricultural plants. Direct injection does not include “hack and squirt,” “frill and spray,” chemigation, soil-incorporation, or soil-injection;

(f) In a manner not directly related to the production of agricultural plants, including, but not limited to, structural pest control, control of vegetation along rights-of-way and in other noncrop areas, and pasture and rangeland use;

(g) For control of vertebrate pests;

(h) As attractants or repellents in traps;

(i) On the harvested portions of agricultural plants or on harvested timber; and

(j) For research uses of unregistered pesticides.

[57 FR 38151, Aug. 21, 1992. Redesignated at 60 FR 21952, May 3, 1995]

§170.104   Exemptions.

The workers listed in this section are exempt from the specified provisions of this subpart.

(a) Owners of agricultural establishments. (1) The owner of an agricultural establishment is not required to provide to himself or members of his immediate family who are performing tasks related to the production of agricultural plants on their own agricultural establishment the protections of:

(i) Section 170.112(c)(5) through (9).

(ii) Section 170.112(c)(5) through (9) as referenced in §§170.112(d)(2)(iii) and 170.112(e).

(iii) Section 170.120.

(iv) Section 170.122.

(v) Section 170.130.

(vi) Section 170.135.

(vii) Section 170.150.

(viii) Section 170.160.

(2) The owner of the agricultural establishment must provide the protections listed in paragraph (a)(1)(i) through (viii) of this section to other workers and other persons who are not members of his immediate family.

(b) Crop advisors. (1) Provided that the conditions of paragraph (b)(2) of this section are met, a person who is certified or licensed as a crop advisor by a program acknowledged as appropriate in writing by EPA or a State or Tribal lead agency for pesticide enforcement, and persons performing crop advising tasks under such qualified crop advisor's direct supervision, are exempt from the provisions of:

(i) Section 170.150.

(ii) Section 170.160.

A person is under the direct supervision of a crop advisor when the crop advisor exerts the supervisory controls set out in paragraphs (b)(2)(iii) and (iv) of this section. Direct supervision does not require that the crop advisor be physically present at all times, but the crop advisor must be readily accessible to the employees at all times.

(2) Conditions of exemption. (i) The certification or licensing program requires pesticide safety training that includes, at least, all the information in §170.230(c)(4).

(ii) Applies only when performing crop advising tasks in the treated area.

(iii) The crop advisor must make specific determinations regarding the appropriate personal protective equipment, appropriate decontamination supplies, and how to conduct the tasks safely. The crop advisor must convey this information to each person under his direct supervision in a language that the person understands.

(iv) Before entering a treated area, the certified or licensed crop advisor must inform, through an established practice of communication, each person under his direct supervision of the pesticide product and active ingredient(s) applied, method of application, time of application, the restricted entry interval, which tasks to undertake, and how to contact the crop advisor.

[60 FR 21952, May 3, 1995, as amended at 73 FR 75598, Dec. 12, 2008]

§170.110   Restrictions associated with pesticide applications.

(a) Farms and forests. During the application of any pesticide on a farm or in a forest, the agricultural employer shall not allow or direct any person, other than an appropriately trained and equipped handler, to enter or to remain in the treated area.

(b) Nurseries. In a nursery, during any pesticide application described in column A of Table 1 of this paragraph, the agricultural employer shall not allow or direct any person, other than an appropriately trained and equipped handler, to enter or to remain in the area specified in column B of Table 1 of this paragraph. After the application is completed, until the end of any restricted-entry interval, the entry-restricted area is the treated area.

Table 1—Entry-Restricted Areas in Nurseries During Pesticide Applications

A. During Application of a Pesticide:B. Workers are Prohibited in:
(1)(a) Applied:Treated area plus 100 feet in all directions on the nursery
(i) Aerially, or
(ii) In an upward direction, or
(iii) Using a spray pressure greater than 150 psi, or
(b) Applied as a:
(i) Fumigant, or
(ii) Smoke, or
(iii) Mist, or
(iv) Fog, or
(v) Aerosol.
(2)(a) Applied downward using:Treated are plus 25 feet in all directions on the nursery
(i) A height of greater than 12 inches from the planting medium, or
(ii) A fine spray, or
(iii) A spray pressure greater than 40 psi and less than 150 psi.
(b) Not as in 1 or 2(a) above but for which a respiratory protection device is required for application by the product labeling.
(3) Applied otherwise.Treated area

(c) Greenhouses. (1) When a pesticide application described in column A of Table 2 under paragraph (c)(4) of this section takes place in a greenhouse, the agricultural employer shall not allow or direct any person, other than an appropriately trained and equipped handler, to enter or to remain in the area specified in column B of Table 2 until the time specified in column C of Table 2 has expired.

(2) After the time specified in column C of Table 2 under paragraph (c)(4) of this section has expired, until the expiration of any restricted-entry interval, the agricultural employer shall not allow or direct any worker to enter or to remain in the treated area as specified in column D of Table 2 under paragraph (c)(4) of this section, except as provided in §170.112.

(3) When column C of Table 2 under paragraph (c)(4) of this section specifies that ventilation criteria must be met, ventilation shall continue until the air concentration is measured to be equal to or less than the inhalation exposure level the labeling requires to be achieved. If no inhalation exposure level is listed on the labeling, ventilation shall continue until after:

(i) Ten air exchanges are completed; or

(ii) Two hours of ventilation using fans or other mechanical ventilating systems; or

(iii) Four hours of ventilation using vents, windows or other passive ventilation; or

(iv) Eleven hours with no ventilation followed by 1 hour of mechanical ventilation; or

(v) Eleven hours with no ventilation followed by 2 hours of passive ventilation; or

(vi) Twenty-four hours with no ventilation.

(4) The following Table 2 applies to paragraphs (c) (1), (2), and (3) of this section.

Table 2—Greenhouse Entry Restrictions Associated With Pesticide Applications

A. When a Pesticide is Applied:B. Workers are Prohibited in:C. Until:D. After the Expiration of Time in Column C Until the Restricted-Entry Interval Expires, the Entry-Restricted Area is:
(1) As a fumigantEntire greenhouse plus any adjacent structure that cannot be sealed off from the treated areaThe ventilation criteria of paragraph (c)(3) of this section are metNo entry restrictions after criteria in column C are met
(2) As aEntire enclosed areaThe ventilation criteria of paragraph (c)(3) of this section are metEntire enclosed area is the treated area
(i) Smoke, or
(ii) Mist, or
(iii) Fog, or
(iv) Aerosol
(3) Not in 1 or 2 above, and for which a respiratory protection device is required for application by the product labelingEntire enclosed areaThe ventilation criteria of paragraph (c)(3) of this section are metTreated area
(4) Not in 1, 2, or 3 above, and:Treated area plus 25 feet in all directions in the enclosed areaApplication is completeTreated area
(i) From a height of greater than 12 in. from the planting medium, or
(ii) As a fine spray, or
(iii) Using a spray pressure greater than 40 psi
(5) OtherwiseTreated areaApplication is completeTreated area

§170.112   Entry restrictions.

(a) General restrictions. (1) After the application of any pesticide on an agricultural establishment, the agricultural employer shall not allow or direct any worker to enter or to remain in the treated area before the restricted-entry interval specified on the pesticide labeling has expired, except as provided in this section.

(2) Entry-restricted areas in greenhouses are specified in column D in table 2 under §170.110(c)(4).

(3) When two or more pesticides are applied at the same time, the restricted-entry interval shall be the longest of the applicable intervals.

(4) The agricultural employer shall assure that any worker who enters a treated area under a restricted-entry interval as permitted by paragraphs (c), (d), and (e) of this section uses the personal protective equipment specified in the product labeling for early-entry workers and follows any other requirements on the pesticide labeling regarding early entry.

(b) Exception for activities with no contact. A worker may enter a treated area during a restricted-entry interval if the agricultural employer assures that both of the following are met:

(1) The worker will have no contact with anything that has been treated with the pesticide to which the restricted-entry interval applies, including, but not limited to, soil, water, air, or surfaces of plants; and

(2) No such entry is allowed until any inhalation exposure level listed in the labeling has been reached or any ventilation criteria established by §170.110(c)(3) or in the labeling have been met.

(c) Exception for short-term activities. A worker may enter a treated area during a restricted-entry interval for short-term activities if the agricultural employer assures that the following requirements are met:

(1) No hand labor activity is performed.

(2) The time in treated areas under a restricted-entry interval for any worker does not exceed 1 hour in any 24-hour period.

(3) No such entry is allowed for the first 4 hours following the end of the application, and no such entry is allowed thereafter until any inhalation exposure level listed in the labeling has been reached or any ventilation criteria established by §170.110(c)(3) or in the labeling have been met.

(4) The personal protective equipment specified on the product labeling for early entry is provided to the worker. Such personal protective equipment shall conform to the following standards:

(i) Personal protective equipment (PPE) means devices and apparel that are worn to protect the body from contact with pesticides or pesticide residues, including, but not limited to, coveralls, chemical-resistant suits, chemical-resistant gloves, chemical-resistant footwear, respiratory protection devices, chemical-resistant aprons, chemical-resistant headgear, and protective eyewear.

(ii) Long-sleeved shirts, short-sleeved shirts, long pants, short pants, shoes, socks, and other items of work clothing are not considered personal protective equipment for the purposes of this section and are not subject to the requirements of this section, although pesticide labeling may require that such work clothing be worn during some activities.

(iii) When “chemical-resistant” personal protective equipment is specified by the product labeling, it shall be made of material that allows no measurable movement of the pesticide being used through the material during use.

(iv) When “waterproof” personal protective equipment is specified by the product labeling, it shall be made of material that allows no measurable movement of water or aqueous solutions through the material during use.

(v) When a “chemical-resistant suit” is specified by the product labeling, it shall be a loose-fitting, one- or two-piece, chemical-resistant garment that covers, at a minimum, the entire body except head, hands, and feet.

(vi) When “coveralls” are specified by the product labeling, they shall be a loose-fitting, one- or two-piece garment, such as a cotton or cotton and polyester coverall, that covers, at a minimum, the entire body except head, hands, and feet. The pesticide product labeling may specify that the coveralls be worn over a layer of clothing. If a chemical-resistant suit is substituted for coveralls, it need not be worn over a layer of clothing.

(vii)(A) Gloves shall be of the type specified on the pesticide product labeling. Gloves made of leather, cotton, or other absorbent materials must not be worn for early-entry activities, unless gloves made of these materials are listed as acceptable for such use on the product labeling. If chemical-resistant gloves with sufficient durability and suppleness are not obtainable, leather gloves may be worn on top of chemical-resistant gloves. However, once leather gloves have been worn for this use, they shall not be worn thereafter for any other purpose, and they shall only be worn over chemical-resistant gloves.

(B) Separable glove liners may be worn beneath chemical-resistant gloves, unless the pesticide product labeling specifically prohibits their use. Separable glove liners are defined as separate glove-like hand coverings made of lightweight material, with or without fingers. Work gloves made from lightweight cotton or poly-type material are considered to be glove liners if worn beneath chemical-resistant gloves. Separable glove liners may not extend outside the chemical-resistant gloves under which they are worn. Chemical-resistant gloves with non-separable absorbent lining materials are prohibited.

(C) If used, separable glove liners must be discarded immediately after a total of no more than 10 hours of use or within 24 hours of when first put on, whichever comes first. The liners must be replaced immediately if directly contacted by pesticide. Used glove liners shall not be reused. Contaminated liners must be disposed of in accordance with any Federal, State, or local regulations.

(viii) When “chemical-resistant footwear” is specified by the product labeling, it shall be one of the following types of footwear: chemical-resistant shoes, chemical-resistant boots, or chemical-resistant shoe coverings worn over shoes or boots. If chemical-resistant footwear with sufficient durability and a tread appropriate for wear in rough terrain is not obtainable for workers, then leather boots may be worn in such terrain.

(ix) When “protective eyewear” is specified by the product labeling, it shall be one of the following types of eyewear: goggles; face shield; safety glasses with front, brow, and temple protection; or a full-face respirator.

(x) When “chemical-resistant headgear” is specified by the product labeling, it shall be either a chemical-resistant hood or a chemical-resistant hat with a wide brim.

(5) The agricultural employer shall assure that the worker, before entering the treated area, either has read the product labeling or has been informed, in a manner that the worker can understand, of all labeling requirements related to human hazards or precautions, first aid, symptoms of poisoning, personal protective equipment specified for early entry, and any other labeling requirements related to safe use.

(6) The agricultural employer shall assure that:

(i) Workers wear the personal protective equipment correctly for its intended purpose and use personal protective equipment according to manufacturer's instructions.

(ii) Before each day of use, all personal protective equipment is inspected for leaks, holes, tears, or worn places, and any damaged equipment is repaired or discarded.

(iii) Personal protective equipment that cannot be cleaned properly is disposed of in accordance with any applicable Federal, State, and local regulations.

(iv) All personal protective equipment is cleaned according to manufacturer's instructions or pesticide product labeling instructions before each day of reuse. In the absence of any such instructions, it shall be washed thoroughly in detergent and hot water.

(v) Before being stored, all clean personal protective equipment is dried thoroughly or is put in a well-ventilated place to dry.

(vi) Personal protective equipment contaminated with pesticides is kept separately and washed separately from any other clothing or laundry.

(vii) Any person who cleans or launders personal protective equipment is informed that such equipment may be contaminated with pesticides, of the potentially harmful effects of exposure to pesticides, and of the correct way(s) to handle and clean personal protective equipment and to protect themselves when handling equipment contaminated with pesticides.

(viii) All clean personal protective equipment is stored separately from personal clothing and apart from pesticide-contaminated areas.

(ix) Each worker is instructed how to put on, use, and remove the personal protective equipment and is informed about the importance of washing thoroughly after removing personal protective equipment.

(x) Each worker is instructed in the prevention, recognition, and first aid treatment of heat-related illness.

(xi) Workers have a clean place(s) away from pesticide-storage and pesticide-use areas for storing personal clothing not in use; putting on personal protective equipment at the start of any exposure period; and removing personal protective equipment at the end of any exposure period.

(7) When personal protective equipment is required by the labeling of any pesticide for early entry, the agricultural employer shall assure that no worker is allowed or directed to perform the early-entry activity without implementing, when appropriate, measures to prevent heat-related illness.

(8) During any early-entry activity, the agricultural employer shall provide a decontamination site in accordance with §170.150.

(9) The agricultural employer shall not allow or direct any worker to wear home or to take home personal protective equipment contaminated with pesticides.

(d) Exception for an agricultural emergency. (1) An “agricultural emergency” means a sudden occurrence or set of circumstances which the agricultural employer could not have anticipated and over which the agricultural employer has no control, and which requires entry into a treated area during a restricted-entry interval, when no alternative practices would prevent or mitigate a substantial economic loss. A substantial economic loss means a loss in profitability greater than that which would be expected based on the experience and fluctuations of crop yields in previous years. Only losses caused by the agricultural emergency specific to the affected site and geographic area are considered. The contribution of mismanagement cannot be considered in determining the loss.

(2) A worker may enter a treated area under a restricted-entry interval in an agricultural emergency to perform tasks, including hand labor tasks, necessary to mitigate the effects of the agricultural emergency, if the agricultural employer assures that all the following criteria are met:

(i) A State, Tribal, or Federal Agency having jurisdiction declares the existence of circumstances that could cause an agricultural emergency on that agricultural establishment.

(ii) The agricultural employer determines the agricultural establishment is subject to the circumstances declared under paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section that result in an agricultural emergency meeting the criteria of paragraph (d)(1) of this section.

(iii) The requirements of paragraphs (c) (3) through (9) of this section are met.

(e) Exception requiring Agency approval. The Agency may, in accordance with paragraphs (e) (1) through (3) of this section, grant an exception from the requirements of this section. An exception may be withdrawn in accordance with paragraph (e)(6) of this section.

(1) Exception requiring agency approval. A request for an exception must be submitted to the Office of Pesticide Programs' Document Processing Desk at the appropriate address as set forth in 40 CFR 150.17(a) or (b) and must be accompanied by two copies of the following information:

(i) The name, address, and telephone number of the submitter.

(ii) The time period for which the exception is requested.

(iii) A description of the crop(s) and specific crop production task(s) for which the exception is requested. Such a description must include an explanation as to the necessity of applying pesticides of a type and at a frequency such that the restricted-entry interval would interfere with necessary and time-sensitive hand labor tasks for the period for which the exception is sought.

(iv) A description of the geographic area for which the exception is requested. If the exception request is for a limited geographic area, the explanation must include a description as to why the circumstances of exposure or economic impact resulting from the prohibition of routine hand labor tasks during the restricted-entry interval are unique to the geographic area named in the exception.

(v) An explanation as to why, for each requested crop-task combination, alternative practices would not be technically or financially viable. Such alternative practices might include: rescheduling the pesticide application or hand labor activity; using a non-chemical pest control alternative; using an alternative to the hand labor tasks, such as machine cultivation; or substituting a pesticide with a shorter restricted-entry interval. This information should include estimates or data on per acre revenue and cost of production for the crop and area for which the exception is requested. These estimates or data should include: the situation prior to implementation of this final rule, the situation after implementation of this final rule if the exception is not granted, the situation after implementation of this final rule if the exception is granted, and specific information on individual factors which cause differences in revenues and costs among the three situations.

(vi) A description or documentation of the safety and feasibility of such an exception, including, but not limited to, the feasibility of performing the necessary hand labor activity while wearing the personal protective equipment required for early entry for the pesticide(s) expected to be applied, the means of mitigating heat-related illness concerns, the period of time required daily per worker to perform the hand labor activity, any suggested methods of reducing the worker's exposure, and any other mitigating factors, such as the availability of running water for routine and emergency decontamination and mechanical devices that would reduce the workers' contact with the treated surfaces. The information should include the costs associated with early-entry, such as decontamination facilities, special information and training for the workers, heat stress avoidance procedures, and provision, inspection, cleaning, and maintenance of personal protective equipment. EPA will not grant exceptions where the costs of early entry equal or exceed the expected loss in value of crop yield or quality.

(2) Notice of receipt. (i) When a request for an exception is submitted to the Agency along with all of the information required in paragraph (e)(1) of this section, the Agency shall issue a notice in the Federal Register stating that an exception is being considered, describing the nature of the exception, and allowing at least 30 days for interested parties to comment.

(ii) If a request for an exception is submitted to the Agency without all of the information required in paragraph (e)(1) of this section, the Agency shall return the request to the submitter.

(3) Exception decision. EPA will publish in the Federal Register its decision whether to grant the request for exception. EPA will base its decision on whether the benefits of the exception outweigh the costs, including the value of the health risks attributable to the exception. If the exception is granted, the notice will state the nature of and reasons for the exception.

(4) Presumptive denial. (i) Except as provided in paragraph (e)(4)(ii) of this section, persons requesting an exception may assume that the exception has been denied if EPA has not issued its decision whether to grant the exception within 9 months from the comment-closure date specified in the Federal Register notice in which the Agency announced, in accordance with paragraph (e)(2) of this section, that it would consider the exception.

(ii) Persons requesting an exception may not assume that the request has been denied as provided by paragraph (e)(4)(i) of this section if the Agency has taken action to extend its review period for a specified time interval due to the complexity of the exception request or to the number of exception requests concurrently under Agency review. EPA shall state the reason(s) for the delay in issuing a decision on the exception request. A notice of such an action may be published in the Federal Register or persons who requested the exception may be directly notified of the action.

(5) Agricultural employer duties. When a worker enters a treated area during a restricted-entry interval under an exception granted under paragraph (e) of this section, the agricultural employer shall assure that the requirements of paragraphs (c) (3) through (9) of this section are met, unless the notice granting the exception specifically indicates otherwise.

(6) Withdrawing an exception. An exception may be withdrawn by the Agency at any time if the Agency receives poisoning information or other data that indicate that the health risks imposed by this early-entry exception are unacceptable or if the Agency receives other information that indicates that the exception is no longer necessary or prudent. If the Agency determines that an exception should be withdrawn, it will publish a notice in the Federal Register,stating the basis for its determination. Affected parties would then have 30 days to request a hearing on the Agency's determination. The exception, however, would be discontinued as of the date specified by EPA in the notice, which may include any of the 30-day period and the time required for any subsequent hearing process. Thereafter the Agency will decide whether to withdraw the exception and will publish a notice in the Federal Register stating its decision.

(7) List of exceptions granted by EPA. The following administrative exceptions from the requirements of this section have been granted by EPA. Each exception listed in paragraph (e)(7) of this section contains a reference to the Federal Register notice in which EPA has granted the exception and the effective dates of the exception. The terms and conditions of the exception appear in the referenced Federal Register notice.

(i) Exception to perform irrigation tasks under specified conditions published in the Federal Register of May 3, 1995.

(ii) Exceptions to perform limited contact tasks under specified conditions published in the Federal Register of May 3, 1995.

[57 FR 38151, Aug. 21, 1992, as amended at 59 FR 30264, June 10, 1994; 60 FR 21954, May 3, 1995; 62 FR 52003, Oct. 3, 1997; 69 FR 53346, Sept. 1, 2004; 71 FR 35546, June 21, 2006; 73 FR 75598, Dec. 12, 2008]

§170.120   Notice of applications.

(a) Notification to workers of pesticide applications in greenhouses. The agricultural employer shall notify workers of any pesticide application in the greenhouse in accordance with this paragraph.

(1) All pesticide applications shall be posted in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section.

(2) If the pesticide product labeling has a statement requiring both the posting of treated areas and oral notification to workers, the agricultural employer shall also provide oral notification of the application to the worker in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section.

(3) Notice need not be given to a worker if the agricultural employer can assure that one of the following is met:

(i) From the start of the application until the end of the application and during any restricted-entry interval, the worker will not enter, work in, remain in, or pass through the greenhouse; or

(ii) The worker applied (or supervised the application of) the pesticide for which the notice is intended and is aware of all information required by paragraphs (d)(1) through (3) of this section.

(b) Notification to workers on farms, in nurseries, or in forests of pesticide applications. The agricultural employer shall notify workers of any pesticide application on the farm or in the nursery or forest in accordance with this paragraph.

(1) If the pesticide product labeling has a statement requiring both the posting of treated areas and oral notification to workers, the agricultural employer shall post signs in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section and shall provide oral notification of the application to the worker in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section.

(2) For any pesticide other than those for which the labeling requires both posting and oral notification of applications, the agricultural employer shall give notice of the application to the worker either by the posting of warning signs in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section or orally in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section, and shall inform the workers as to which method of notification is in effect.

(3) Notice need not be given to a worker if the agricultural employer can assure that one of the following is met:

(i) From the start of the application until the end of the application and during any restricted-entry interval, the worker will not enter, work in, remain in, or pass through on foot the treated area or any area within 14 mile of the treated area; or

(ii) The worker applied (or supervised the application of) the pesticide for which the notice is intended and is aware of all information required by (d)(1) through (3) of this section.

(c) Posted warning signs. The agricultural employer shall post warning signs in accordance with the following criteria:

(1) The warning sign shall have a background color that contrasts with red. The words “DANGER” and “PELIGRO,” plus “PESTICIDES” and “PESTICIDAS,” shall be at the top of the sign, and the words “KEEP OUT” and “NO ENTRE” shall be at the bottom of the sign. Letters for all words must be clearly legible. A circle containing an upraised hand on the left and a stern face on the right must be near the center of the sign. The inside of the circle must be red, except that the hand and a large portion of the face must be in a shade that contrasts with red. The length of the hand must be at least twice the height of the smallest letters. The length of the face must be only slightly smaller than the hand. Additional information such as the name of the pesticide and the date of application may appear on the warning sign if it does not detract from the appearance of the sign or change the meaning of the required information. A black-and-white example of a warning sign meeting these requirements, other than the size requirements, follows:

eCFR graphic ec01my92.111.gif

View or download PDF

(2) The standard sign shall be at least 14 inches by 16 inches with letters at least 1 inch in height. Farms and forests shall use the standard size sign unless a smaller sign is necessary because the treated area is too small to accommodate a sign of this size. In nurseries and greenhouses, the agricultural employer may, at any time, use a sign smaller than the standard size sign. Whenever a small sign is used on any establishment, there are specific posting distances depending on the size of the lettering and symbol on the sign. If a sign is used with DANGER and PELIGRO in letters at least 78 inch in height and the remaining letters at least 12 inch in height and a red circle at least 3 inches in diameter containing an upraised hand and a stern face, the signs shall be no further than 50 feet apart. If a sign is used with DANGER and PELIGRO in letters at least 716 inch in height and the remaining letters at least 14 inch in height and a red circle at least 112 inches in diameter containing an upraised hand and a stern face, the signs shall be no further than 25 feet apart. A sign with DANGER and PELIGRO in letters less than 716 inch in height or with any words in letters less than 14 inch in height or a red circle smaller than 112 inches in diameter containing an upraised hand and a stern face will not satisfy the requirements of the rule. All signs must meet the requirements of paragraph (c)(1) of this section.

(3) The employer may replace the Spanish portion of the warning sign with a non-English language read by the largest group of workers who do not read English. The replacement sign must be in the same format as the original sign and be visible and legible.

(4) On farms and in forests and nurseries, the signs shall be visible from all usual points of worker entry to the treated area, including at least each access road, each border with any labor camp adjacent to the treated area, and each footpath and other walking route that enters the treated area. When there are no usual points of worker entry, signs shall be posted in the corners of the treated area or in any other location affording maximum visibility.

(5) In greenhouses, the signs shall be posted so they are visible from all usual points of worker entry to the treated area including each aisle or other walking route that enters the treated area. When there are no usual points of worker entry to the treated area, signs shall be posted in the corners of the treated area or in any other location affording maximum visibility.

(6) The signs shall:

(i) Be posted no sooner than 24 hours before the scheduled application of the pesticide.

(ii) Remain posted throughout the application and any restricted-entry interval.

(iii) Be removed within 3 days after the end of the application and any restricted-entry interval and before agricultural-worker entry is permitted, other than entry permitted by §170.112.

(7) The signs shall remain visible and legible during the time they are posted.

(8) When several contiguous areas are to be treated with pesticides on a rotating or sequential basis, the entire area may be posted. Worker entry, other than entry permitted by §170.112, is prohibited for the entire area while the signs are posted.

(d) Oral warnings. The agricultural employer shall provide oral warnings to workers in a manner that the worker can understand. If a worker will be on the premises during the application, the warning shall be given before the application takes place. Otherwise, the warning shall be given at the beginning of the worker's first work period during which the application is taking place or the restricted-entry interval for the pesticide is in effect. The warning shall consist of:

(1) The location and description of the treated area.

(2) The time during which entry is restricted.

(3) Instructions not to enter the treated area until the restricted-entry interval has expired.

[57 FR 38151, Aug. 21, 1992, as amended at 61 FR 33207, June 26, 1996]

§170.122   Providing specific information about applications.

When workers are on an agricultural establishment and, within the last 30 days, a pesticide covered by this subpart has been applied on the establishment or a restricted-entry interval has been in effect, the agricultural employer shall display, in accordance with this section, specific information about the pesticide.

(a) Location, accessibility, and legibility. The information shall be displayed in the location specified for the pesticide safety poster in §170.135(d) and shall be accessible and legible, as specified in §170.135 (e) and (f).

(b) Timing. (1) If warning signs are posted for the treated area before an application, the specific application information for that application shall be posted at the same time or earlier.

(2) The information shall be posted before the application takes place, if workers will be on the establishment during application. Otherwise, the information shall be posted at the beginning of any worker's first work period.

(3) The information shall continue to be displayed for at least 30 days after the end of the restricted-entry interval (or, if there is no restricted-entry interval, for at least 30 days after the end of the application) or at least until workers are no longer on the establishment, whichever is earlier.

(c) Required information. The information shall include:

(1) The location and description of the treated area.

(2) The product name, EPA registration number, and active ingredient(s) of the pesticide.

(3) The time and date the pesticide is to be applied.

(4) The restricted-entry interval for the pesticide.

§170.124   Notice of applications to handler employers.

Whenever handlers who are employed by a commercial pesticide handling establishment will be performing pesticide handling tasks on an agricultural establishment, the agricultural employer shall provide to the handler employer, or assure that the handler employer is aware of, the following information concerning any areas on the agricultural establishment that the handler may be in (or may walk within 14 mile of) and that may be treated with a pesticide or that may be under a restricted-entry interval while the handler will be on the agricultural establishment:

(a) Specific location and description of any such areas; and

(b) Restrictions on entering those areas.

§170.130   Pesticide safety training for workers.

(a) General requirement—(1) Agricultural employer assurance. The agricultural employer shall assure that each worker, required by this section to be trained, has been trained according to this section during the last 5 years, counting from the end of the month in which the training was completed.

(2) Requirement for workers performing early-entry activities. Before a worker enters a treated area on the agricultural establishment during a restricted-entry interval to perform early-entry activities permitted by §170.112 and contacts anything that has been treated with the pesticide to which the restricted-entry interval applies, including but not limited to, soil, water, or surfaces of plants, the agricultural employer shall assure that the worker has been trained.

(3) Requirements for other agricultural workers—(i) Information before entry. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, before a worker enters any areas on the agricultural establishment where, within the last 30 days a pesticide to which this subpart applies has been applied or the restricted-entry interval for such pesticide has been in effect, the agricultural employer shall assure that the worker has been provided the pesticide safety information specified in paragraph (c) of this section, in a manner that agricultural workers can understand, such as by providing written materials or oral communication or by other means. The agricultural employer must be able to verify compliance with this requirement.

(ii) Training before the 6th day of entry. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, before the 6th day that a worker enters any areas on the agricultural establishment where, within the last 30 days a pesticide to which this subpart applies has been applied or a restricted-entry interval for such pesticide has been in effect, the agricultural employer shall assure that the worker has been trained.

(b) Exceptions. The following persons need not be trained under this section:

(1) A worker who is currently certified as an applicator of restricted-use pesticides under part 171 of this chapter.

(2) A worker who satisfies the training requirements of part 171 of this chapter.

(3) A worker who satisfies the handler training requirements of §170.230(c).

(4) A worker who is certified or licensed as a crop advisor by a program acknowledged as appropriate in writing by EPA or a State or Tribal lead agency for pesticide enforcement, provided that a requirement for such certification or licensing is pesticide safety training that includes all the information set out in §170.230(c)(4).

(c) Pesticide safety information. The pesticide safety information required by paragraph (a)(3)(i) shall be presented to workers in a manner that the workers can understand. At a minimum, the following information shall be provided:

(1) Pesticides may be on or in plants, soil, irrigation water, or drifting from nearby applications.

(2) Prevent pesticides from entering your body by:

(i) Following directions and/or signs about keeping out of treated or restricted areas.

(ii) Washing before eating, drinking, using chewing gum or tobacco, or using the toilet.

(iii) Wearing work clothing that protects the body from pesticide residues.

(iv) Washing/showering with soap and water, shampoo hair, and put on clean clothes after work.

(v) Washing work clothes separately from other clothes before wearing them again.

(vi) Washing immediately in the nearest clean water if pesticides are spilled or sprayed on the body. As soon as possible, shower, shampoo, and change into clean clothes.

(3) Further training will be provided within 5 days.

(d) Training programs. (1) General pesticide safety information shall be presented to workers either orally from written materials or audiovisually. The information must be presented in a manner that the workers can understand (such as through a translator) using nontechnical terms. The presenter also shall respond to workers' questions.

(2) The person who conducts the training shall meet at least one of the following criteria:

(i) Be currently certified as an applicator of restricted-use pesticides under part 171 of this chapter; or

(ii) Be currently designated as a trainer of certified applicators or pesticide handlers by a State, Federal, or Tribal agency having jurisdiction; or

(iii) Have completed a pesticide safety train-the-trainer program approved by a State, Federal, or Tribal agency having jurisdiction; or

(iv) Satisfy the training requirements in part 171 of this chapter or in §170.230(c).

(3) Any person who issues an EPA-approved Worker Protection Standard worker training certificate must assure that the worker who receives the training certificate has been trained in accordance with paragraph (d)(4) of this section.

(4) The training materials shall convey, at a minimum, the following information:

(i) Where and in what form pesticides may be encountered during work activities.

(ii) Hazards of pesticides resulting from toxicity and exposure, including acute and chronic effects, delayed effects, and sensitization.

(iii) Routes through which pesticides can enter the body.

(iv) Signs and symptoms of common types of pesticide poisoning.

(v) Emergency first aid for pesticide injuries or poisonings.

(vi) How to obtain emergency medical care.

(vii) Routine and emergency decontamination procedures, including emergency eyeflushing techniques.

(viii) Hazards from chemigation and drift.

(ix) Hazards from pesticide residues on clothing.

(x) Warnings about taking pesticides or pesticide containers home.

(xi) Requirements of this subpart designed to reduce the risks of illness or injury resulting from workers' occupational exposure to pesticides, including application and entry restrictions, the design of the warning sign, posting of warning signs, oral warnings, the availability of specific information about applications, and the protection against retaliatory acts.

(e) Verification of training. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (e)(2) of this section, if the agricultural employer assures that a worker possesses an EPA-approved Worker Protection Standard worker training certificate, then the requirements of paragraph (a) and (c) of this section will have been met.

(2) If the agricultural employer is aware or has reason to know that an EPA-approved Worker Protection Standard worker training certificate has not been issued in accordance with this section, or has not been issued to the worker bearing the certificate, or the training was completed more than 5 years before the beginning of the current month, a worker's possession of that certificate does not meet the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section.

[57 FR 38151, Aug. 21, 1992, as amended at 60 FR 21947, 21952, May 3, 1995; 73 FR 75598, Dec. 12, 2008]

§170.135   Posted pesticide safety information.

(a) Requirement. When workers are on an agricultural establishment and, within the last 30 days, a pesticide covered by this subpart has been applied on the establishment or a restricted-entry interval has been in effect, the agricultural employer shall display, in accordance with this section, pesticide safety information.

(b) Pesticide safety poster. A safety poster must be displayed that conveys, at a minimum, the pesticide safety concepts listed in paragraphs (b)(1)(i) through (vii) and (b)(2) of this section. Displays conforming to §170.311(a)(3) meet the requirements of this paragraph.

(c) Emergency medical care information. (1) The name, address, and telephone number of the nearest emergency medical care facility shall be on the safety poster or displayed close to the safety poster. Displays conforming to §170.311(a)(3)(ix) meet the requirements of this paragraph.

(2) The agricultural employer shall inform workers promptly of any change to the information on emergency medical care facilities.

(d) Location. (1) The information shall be displayed in a central location on the farm or in the nursery or greenhouse where it can be readily seen and read by workers.

(2) The information shall be displayed in a location in or near the forest in a place where it can be readily seen and read by workers and where workers are likely to congregate or pass by, such as at a decontamination site or an equipment storage site.

(e) Accessibility. Workers shall be informed of the location of the information and shall be allowed access to it.

(f) Legibility. The information shall remain legible during the time it is posted.

[57 FR 38151, Aug. 21, 1992, as amended at 80 FR 67556, Nov. 2, 2015]

§170.150   Decontamination.

(a)(1) Requirement. The agricultural employer must provide decontamination supplies for workers in accordance with this section whenever:

(i) Any worker on the agricultural establishment is performing an activity in the area where a pesticide was applied or a restricted-entry interval (REI) was in effect within the last 30 days, and;

(ii) The worker contacts anything that has been treated with the pesticide, including, but not limited to soil, water, plants, plant surfaces, and plant parts.

(2) Exception. The 30-day time period established in paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section shall not apply if the only pesticides used in the treated area are products with an REI of 4 hours or less on the label (but not a product without an REI on the label). When workers are in such treated areas, the agricultural employer shall provide decontamination supplies for not less than 7 days following the expiration of any applicable REI.

(b) General conditions. (1) The agricultural employer shall provide workers with enough water for routine washing and emergency eyeflushing. At all times when the water is available to workers, the employer shall assure that it is of a quality and temperature that will not cause illness or injury when it contacts the skin or eyes or if it is swallowed.

(2) When water stored in a tank is to be used for mixing pesticides, it shall not be used for decontamination or eyeflushing, unless the tank is equipped with properly functioning valves or other mechanisms that prevent movement of pesticides into the tank.

(3) The agricultural employer shall provide soap and single-use towels in quantities sufficient to meet worker's needs.

(4) To provide for emergency eyeflushing, the agricultural employer shall assure that at least 1 pint of water is immediately available to each worker who is performing early-entry activities permitted by §170.112 and for which the pesticide labeling requires protective eyewear. The eyeflush water shall be carried by the early-entry worker, or shall be on the vehicle the early-entry worker is using, or shall be otherwise immediately accessible.

(c) Location. (1) The decontamination supplies shall be located together and be reasonably accessible to and not more than 14 mile from where workers are working.

(2) For worker activities performed more than 14 mile from the nearest place of vehicular access:

(i) The soap, single-use towels, and water may be at the nearest place of vehicular access.

(ii) The agricultural employer may permit workers to use clean water from springs, streams, lakes, or other sources for decontamination at the remote work site, if such water is more accessible than the water located at the nearest place of vehicular access.

(3) The decontamination supplies shall not be maintained in an area being treated with pesticides.

(4) The decontamination supplies shall not be maintained in an area that is under a restricted-entry interval, unless the workers for whom the supplies are provided are performing early-entry activities permitted by §170.112 and involving contact with treated surfaces and the decontamination supplies would otherwise not be reasonably accessible to those workers.

(d) Decontamination after early-entry activities. At the end of any exposure period for workers engaged in early-entry activities permitted by §170.112 and involving contact with anything that has been treated with the pesticide to which the restricted-entry interval applies, including, but not limited to, soil, water, air, or surfaces of plants, the agricultural employer shall provide, at the site where the workers remove personal protective equipment, soap, clean towels, and a sufficient amount of water so that the workers may wash thoroughly.

[57 FR 38151, Aug. 21, 1992, as amended at 61 FR 33212, June 26, 1996]

§170.160   Emergency assistance.

If there is reason to believe that a person who is or has been employed on an agricultural establishment to perform tasks related to the production of agricultural plants has been poisoned or injured by exposure to pesticides used on the agricultural establishment, including, but not limited to, exposures from application, splash, spill, drift, or pesticide residues, the agricultural employer shall:

(a) Make available to that person prompt transportation from the agricultural establishment, including any labor camp on the agricultural establishment, to an appropriate emergency medical facility.

(b) Provide to that person or to treating medical personnel, promptly upon request, any obtainable information on:

(1) Product name, EPA registration number, and active ingredients of any product to which that person might have been exposed.

(2) Antidote, first aid, and other medical information from the product labeling.

(3) The circumstances of application or use of the pesticide on the agricultural establishment.

(4) The circumstances of exposure of that person to the pesticide.

Subpart C—Standard for Pesticide Handlers

§170.202   Applicability of this subpart.

Except as provided by §§170.203 and 170.204, this subpart applies when any pesticide is handled for use on an agricultural establishment.

[60 FR 21952, May 3, 1995]

§170.203   Exceptions.

Exceptions. This subpart does not apply when any pesticide is handled for use on an agricultural establishment in the following circumstances:

(a) For mosquito abatement, Mediterranean fruit fly eradication, or similar wide-area public pest control programs sponsored by governmental entities.

(b) On livestock or other animals, or in or about animal premises.

(c) On plants grown for other than commercial or research purposes, which may include plants in habitations, home fruit and vegetable gardens, and home greenhouses.

(d) On plants that are in ornamental gardens, parks, and public or private lawns and grounds and that are intended only for aesthetic purposes or climatic modification.

(e) In a manner not directly related to the production of agricultural plants, including, but not limited to, structural pest control, control of vegetation along rights-of-way and in other noncrop areas, and pasture and rangeland use.

(f) For control of vertebrate pests.

(g) As attractants or repellents in traps.

(h) On the harvested portions of agricultural plants or on harvested timber.

(i) For research uses of unregistered pesticides.

[57 FR 38151, Aug. 21, 1992. Redesignated at 60 FR 21952, May 3, 1995]

§170.204   Exemptions.

The handlers listed in this section are exempt from the specified provisions of this subpart.

(a) Owners of agricultural establishments. (1) The owner of an agricultural establishment is not required to provide to himself or members of his immediate family who are performing handling tasks on their own agricultural establishment the protections of:

(i) Section 170.210(b) and (c).

(ii) Section 170.222.

(iii) Section 170.230.

(iv) Section 170.232.

(v) Section 170.234.

(vi) Section 170.235.

(vii) Section 170.240(e) through (g).

(viii) Section 170.250.

(ix) Section 170.260.

(2) The owner of the agricultural establishment must provide the protections listed in paragraphs (a)(1) (i) through (ix) of this section to other handlers and other persons who are not members of his immediate family.

(b) Crop advisors. (1) Provided that the conditions of paragraph (b)(2) of this section are met, a person who is certified or licensed as a crop advisor by a program acknowledged as appropriate in writing by EPA or a State or Tribal lead agency for pesticide enforcement, and persons performing crop advising tasks under such qualified crop advisor's direct supervision, are exempt from the provisions of:

(i) Section 170.232.

(ii) Section 170.240.

(iii) Section 170.250.

(iv) Section 170.260.

A person is under the direct supervision of a crop advisor when the crop advisor exerts the supervisory controls set out in paragraphs (b)(2)(iv) and (v) of this section. Direct supervision does not require that the crop advisor be physically present at all times, but the crop advisor must be readily accessible to the employees at all times.

(2) Conditions of exemption. (i) The certification or licensing program requires pesticide safety training that includes, at least, all the information in §170.230(c)(4).

(ii) No entry into the treated area occurs until after application ends.

(iii) Applies only when performing crop advising tasks in the treated area.

(iv) The crop advisor must make specific determinations regarding the appropriate PPE, appropriate decontamination supplies, and how to conduct the tasks safely. The crop advisor must convey this information to each person under his direct supervision in a language that the person understands.

(v) Before entering a treated area, the certified or licensed crop advisor must inform, through an established practice of communication, each person under his direct supervision of the pesticide products and active ingredient(s) applied, method of application, time of application, the restricted entry interval, which tasks to undertake, and how to contact the crop advisor.

[60 FR 21953, May 3, 1995, as amended at 73 FR 75599, Dec. 12, 2008]

§170.210   Restrictions during applications.

(a) Contact with workers and other persons. The handler employer and the handler shall assure that no pesticide is applied so as to contact, either directly or through drift, any worker or other person, other than an appropriately trained and equipped handler.

(b) Handlers handling highly toxic pesticides. The handler employer shall assure that any handler who is performing any handling activity with a product that has the skull and crossbones symbol on the front panel of the label is monitored visually or by voice communication at least every 2 hours.

(c) Fumigant applications in greenhouses. The handler employer shall assure:

(1) That any handler who handles a fumigant in a greenhouse, including a handler who enters the greenhouse before the acceptable inhalation exposure level or ventilation criteria have been met to monitor air levels or to initiate ventilation, maintains continuous visual or voice contact with another handler.

(2) That the other handler has immediate access to the personal protective equipment required by the fumigant labeling for handlers in the event entry into the fumigated greenhouse becomes necessary for rescue.

§170.222   Providing specific information about applications.

When handlers (except those employed by a commercial pesticide handling establishment) are on an agricultural establishment and, within the last 30 days, a pesticide covered by this subpart has been applied on the establishment or a restricted-entry interval has been in effect, the handler employer shall display, in accordance with this section, specific information about the pesticide.

(a) Location, accessibility, and legibility. The information shall be displayed in the same location specified for the pesticide safety poster in §170.235(d) of this part and shall be accessible and legible, as specified in §170.235(e) and (f) of this part.

(b) Timing. (1) If warning signs are posted for the treated area before an application, the specific application information for that application shall be posted at the same time or earlier.

(2) The information shall be posted before the application takes place, if handlers (except those employed by a commercial pesticide handling establishment) will be on the establishment during application. Otherwise, the information shall be posted at the beginning of any such handler's first work period.

(3) The information shall continue to be displayed for at least 30 days after the end of the restricted-entry interval (or, if there is no restricted-entry interval, for at least 30 days after the end of the application) or at least until the handlers are no longer on the establishment, whichever is earlier.

(c) Required information. The information shall include:

(1) The location and description of the treated area.

(2) The product name, EPA registration number, and active ingredient(s) of the pesticide.

(3) The time and date the pesticide is to be applied.

(4) The restricted-entry interval for the pesticide.

§170.224   Notice of applications to agricultural employers.

Before the application of any pesticide on or in an agricultural establishment, the handler employer shall provide the following information to any agricultural employer for the establishment or shall assure that any agricultural employer is aware of:

(a) Specific location and description of the treated area.

(b) Time and date of application.

(c) Product name, EPA registration number, and active ingredient(s).

(d) Restricted-entry interval.

(e) Whether posting and oral notification are required.

(f) Any other product-specific requirements on the product labeling concerning protection of workers or other persons during or after application.

§170.230   Pesticide safety training for handlers.

(a) Requirement. Before any handler performs any handling task, the handler employer shall assure that the handler has been trained in accordance with this section during the last 5 years, counting from the end of the month in which the training was completed.

(b) Exceptions. The following persons need not be trained under this section:

(1) A handler who is currently certified as an applicator of restricted-use pesticides under part 171 of this chapter.

(2) A handler who satisfies the training requirements of part 171 of this chapter.

(3) A handler who is certified or licensed as a crop advisor by a program acknowledged as appropriate in writing by EPA or a State or Tribal lead agency for pesticide enforcement, provided that a requirement for such certification or licensing is pesticide safety training that includes all the information set out in §170.230(c)(4).

(c) Training programs. (1) General pesticide safety information shall be presented to handlers either orally from written materials or audiovisually. The information must be presented in a manner that the handlers can understand (such as through a translator). The presenter also shall respond to handlers' questions.

(2) The person who conducts the training shall meet at least one of the following criteria:

(i) Be currently certified as an applicator of restricted-use pesticides under part 171 of this chapter; or

(ii) Be currently designated as a trainer of certified applicators or pesticide handlers by a State, Federal, or Tribal agency having jurisdiction; or

(iii) Have completed a pesticide safety train-the-trainer program approved by a State, Federal, or Tribal agency having jurisdiction.

(3) Any person who issues an EPA-approved Worker Protection Standard handler training certificate must assure that the handler who receives the training certificate has been trained in accordance with paragraph (c)(4) of this section.

(4) The pesticide safety training materials must convey, at a minimum, the following information:

(i) Format and meaning of information contained on pesticide labels and in labeling, including safety information such as precautionary statements about human health hazards.

(ii) Hazards of pesticides resulting from toxicity and exposure, including acute and chronic effects, delayed effects, and sensitization.

(iii) Routes by which pesticides can enter the body.

(iv) Signs and symptoms of common types of pesticide poisoning.

(v) Emergency first aid for pesticide injuries or poisonings.

(vi) How to obtain emergency medical care.

(vii) Routine and emergency decontamination procedures.

(viii) Need for and appropriate use of personal protective equipment.

(ix) Prevention, recognition, and first aid treatment of heat-related illness.

(x) Safety requirements for handling, transporting, storing, and disposing of pesticides, including general procedures for spill cleanup.

(xi) Environmental concerns such as drift, runoff, and wildlife hazards.

(xii) Warnings about taking pesticides or pesticide containers home.

(xiii) Requirements of this subpart that must be followed by handler employers for the protection of handlers and other persons, including the prohibition against applying pesticides in a manner that will cause contact with workers or other persons, the requirement to use personal protective equipment, the provisions for training and decontamination, and the protection against retaliatory acts.

(d) Verification of training. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (d)(2) of this section, if the handler employer assures that a handler possesses an EPA-approved Worker Protection Standard handler training certificate, then the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section will have been met.

(2) If the handler employer is aware or has reason to know that an EPA-approved Worker Protection Standard handler training certificate has not been issued in accordance with this section, or has not been issued to the handler bearing the certificate, or the handler training was completed more than 5 years before the beginning of the current month, a handler's possession of that certificate does not meet the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section.

[57 FR 38151, Aug. 21, 1992, as amended at 60 FR 21953, May 3, 1995]

§170.232   Knowledge of labeling and site-specific information.

(a) Knowledge of labeling information. (1) The handler employer shall assure that before the handler performs any handling activity, the handler either has read the product labeling or has been informed in a manner the handler can understand of all labeling requirements related to safe use of the pesticide, such as signal words, human hazard precautions, personal protective equipment requirements, first aid instructions, environmental precautions, and any additional precautions pertaining to the handling activity to be performed.

(2) The handler employer shall assure that the handler has access to the product labeling information during handling activities.

(b) Knowledge of site-specific information. Whenever a handler who is employed by a commercial pesticide handling establishment will be performing pesticide handling tasks on an agricultural establishment, the handler employer shall assure that the handler is aware of the following information concerning any areas on the agricultural establishment that the handler may be in (or may walk within 14 mile of) and that may be treated with a pesticide or that may be under a restricted-entry interval while the handler will be on the agricultural establishment:

(1) Specific location and description of any such areas; and

(2) Restrictions on entering those areas.

§170.234   Safe operation of equipment.

(a) The handler employer shall assure that before the handler uses any equipment for mixing, loading, transferring, or applying pesticides, the handler is instructed in the safe operation of such equipment, including, when relevant, chemigation safety requirements and drift avoidance.

(b) The handler employer shall assure that, before each day of use, equipment used for mixing, loading, transferring, or applying pesticides is inspected for leaks, clogging, and worn or damaged parts, and any damaged equipment is repaired or is replaced.

(c) Before allowing any person to repair, clean, or adjust equipment that has been used to mix, load, transfer, or apply pesticides, the handler employer shall assure that pesticide residues have been removed from the equipment, unless the person doing the cleaning, repairing, or adjusting is a handler employed by the agricultural or commercial pesticide handling establishment. If pesticide residue removal is not feasible, the handler employer shall assure that the person who repairs, cleans, or adjusts such equipment is informed:

(1) That such equipment may be contaminated with pesticides.

(2) Of the potentially harmful effects of exposure to pesticides.

(3) Of the correct way to handle such equipment.

§170.235   Posted pesticide safety information.

(a) Requirement. When handlers (except those employed by a commercial pesticide handling establishment) are on an agricultural establishment and, within the last 30 days, a pesticide covered by this subpart has been applied on the establishment or a restricted-entry interval has been in effect, the handler employer shall display, in accordance with this section, pesticide safety information.

(b) Pesticide safety poster. A safety poster must be displayed that conveys, at a minimum, the pesticide safety concepts listed in paragraphs (b)(1)(i) through (vii) and (b)(2) of this section. Displays conforming to §170.311(a)(3) meet the requirements of this paragraph.

(c) Emergency medical care information. (1) The name, address, and telephone number of the nearest emergency medical care facility shall be on the safety poster or displayed close to the safety poster. Displays conforming to §170.311(a)(3)(ix) meet the requirements of this paragraph.

(2) The handler employer shall inform handlers promptly of any change to the information on emergency medical care facilities.

(d) Location. (1) The information shall be displayed in a central location on the farm or in the nursery or greenhouse where it can be readily seen and read by handlers.

(2) The information shall be displayed in a location in or near the forest in a place where it can be readily seen and read by handlers and where handlers are likely to congregate or pass by, such as at a decontamination site or an equipment storage site.

(e) Accessibility. Handlers shall be informed of the location of the information and shall be allowed access to it.

(f) Legibility. The information shall remain legible during the time it is posted.

[57 FR 38151, Aug. 21, 1992, as amended at 80 FR 67556, Nov. 2, 2015]

§170.240   Personal protective equipment.

(a) Requirement. Any person who performs tasks as a pesticide handler shall use the clothing and personal protective equipment specified on the labeling for use of the product.

(b) Definition. (1) Personal protective equipment (PPE) means devices and apparel that are worn to protect the body from contact with pesticides or pesticide residues, including, but not limited to, coveralls, chemical-resistant suits, chemical-resistant gloves, chemical-resistant footwear, respiratory protection devices, chemical-resistant aprons, chemical-resistant headgear, and protective eyewear.

(2) Long-sleeved shirts, short-sleeved shirts, long pants, short pants, shoes, socks, and other items of work clothing are not considered personal protective equipment for the purposes of this section and are not subject to the requirements of this section, although pesticide labeling may require that such work clothing be worn during some activities.

(c) Provision. When personal protective equipment is specified by the labeling of any pesticide for any handling activity, the handler employer shall provide the appropriate personal protective equipment in clean and operating condition to the handler.

(1) When “chemical-resistant” personal protective equipment is specified by the product labeling, it shall be made of material that allows no measurable movement of the pesticide being used through the material during use.

(2) When “waterproof” personal protective equipment is specified by the product labeling, it shall be made of material that allows no measurable movement of water or aqueous solutions through the material during use.

(3) When a “chemical-resistant suit” is specified by the product labeling, it shall be a loose-fitting, one- or two-piece chemical-resistant garment that covers, at a minimum, the entire body except head, hands, and feet.

(4) When “coveralls” are specified by the product labeling, they shall be a loose-fitting, one- or two-piece garment, such as a cotton or cotton and polyester coverall, that covers, at a minimum, the entire body except head, hands, and feet. The pesticide product labeling may specify that the coveralls be worn over another layer of clothing.

(5)(i) Gloves shall be of the type specified on the pesticide product labeling. Gloves made of leather, cotton, or other absorbent materials may not be worn while mixing, loading, applying, or otherwise handling pesticides, unless gloves made of these materials are listed as acceptable for such use on the product labeling.

(ii) Separable glove liners may be worn beneath chemical-resistant gloves, unless the pesticide product labeling specifically prohibits their use. Separable glove liners are defined as separate glove-like hand coverings, made of lightweight material, with or without fingers. Work gloves made from lightweight cotton or poly-type material are considered to be glove liners if worn beneath chemical-resistant gloves. Separable glove liners may not extend outside the chemical-resistant gloves under which they are worn. Chemical-resistant gloves with non-separable absorbent lining materials are prohibited.

(iii) If used, separable glove liners must be discarded immediately after a total of no more than 10 hours of use or within 24 hours of when first put on, whichever comes first. The liners must be replaced immediately if directly contacted by pesticide. Used glove liners shall not be reused. Contaminated liners must be disposed of in accordance with any Federal, State, or local regulations.

(6) When “chemical-resistant footwear” is specified by the product labeling, one of the following types of footwear must be worn:

(i) Chemical-resistant shoes.

(ii) Chemical-resistant boots.

(iii) Chemical-resistant shoe coverings worn over shoes or boots.

(7) When “protective eyewear” is specified by the product labeling, one of the following types of eyewear must be worn:

(i) Goggles.

(ii) Face shield.

(iii) Safety glasses with front, brow, and temple protection.

(iv) Full-face respirator.

(8) When a “chemical-resistant apron” is specified by the product labeling, an apron that covers the front of the body from mid-chest to the knees shall be worn.

(9) When a respirator is specified by the product labeling, it shall be appropriate for the pesticide product used and for the activity to be performed. The handler employer shall assure that the respirator fits correctly.

(10) When “chemical-resistant headgear” is specified by the product labeling, it shall be either a chemical resistant hood or a chemical-resistant hat with a wide brim.

(d) Exceptions to personal protective equipment specified on product labeling—(1) Body protection. (i) A chemical-resistant suit may be substituted for “coveralls,” and any requirement for an additional layer of clothing beneath is waived.

(ii) A chemical-resistant suit may be substituted for “coveralls” and a chemical-resistant apron.

(2) Boots. If chemical-resistant footwear with sufficient durability and a tread appropriate for wear in rough terrain is not obtainable, then leather boots may be worn in such terrain.

(3) Gloves. If chemical-resistant gloves with sufficient durability and suppleness are not obtainable, then during handling activities with roses or other plants with sharp thorns, leather gloves may be worn over chemical-resistant glove liners. However, once leather gloves are worn for this use, thereafter they shall be worn only with chemical-resistant liners and they shall not be worn for any other use.

(4) Closed systems. If handling tasks are performed using properly functioning systems that enclose the pesticide to prevent it from contacting handlers or other persons, and if such systems are used and are maintained in accordance with that manufacturer's written operating instructions, exceptions to labeling-specified personal protective equipment for the handling activity are permitted as provided in paragraphs (d)(4)(i) and (ii) of this section.

(i) Persons using a closed system to mix or load pesticides with a signal word of DANGER or WARNING may substitute a long-sleeved shirt, long pants, shoes, socks, chemical-resistant apron, and any protective gloves specified on the labeling for handlers for the labeling-specified personal protective equipment.

(ii) Persons using a closed system to mix or load pesticides other than those in paragraph (d)(4)(i) of this section or to perform other handling tasks may substitute a long-sleeved shirt, long pants, shoes, and socks for the labeling-specified personal protective equipment.

(iii) Persons using a closed system that operates under pressure shall wear protective eyewear.

(iv) Persons using a closed system shall have all labeling-specified personal protective equipment immediately available for use in an emergency.

(5) Enclosed cabs. If handling tasks are performed from inside a cab that has a nonporous barrier which totally surrounds the occupants of the cab and prevents contact with pesticides outside of the cab, exceptions to personal protective equipment specified on the product labeling for that handling activity are permitted as provided in paragraphs (d)(5) (i) through (iv) of this section.

(i) Persons occupying an enclosed cab may substitute a long-sleeved shirt, long pants, shoes, and socks for the labeling-specified personal protective equipment. If a respiratory protection device is specified on the pesticide product labeling for the handling activity, it must be worn.

(ii) Persons occupying an enclosed cab that has a properly functioning ventilation system which is used and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's written operating instructions and which is declared in writing by the manufacturer or by a governmental agency to provide respiratory protection equivalent to or greater than a dust/mist filtering respirator may substitute a long-sleeved shirt, long pants, shoes, and socks for the labeling-specified personal protective equipment. If a respiratory protection device other than a dust/mist-filtering respirator is specified on the pesticide product labeling, it must be worn.

(iii) Persons occupying an enclosed cab that has a properly functioning ventilation system which is used and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's written operating instructions and which is declared in writing by the manufacturer or by a governmental agency to provide respiratory protection equivalent to or greater than the vapor- or gas-removing respirator specified on pesticide product labeling may substitute a long-sleeved shirt, long pants, shoes, and socks for the labeling-specified personal protective equipment. If an air-supplying respirator or a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) is specified on the pesticide product labeling, it must be worn.

(iv) Persons occupying an enclosed cab shall have all labeling-specified personal protective equipment immediately available and stored in a chemical-resistant container, such as a plastic bag. They shall wear such personal protective equipment if it is necessary to exit the cab and contact pesticide-treated surfaces in the treated area. Once personal protective equipment is worn in the treated area, it must be removed before reentering the cab.

(6) Aerial application—(i) Use of gloves. The wearing of chemical-resistant gloves when entering or leaving an aircraft used to apply pesticides is optional, unless such gloves are required on the pesticide product labeling. If gloves are brought into the cockpit of an aircraft that has been used to apply pesticides, the gloves shall be kept in an enclosed container to prevent contamination of the inside of the cockpit.

(ii) Open cockpit. Persons occupying an open cockpit shall use the personal protective equipment specified in the product labeling for use during application, except that chemical-resistant footwear need not be worn. A helmet may be substituted for chemical-resistant headgear. A visor may be substituted for protective eyewear.

(iii) Enclosed cockpit. Persons occupying an enclosed cockpit may substitute a long-sleeved shirt, long pants, shoes, and socks for labeling-specified personal protective equipment.

(7) Crop advisors. Crop advisors entering treated areas while a restricted-entry interval is in effect may wear the personal protective equipment specified on the pesticide labeling for early-entry activities instead of the personal protective equipment specified on the pesticide labeling for handling activities, provided:

(i) Application has been completed for at least 4 hours.

(ii) Any inhalation exposure level listed in the labeling has been reached or any ventilation criteria established by §170.110(c)(3) or in the labeling have been met.

(e) Use of personal protective equipment. (1) The handler employer shall assure that personal protective equipment is used correctly for its intended purpose and is used according to the manufacturer's instructions.

(2) The handler employer shall assure that, before each day of use, all personal protective equipment is inspected for leaks, holes, tears, or worn places, and any damaged equipment is repaired or discarded.

(f) Cleaning and maintenance. (1) The handler employer shall assure that all personal protective equipment is cleaned according to the manufacturer's instructions or pesticide product labeling instructions before each day of reuse. In the absence of any such instructions, it shall be washed thoroughly in detergent and hot water.

(2) If any personal protective equipment cannot be cleaned properly, the handler employer shall dispose of the personal protective equipment in accordance with any applicable Federal, State, and local regulations. Coveralls or other absorbent materials that have been drenched or heavily contaminated with an undiluted pesticide that has the signal word DANGER or WARNING on the label shall be not be reused.

(3) The handler employer shall assure that contaminated personal protective equipment is kept separately and washed separately from any other clothing or laundry.

(4) The handler employer shall assure that all clean personal protective equipment shall be either dried thoroughly before being stored or shall be put in a well ventilated place to dry.

(5) The handler employer shall assure that all personal protective equipment is stored separately from personal clothing and apart from pesticide-contaminated areas.

(6) The handler employer shall assure that when dust/mist filtering respirators are used, the filters shall be replaced:

(i) When breathing resistance becomes excessive.

(ii) When the filter element has physical damage or tears.

(iii) According to manufacturer's recommendations or pesticide product labeling, whichever is more frequent.

(iv) In the absence of any other instructions or indications of service life, at the end of each day's work period.

(7) The handler employer shall assure that when gas- or vapor-removing respirators are used, the gas- or vapor-removing canisters or cartridges shall be replaced:

(i) At the first indication of odor, taste, or irritation.

(ii) According to manufacturer's recommendations or pesticide product labeling, whichever is more frequent.

(iii) In the absence of any other instructions or indications of service life, at the end of each day's work period.

(8) The handler employer shall inform any person who cleans or launders personal protective equipment:

(i) That such equipment may be contaminated with pesticides.

(ii) Of the potentially harmful effects of exposure to pesticides.

(iii) Of the correct way(s) to clean personal protective equipment and to protect themselves when handling such equipment.

(9) The handler employer shall assure that handlers have a clean place(s) away from pesticide storage and pesticide use areas where they may:

(i) Store personal clothing not in use.

(ii) Put on personal protective equipment at the start of any exposure period.

(iii) Remove personal protective equipment at the end of any exposure period.

(10) The handler employer shall not allow or direct any handler to wear home or to take home personal protective equipment contaminated with pesticides.

(g) Heat-related illness. When the use of personal protective equipment is specified by the labeling of any pesticide for the handling activity, the handler employer shall assure that no handler is allowed or directed to perform the handling activity unless appropriate measures are taken, if necessary, to prevent heat-related illness.

[57 FR 38151, Aug. 21, 1992, as amended at 69 FR 53346, Sept. 1, 2004]

§170.250   Decontamination.

(a) Requirement. During any handling activity, the handler employer shall provide for handlers, in accordance with this section, decontamination supplies for washing off pesticides and pesticide residues.

(b) General conditions. (1) The handler employer shall provide handlers with enough water for routine washing, for emergency eyeflushing, and for washing the entire body in case of an emergency. At all times when the water is available to handlers, the handler employer shall assure that it is of a quality and temperature that will not cause illness or injury when it contacts the skin or eyes or if it is swallowed.

(2) When water stored in a tank is to be used for mixing pesticides, it shall not be used for decontamination or eye flushing, unless the tank is equipped with properly functioning valves or other mechanisms that prevent movement of pesticides into the tank.

(3) The handler employer shall provide soap and single-use towels in quantities sufficient to meet handlers' needs.

(4) The handler employer shall provide one clean change of clothing, such as coveralls, for use in an emergency.

(c) Location. The decontamination supplies shall be located together and be reasonably accessible to and not more than 14 mile from each handler during the handling activity.

(1) Exception for mixing sites. For mixing activities, decontamination supplies shall be at the mixing site.

(2) Exception for pilots. Decontamination supplies for a pilot who is applying pesticides aerially shall be in the airplaine or at the aircraft loading site.

(3) Exception for handling pesticides in remote areas. When handling activities are performed more than 14 mile from the nearest place of vehicular access:

(i) The soap, single-use towels, clean change of clothing, and water may be at the nearest place of vehicular access.

(ii) The handler employer may permit handlers to use clean water from springs, streams, lakes, or other sources for decontamination at the remote work site, if such water is more accessible than the water located at the nearest place of vehicular access.

(4) Decontamination supplies in treated areas. The decontamination supplies shall not be in an area being treated with pesticides or in an area under a restricted-entry interval, unless:

(i) The decontamination supplies are in the area where the handler is performing handling activities;

(ii) The soap, single-use towels, and clean change of clothing are in enclosed containers; and

(iii) The water is running tap water or is enclosed in a container.

(d) Emergency eyeflushing. To provide for emergency eyeflushing, the handler employer shall assure that at least 1 pint of water is immediately available to each handler who is performing tasks for which the pesticide labeling requires protective eyewear. The eyeflush water shall be carried by the handler, or shall be on the vehicle or aircraft the handler is using, or shall be otherwise immediately accessible.

(e) Decontamination after handling activities. At the end of any exposure period, the handler employer shall provide at the site where handlers remove personal protective equipment, soap, clean towels, and a sufficient amount of water so that the handlers may wash thoroughly.

[57 FR 38151, Aug. 21, 1992, as amended at 61 FR 33213, June 26, 1996]

§170.260   Emergency assistance.

If there is reason to believe that a person who is or has been employed by an agricultural establishment or commercial pesticide handling establishment to perform pesticide handling tasks has been poisoned or injured by exposure to pesticides as a result of that employment, including, but not limited to, exposures from handling tasks or from application, splash, spill, drift, or pesticide residues, the handler employer shall:

(a) Make available to that person prompt transportation from the place of employment or the handling site to an appropriate emergency medical facility.

(b) Provide to that person or to treating medical personnel, promptly upon request, any obtainable information on:

(1) Product name, EPA registration number, and active ingredients of any product to which that person might have been exposed.

(2) Antidote, first aid, and other medical information from the product labeling.

(3) The circumstances of handling of the pesticide.

(4) The circumstances of exposure of that person to the pesticide.

Subpart D—General Provisions

Source: 80 FR 67557, Nov. 2, 2015, unless otherwise noted.

§170.301   Scope and purpose.

This regulation is primarily intended to reduce the risks of illness or injury to workers and handlers resulting from occupational exposures to pesticides used in the production of agricultural plants on agricultural establishments. It requires agricultural employers and commercial pesticide handler employers to provide specific information and protections to workers, handlers and other persons when pesticides are used on agricultural establishments in the production of agricultural plants. It also requires handlers to wear the labeling-specified clothing and personal protective equipment when performing handler activities, and to take measures to protect workers and other persons during pesticide applications.

§170.303   Applicability of this part.

(a) This regulation applies whenever a pesticide product bearing a label requiring compliance with this part is used in the production of agricultural plants on an agricultural establishment, except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section.

(b) This regulation does not apply when a pesticide product bearing a label requiring compliance with this part is used on an agricultural establishment in any of the following circumstances:

(1) As part of government-sponsored public pest control programs over which the owner, agricultural employer and handler employer have no control, such as mosquito abatement and Mediterranean fruit fly eradication programs.

(2) On plants other than agricultural plants, which may include plants in home fruit and vegetable gardens and home greenhouses, and permanent plantings for ornamental purposes, such as plants that are in ornamental gardens, parks, public or private landscaping, lawns or other grounds that are intended only for aesthetic purposes or climatic modification.

(3) For control of vertebrate pests, unless directly related to the production of an agricultural plant.

(4) As attractants or repellents in traps.

(5) On the harvested portions of agricultural plants or on harvested timber.

(6) For research uses of unregistered pesticides.

(7) On pasture and rangeland where the forage will not be harvested for hay.

(8) In a manner not directly related to the production of agricultural plants, including, but not limited to structural pest control and control of vegetation in non-crop areas.

(c) Where a pesticide product's labeling-specific directions for use or other labeling requirements are inconsistent with requirements of this part, users must comply with the pesticide product labeling, except as provided for in §§170.601, 170.603 and 170.607.

§170.305   Definitions.

Terms used in this part have the same meanings they have in the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, as amended. In addition, the following terms, when used in this part, shall have the following meanings:

Agricultural employer means any person who is an owner of, or is responsible for the management or condition of, an agricultural establishment, and who employs any worker or handler.

Agricultural establishment means any farm, forest operation, or nursery engaged in the outdoor or enclosed space production of agricultural plants. An establishment that is not primarily agricultural is an agricultural establishment if it produces agricultural plants for transplant or use (in part or their entirety) in another location instead of purchasing the agricultural plants.

Agricultural plant means any plant, or part thereof, grown, maintained, or otherwise produced for commercial purposes, including growing, maintaining or otherwise producing plants for sale or trade, for research or experimental purposes, or for use in part or their entirety in another location. Agricultural plant includes, but is not limited to, grains, fruits and vegetables; wood fiber or timber products; flowering and foliage plants and trees; seedlings and transplants; and turf grass produced for sod. Agricultural plant does not include pasture or rangeland used for grazing.

Application exclusion zone means the area surrounding the application equipment that must be free of all persons other than appropriately trained and equipped handlers during pesticide applications.

Chemigation means the application of pesticides through irrigation systems.

Closed system means an engineering control used to protect handlers from pesticide exposure hazards when mixing and loading pesticides.

Commercial pesticide handler employer means any person, other than an agricultural employer, who employs any handler to perform handler activities on an agricultural establishment. A labor contractor who does not provide pesticide application services or supervise the performance of handler activities, but merely employs laborers who perform handler activities at the direction of an agricultural or handler employer, is not a commercial pesticide handler employer.

Commercial pesticide handling establishment means any enterprise, other than an agricultural establishment, that provides pesticide handler or crop advising services to agricultural establishments.

Crop advisor means any person who is assessing pest numbers, damage, pesticide distribution, or the status or requirements of agricultural plants.

Designated representative means any persons designated in writing by a worker or handler to exercise a right of access on behalf of the worker or handler to request and obtain a copy of the pesticide application and hazard information required by §170.309(h) in accordance with §170.311(b) of this part.

Early entry means entry by a worker into a treated area on the agricultural establishment after a pesticide application is complete, but before any restricted-entry interval for the pesticide has expired.

Employ means to obtain, directly or through a labor contractor, the services of a person in exchange for a salary or wages, including piece-rate wages, without regard to who may pay or who may receive the salary or wages. It includes obtaining the services of a self-employed person, an independent contractor, or a person compensated by a third party, except that it does not include an agricultural employer obtaining the services of a handler through a commercial pesticide handler employer or a commercial pesticide handling establishment.

Enclosed cab means a cab with a nonporous barrier that totally surrounds the occupant(s) of the cab and prevents dermal contact with pesticides that are being applied outside of the cab.

Enclosed space production means production of an agricultural plant indoors or in a structure or space that is covered in whole or in part by any nonporous covering and that is large enough to permit a person to enter.

Fumigant means any pesticide product that is a vapor or gas, or forms a vapor or gas upon application, and whose pesticidal action is achieved through the gaseous or vapor state.

Hand labor means any agricultural activity performed by hand or with hand tools that causes a worker to have substantial contact with plants, plant parts, or soil and other surfaces that may contain pesticide residues, except that hand labor does not include operating, moving, or repairing irrigation or watering equipment or performing crop advisor tasks.

Handler means any person, including a self-employed person, who is employed by an agricultural employer or commercial pesticide handler employer and performs any of the following activities:

(1) Mixing, loading, or applying pesticides.

(2) Disposing of pesticides.

(3) Handling opened containers of pesticides, emptying, triple-rinsing, or cleaning pesticide containers according to pesticide product labeling instructions, or disposing of pesticide containers that have not been cleaned. The term does not include any person who is only handling unopened pesticide containers or pesticide containers that have been emptied or cleaned according to pesticide product labeling instructions.

(4) Acting as a flagger.

(5) Cleaning, adjusting, handling, or repairing the parts of mixing, loading, or application equipment that may contain pesticide residues.

(6) Assisting with the application of pesticides.

(7) Entering an enclosed space after the application of a pesticide and before the inhalation exposure level listed in the labeling has been reached or one of the ventilation criteria established by §170.405(b)(3) or the labeling has been met to operate ventilation equipment, monitor air levels, or adjust or remove coverings used in fumigation.

(8) Entering a treated area outdoors after application of any soil fumigant during the labeling-specified entry-restricted period to adjust or remove coverings used in fumigation.

(9) Performing tasks as a crop advisor during any pesticide application or restricted-entry interval, or before the inhalation exposure level listed in the pesticide product labeling has been reached or one of the ventilation criteria established by §170.405(b)(3) or the pesticide product labeling has been met.

Handler employer means any person who is self-employed as a handler or who employs any handler.

Immediate family is limited to the spouse, parents, stepparents, foster parents, father-in-law, mother-in-law, children, stepchildren, foster children, sons-in-law, daughters-in-law, grandparents, grandchildren, brothers, sisters, brothers-in-law, sisters-in-law, aunts, uncles, nieces, nephews, and first cousins. “First cousin” means the child of a parent's sibling, i.e.,the child of an aunt or uncle.

Labor contractor means a person, other than a commercial pesticide handler employer, who employs workers or handlers to perform tasks on an agricultural establishment for an agricultural employer or a commercial pesticide handler employer.

Outdoor production means production of an agricultural plant in an outside area that is not enclosed or covered in any way that would obstruct the natural air flow.

Owner means any person who has a present possessory interest (e.g., fee, leasehold, rental, or other) in an agricultural establishment. A person who has both leased such agricultural establishment to another person and granted that same person the right and full authority to manage and govern the use of such agricultural establishment is not an owner for purposes of this part.

Personal protective equipment means devices and apparel that are worn to protect the body from contact with pesticides or pesticide residues, including, but not limited to, coveralls, chemical-resistant suits, chemical-resistant gloves, chemical-resistant footwear, respirators, chemical-resistant aprons, chemical-resistant headgear, and protective eyewear.

Restricted-entry interval means the time after the end of a pesticide application during which entry into the treated area is restricted.

Safety data sheet has the same meaning as the definition at 29 CFR 1900.1200(c).

Treated area means any area to which a pesticide is being directed or has been directed.

Use, as in “to use a pesticide” means any of the following:

(1) Pre-application activities, including, but not limited to:

(i) Arranging for the application of the pesticide.

(ii) Mixing and loading the pesticide.

(iii) Making necessary preparations for the application of the pesticide, including responsibilities related to worker notification, training of workers or handlers, providing decontamination supplies, providing pesticide safety information and pesticide application and hazard information, use and care of personal protective equipment, providing emergency assistance, and heat stress management.

(2) Application of the pesticide.

(3) Post-application activities intended to reduce the risks of illness and injury resulting from handlers' and workers' occupational exposures to pesticide residues during and after the restricted-entry interval, including responsibilities related to worker notification, training of workers or early-entry workers, providing decontamination supplies, providing pesticide safety information and pesticide application and hazard information, use and care of personal protective equipment, providing emergency assistance, and heat stress management.

(4) Other pesticide-related activities, including, but not limited to, transporting or storing pesticides that have been opened, cleaning equipment, and disposing of excess pesticides, spray mix, equipment wash waters, pesticide containers, and other pesticide-containing materials.

Worker means any person, including a self-employed person, who is employed and performs activities directly relating to the production of agricultural plants on an agricultural establishment.

Worker housing area means any place or area of land on or near an agricultural establishment where housing or space for housing is provided for workers or handlers by an agricultural employer, owner, labor contractor, or any other person responsible for the recruitment or employment of agricultural workers.

§170.309   Agricultural employer duties.

Agricultural employers must:

(a) Ensure that any pesticide is used in a manner consistent with the pesticide product labeling, including the requirements of this part, when applied on the agricultural establishment.

(b) Ensure that each worker and handler subject to this part receives the protections required by this part.

(c) Ensure that any handler and any early entry worker is at least 18 years old.

(d) Provide to each person, including labor contractors, who supervises any workers or handlers information and directions sufficient to ensure that each worker and handler receives the protections required by this part. Such information and directions must specify the tasks for which the supervisor is responsible in order to comply with the provisions of this part.

(e) Require each person, including labor contractors, who supervises any workers or handlers to provide sufficient information and directions to each worker and handler to ensure that they can comply with the provisions of this part.

(f) Provide emergency assistance in accordance with this paragraph. If there is reason to believe that a worker or handler has experienced a potential pesticide exposure during his or her employment on the agricultural establishment or shows symptoms similar to those associated with acute exposure to pesticides during or within 72 hours after his or her employment on the agricultural establishment, and needs emergency medical treatment, the agricultural employer must do all of the following promptly after learning of the possible poisoning or injury:

(1) Make available to that person transportation from the agricultural establishment, including any worker housing area on the establishment, to an operating medical care facility capable of providing emergency medical treatment to a person exposed to pesticides.

(2) Provide all of the following information to the treating medical personnel:

(i) Copies of the applicable safety data sheet(s) and the product name(s), EPA registration number(s) and active ingredient(s) for each pesticide product to which the person may have been exposed.

(ii) The circumstances of application or use of the pesticide on the agricultural establishment.

(iii) The circumstances that could have resulted in exposure to the pesticide.

(g) Ensure that workers or other persons employed by the agricultural establishment do not clean, repair, or adjust pesticide application equipment, unless trained as a handler under §170.501. Before allowing any person not directly employed by the agricultural establishment to clean, repair, or adjust equipment that has been used to mix, load, transfer, or apply pesticides, the agricultural employer must provide all of the following information to such person:

(1) Pesticide application equipment may be contaminated with pesticides.

(2) The potentially harmful effects of exposure to pesticides.

(3) Procedures for handling pesticide application equipment and for limiting exposure to pesticide residues.

(4) Personal hygiene practices and decontamination procedures for preventing pesticide exposures and removing pesticide residues.

(h) Display, maintain, and provide access to pesticide safety information and pesticide application and hazard information in accordance with §170.311 if workers or handlers are on the establishment and within the last 30 days a pesticide product has been used or a restricted-entry interval for such pesticide has been in effect on the establishment.

(i) Ensure that before a handler uses any equipment for mixing, loading, transferring, or applying pesticides, the handler is instructed in the safe operation of such equipment.

(j) Ensure that before each day of use, equipment used for mixing, loading, transferring, or applying pesticides is inspected for leaks, clogging, and worn or damaged parts, and any damaged equipment is repaired or replaced.

(k) Ensure that whenever handlers employed by a commercial pesticide handling establishment will be on an agricultural establishment, the handler employer is provided information about, or is aware of, the specific location and description of any treated areas on the agricultural establishment where a restricted-entry interval is in effect that the handler may be in (or may walk within 14 mile of), and any restrictions on entering those areas.

(l) Ensure that workers do not enter any area on the agricultural establishment where a pesticide has been applied until the applicable pesticide application and hazard information for each pesticide product applied to that area is displayed in accordance with §170.311(b), and until after the restricted-entry interval has expired and all treated area warning signs have been removed or covered, except for entry permitted by §170.603 of this part.

(m) Provide any records or other information required by this part for inspection and copying upon request by an employee of EPA or any duly authorized representative of a Federal, State or Tribal government agency responsible for pesticide enforcement.

§170.311   Display requirements for pesticide safety information and pesticide application and hazard information.

(a) Display of Pesticide Safety Information. Whenever pesticide safety information and pesticide application and hazard information are required to be provided under §170.309(h), pesticide safety information must be displayed in accordance with this paragraph.

(1) General. The pesticide safety information must be conveyed in a manner that workers and handlers can understand.

(2) Content prior to January 1, 2018. Prior to January 1, 2018, the safety information must include all of the following points:

(i) Help keep pesticides from entering your body. Avoid getting on your skin or into your body any pesticides that may be on plants and soil, in irrigation water, or drifting from nearby applications.

(ii) Wash before eating, drinking, using chewing gum or tobacco, or using the toilet.

(iii) Wear work clothing that protects the body from pesticide residues (long-sleeved shirts, long pants, shoes and socks, and a hat or scarf).

(iv) Wash or shower with soap and water, shampoo hair, and put on clean clothes after work.

(v) Wash work clothes separately from other clothes before wearing them again.

(vi) Wash immediately in the nearest clean water if pesticides are spilled or sprayed on the body. As soon as possible, shower, shampoo, and change into clean clothes.

(vii) Follow directions about keeping out of treated or restricted areas.

(viii) The name, address, and telephone number of a nearby operating medical care facility capable of providing emergency medical treatment. This information must be clearly identified as emergency medical contact information on the display.

(ix) There are Federal rules to protect workers and handlers, including a requirement for safety training.

(3) Content after January 1, 2018. After January 1, 2018, the pesticide safety information must include all of the points in §170.311(a)(3)(i)-(x) instead of the points listed in §170.311(a)(2)(i)-(ix).

(i) Avoid getting on the skin or into the body any pesticides that may be on or in plants, soil, irrigation water, tractors, and other equipment, on used personal protective equipment, or drifting from nearby applications.

(ii) Wash before eating, drinking, using chewing gum or tobacco, or using the toilet.

(iii) Wear work clothing that protects the body from pesticide residues (long-sleeved shirts, long pants, shoes and socks, and a hat or scarf).

(iv) Wash or shower with soap and water, shampoo hair, and put on clean clothes after work.

(v) Wash work clothes separately from other clothes before wearing them again.

(vi) If pesticides are spilled or sprayed on the body use decontamination supplies to wash immediately, or rinse off in the nearest clean water, including springs, streams, lakes or other sources if more readily available than decontamination supplies, and as soon as possible, wash or shower with soap and water, shampoo hair, and change into clean clothes.

(vii) Follow directions about keeping out of treated areas and application exclusion zones.

(viii) Instructions to employees to seek medical attention as soon as possible if they believe they have been poisoned, injured or made ill by pesticides.

(ix) The name, address, and telephone number of a nearby operating medical care facility capable of providing emergency medical treatment. This information must be clearly identified as emergency medical contact information on the display.

(x) The name, address and telephone number of the State or Tribal pesticide regulatory agency.

(4) Changes to pesticide safety information. The agricultural employer must update the pesticide safety information display within 24 hours of notice of any changes to the information required in §§170.311(a)(2)(viii) or 170.311(a)(3)(ix).

(5) Location. The pesticide safety information must be displayed at each of the following sites on the agricultural establishment:

(i) The site selected pursuant to §170.311(b)(2) for display of pesticide application and hazard information.

(ii) Anywhere that decontamination supplies must be provided on the agricultural establishment pursuant to §§170.411, 170.509 or 170.605, but only when the decontamination supplies are located at permanent sites or being provided at locations and in quantities to meet the requirements for 11 or more workers or handlers.

(6) Accessibility. When pesticide safety information is required to be displayed, workers and handlers must be allowed access to the pesticide safety information at all times during normal work hours.

(7) Legibility. The pesticide safety information must remain legible at all times when the information is required to be displayed.

(b) Keeping and displaying pesticide application and hazard information. Whenever pesticide safety information and pesticide application and hazard information is required to be provided under §170.309(h), pesticide application and hazard information for any pesticides that are used on the agricultural establishment must be displayed, retained, and made accessible in accordance with this paragraph.

(1) Content. The pesticide application and hazard information must include all of the following information for each pesticide product applied:

(i) A copy of the safety data sheet.

(ii) The name, EPA registration number, and active ingredient(s) of the pesticide product.

(iii) The crop or site treated and the location and description of the treated area.

(iv) The date(s) and times the application started and ended.

(v) The duration of the applicable labeling-specified restricted-entry interval for that application.

(2) Location. The pesticide application and hazard information must be displayed at a place on the agricultural establishment where workers and handlers are likely to pass by or congregate and where it can be readily seen and read.

(3) Accessibility. When the pesticide application and hazard information is required to be displayed, workers and handlers must be allowed access to the location of the information at all times during normal work hours.

(4) Legibility. The pesticide application and hazard information must remain legible at all times when the information is required to be displayed.

(5) Timing. The pesticide application and hazard information for each pesticide product applied must be displayed no later than 24 hours after the end of the application of the pesticide. The pesticide application and hazard information must be displayed continuously from the beginning of the display period until at least 30 days after the end of the last applicable restricted-entry interval, or until workers or handlers are no longer on the establishment, whichever is earlier.

(6) Record retention. Whenever pesticide safety information and pesticide application and hazard information is required to be displayed in accordance with this paragraph (b), the agricultural employer must retain the pesticide application and hazard information described in §170.311(b)(1) on the agricultural establishment for two years after the date of expiration of the restricted-entry interval applicable to the pesticide application conducted.

(7) Access to pesticide application and hazard information by a worker or handler.

(i) If a person is or was employed as a worker or handler by an establishment during the period that particular pesticide application and hazard information was required to be displayed and retained for two years in accordance with §§170.311(b)(5) and 170.311(b)(6), and the person requests a copy of such application and/or hazard information, or requests access to such application and/or hazard information after it is no longer required to be displayed, the agricultural employer must provide the worker or handler with a copy of or access to all of the requested information within 15 days of the receipt of any such request. The worker or handler may make the request orally or in writing.

(ii) Whenever a record has been previously provided without cost to a worker or handler or their designated representative, the agricultural employer may charge reasonable, non-discriminatory administrative costs (i.e., search and copying expenses but not including overhead expenses) for a request by the worker or handler for additional copies of the record.

(8) Access to pesticide application and hazard information by treating medical personnel. Any treating medical personnel, or any person acting under the supervision of treating medical personnel, may request, orally or in writing, access to or a copy of any information required to be retained for two years by §170.311(b)(6) in order to inform diagnosis or treatment of a worker or handler who was employed on the establishment during the period that the information was required to be displayed. The agricultural employer must promptly provide a copy of or access to all of the requested information applicable to the worker's or handler's time of employment on the establishment after receipt of the request.

(9) Access to pesticide application and hazard information by a designated representative.

(i) Any worker's or handler's designated representative may request access to or a copy of any information required to be retained for two years by §170.311(b)(6) on behalf of a worker or handler employed on the establishment during the period that the information was required to be displayed. The agricultural employer must provide access to or a copy of the requested information applicable to the worker's or handler's time of employment on the establishment within 15 days after receiving any such request, provided the request meets the requirements specified in §170.311(b)(9)(ii).

(ii) A request by a designated representative for access to or a copy of any pesticide application and/or hazard information must be in writing and must contain all of the following:

(A) The name of the worker or handler being represented.

(B) A description of the specific information being requested. The description should include the dates of employment of the worker or handler, the date or dates for which the records are requested, type of work conducted by the worker or handler (e.g., planting, harvesting, applying pesticides, mixing or loading pesticides) during the period for which the records are requested, and the specific application and/or hazard information requested.

(C) A written statement clearly designating the representative to request pesticide application and hazard information on the worker's or handler's behalf, bearing the worker's or handler's printed name and signature, the date of the designation, and the printed name and contact information for the designated representative.

(D) If the worker or handler requests that the pesticide application and/or the hazard information be sent, direction for where to send the information (e.g., mailing address or email address).

(iii) If the written request from a designated representative contains all of the necessary information specified in §170.313(b)(9)(ii), the employer must provide a copy of or access to all of the requested information applicable to the worker's or handler's time of employment on the establishment to the designated representative within 15 days of receiving the request.

(iv) Whenever a record has been previously provided without cost to a worker or handler or their designated representative, the agricultural employer may charge reasonable, non-discriminatory administrative costs (i.e., search and copying expenses but not including overhead expenses) for a request by the designated representative for additional copies of the record.

§170.313   Commercial pesticide handler employer duties.

Commercial pesticide handler employers must:

(a) Ensure that any pesticide is used in a manner consistent with the pesticide product labeling, including the requirements of this part, when applied on an agricultural establishment by a handler employed by the commercial pesticide handling establishment.

(b) Ensure each handler employed by the commercial pesticide handling establishment and subject to this part receives the protections required by this part.

(c) Ensure that any handler employed by the commercial pesticide handling establishment is at least 18 years old.

(d) Provide to each person, including labor contractors, who supervises any handlers employed by the commercial pesticide handling establishment, information and directions sufficient to ensure that each handler receives the protections required by this part. Such information and directions must specify the tasks for which the supervisor is responsible in order to comply with the provisions of this part.

(e) Require each person, including labor contractors, who supervises any handlers employed by the commercial pesticide handling establishment, to provide sufficient information and directions to each handler to ensure that the handler can comply with the provisions of this part.

(f) Ensure that before any handler employed by the commercial pesticide handling establishment uses any equipment for mixing, loading, transferring, or applying pesticides, the handler is instructed in the safe operation of such equipment.

(g) Ensure that, before each day of use, equipment used by their employees for mixing, loading, transferring, or applying pesticides is inspected for leaks, obstructions, and worn or damaged parts, and any damaged equipment is repaired or is replaced.

(h) Ensure that whenever a handler who is employed by a commercial pesticide handling establishment will be on an agricultural establishment, the handler is provided information about, or is aware of, the specific location and description of any treated areas where a restricted-entry interval is in effect, and the restrictions on entering those areas.

(i) Provide the agricultural employer all of the following information before the application of any pesticide on an agricultural establishment:

(1) Specific location(s) and description of the area(s) to be treated.

(2) The date(s) and start and estimated end times of application.

(3) Product name, EPA registration number, and active ingredient(s).

(4) The labeling-specified restricted-entry interval applicable for the application.

(5) Whether posting, oral notification or both are required under §170.409.

(6) Any restrictions or use directions on the pesticide product labeling that must be followed for protection of workers, handlers, or other persons during or after application.

(j) If there are any changes to the information provided in §170.313(i)(1), §170.313(i)(4), §170.313(i)(5), §170.313(i)(6) or if the start time for the application will be earlier than originally forecasted or scheduled, ensure that the agricultural employer is provided updated information prior to the application. If there are any changes to any other information provided pursuant to §170.313(i), the commercial pesticide handler employer must provide updated information to the agricultural employer within two hours after completing the application. Changes to the estimated application end time of less than one hour need not be reported to the agricultural employer.

(k) Provide emergency assistance in accordance with this paragraph. If there is reason to believe that a handler employed by the commercial pesticide handling establishment has experienced a potential pesticide exposure during his or her employment by the commercial pesticide handling establishment or shows symptoms similar to those associated with acute exposure to pesticides during or within 72 hours after his or her employment by the commercial pesticide handling establishment, and needs emergency medical treatment, the commercial pesticide handler employer must do all of the following promptly after learning of the possible poisoning or injury:

(1) Make available to that person transportation from the commercial pesticide handling establishment, or any agricultural establishment on which that handler may be working on behalf of the commercial pesticide handling establishment, to an operating medical care facility capable of providing emergency medical treatment to a person exposed to pesticides.

(2) Provide all of the following information to the treating medical personnel:

(i) Copies of the applicable safety data sheet(s) and the product name(s), EPA registration number(s) and active ingredient(s) for each pesticide product to which the person may have been exposed.

(ii) The circumstances of application or use of the pesticide.

(iii) The circumstances that could have resulted in exposure to the pesticide.

(l) Ensure that persons directly employed by the commercial pesticide handling establishment do not clean, repair, or adjust pesticide application equipment, unless trained as a handler under §170.501. Before allowing any person not directly employed by the commercial pesticide handling establishment to clean, repair, or adjust equipment that has been used to mix, load, transfer, or apply pesticides, the commercial pesticide handler employer must provide all of the following information to such persons:

(1) Notice that the pesticide application equipment may be contaminated with pesticides.

(2) The potentially harmful effects of exposure to pesticides.

(3) Procedures for handling pesticide application equipment and for limiting exposure to pesticide residues.

(4) Personal hygiene practices and decontamination procedures for preventing pesticide exposures and removing pesticide residues.

(m) Provide any records or other information required by this part for inspection and copying upon request by an employee of EPA or any duly authorized representative of a Federal, State or Tribal government agency responsible for pesticide enforcement.

§170.315   Prohibited actions.

No agricultural employer, commercial pesticide handler employer, or other person involved in the use of a pesticide to which this part applies, shall intimidate, threaten, coerce, or discriminate against any worker or handler for complying with or attempting to comply with this part, or because the worker or handler provided, caused to be provided or is about to provide information to the employer or the EPA or any duly authorized representative of a Federal, State or Tribal government regarding conduct that the worker or handler reasonably believes violates this part, has made a complaint, testified, assisted, or participated in any manner in an investigation, proceeding, or hearing concerning compliance with this part, or has objected to, or refused to participate in, any activity, policy, practice, or assigned task that the worker or handler reasonably believed to be in violation of this part. Any such intimidation, threat, coercion, or discrimination violates FIFRA section 12(a)(2)(G), 7 U.S.C. 136j(a)(2)(G).

§170.317   Violations of this part.

(a) Under FIFRA section 12(a)(2)(G), it is unlawful for any person “to use any registered pesticide in a manner inconsistent with its labeling.” When this part is referenced on a label, users must comply with all of its requirements, except those that are inconsistent with product-specific instructions on the pesticide product labeling, except as provided for in §§170.601, 170.603 and 170.607.

(b) A person who has a duty under this part, as referenced on the pesticide product labeling, and who fails to perform that duty, violates FIFRA section 12(a)(2)(G) and is subject to a civil penalty under section 14. A person who knowingly violates section 12(a)(2)(G) is subject to section 14 criminal sanctions.

(c) FIFRA section 14(b)(4) provides that a person is liable for a penalty under FIFRA if another person employed by or acting for that person violates any provision of FIFRA. The term “acting for” includes both employment and contractual relationships, including, but not limited to, labor contractors.

(d) The requirements of this part, including the decontamination requirements, must not, for the purposes of section 653(b)(1) of Title 29 of the U.S. Code, be deemed to be the exercise of statutory authority to prescribe or enforce standards or regulations affecting the general sanitary hazards addressed by the OSHA Field Sanitation Standard, 29 CFR 1928.110, or other agricultural non-pesticide hazards.

Subpart E—Requirements for Protection of Agricultural Workers

Source: 80 FR 67562, Nov. 2, 2015, unless otherwise noted.

§170.401   Training requirements for workers.

(a) General requirement. Before any worker performs any task in a treated area on an agricultural establishment where within the last 30 days a pesticide product has been used or a restricted-entry interval for such pesticide has been in effect, the agricultural employer must ensure that each worker has been trained in accordance with this section within the last 12 months, except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section.

(b) Exceptions. The following workers need not be trained under this section:

(1) A worker who is currently certified as an applicator of restricted use pesticides under part 171 of this chapter.

(2) A worker who has satisfied the handler training requirements in §170.501.

(3) A worker who is certified or licensed as a crop advisor by a program acknowledged as appropriate in writing by EPA or the State or Tribal agency responsible for pesticide enforcement, provided that such certification or licensing requires pesticide safety training that includes all the topics in §170.501(c)(2) or §170.501(c)(3) as applicable depending on the date of training.

(c) Training programs. (1) Pesticide safety training must be presented to workers either orally from written materials or audio-visually, at a location that is reasonably free from distraction and conducive to training. All training materials must be EPA-approved. The training must be presented in a manner that the workers can understand, such as through a translator. The training must be conducted by a person who meets the worker trainer requirements of paragraph (c)(4) of this section, and who must be present during the entire training program and must respond to workers' questions.

(2) The training must include, at a minimum, all of the following topics:

(i) Where and in what form pesticides may be encountered during work activities.

(ii) Hazards of pesticides resulting from toxicity and exposure, including acute and chronic effects, delayed effects, and sensitization.

(iii) Routes through which pesticides can enter the body.

(iv) Signs and symptoms of common types of pesticide poisoning.

(v) Emergency first aid for pesticide injuries or poisonings.

(vi) How to obtain emergency medical care.

(vii) Routine and emergency decontamination procedures, including emergency eye flushing techniques.

(viii) Hazards from chemigation and drift.

(ix) Hazards from pesticide residues on clothing.

(x) Warnings about taking pesticides or pesticide containers home.

(xi) Requirements of this subpart designed to reduce the risks of illness or injury resulting from workers' occupational exposure to pesticides, including application and entry restrictions, the design of the warning sign, posting of warning signs, oral warnings, the availability of specific information about applications, and the protection against retaliatory acts.

(3) EPA intends to make available to the public training materials that may be used to conduct training conforming to the requirements of this section. Within 180 days after a notice of availability of such training materials appears in the Federal Register, but no earlier than January 1, 2018, training programs required under this section must include, at a minimum, all of the topics listed in §170.401(c)(3)(i)-(xxiii) instead of the topics listed in §170.401(c)(2)(i)-(xi).

(i) The responsibility of agricultural employers to provide workers and handlers with information and protections designed to reduce work-related pesticide exposures and illnesses. This includes ensuring workers and handlers have been trained on pesticide safety, providing pesticide safety and application and hazard information, decontamination supplies and emergency medical assistance, and notifying workers of restrictions during applications and on entering pesticide treated areas. A worker or handler may designate in writing a representative to request access to pesticide application and hazard information.

(ii) How to recognize and understand the meaning of the posted warning signs used for notifying workers of restrictions on entering pesticide treated areas on the establishment.

(iii) How to follow directions and/or signs about keeping out of pesticide treated areas subject to a restricted-entry interval and application exclusion zones.

(iv) Where and in what forms pesticides may be encountered during work activities, and potential sources of pesticide exposure on the agricultural establishment. This includes exposure to pesticide residues that may be on or in plants, soil, tractors, application and chemigation equipment, or used personal protective equipment, and that pesticides may drift through the air from nearby applications or be in irrigation water.

(v) Potential hazards from toxicity and exposure that pesticides present to workers and their families, including acute and chronic effects, delayed effects, and sensitization.

(vi) Routes through which pesticides can enter the body.

(vii) Signs and symptoms of common types of pesticide poisoning.

(viii) Emergency first aid for pesticide injuries or poisonings.

(ix) Routine and emergency decontamination procedures, including emergency eye flushing techniques, and if pesticides are spilled or sprayed on the body to use decontamination supplies to wash immediately or rinse off in the nearest clean water, including springs, streams, lakes or other sources if more readily available than decontamination supplies, and as soon as possible, wash or shower with soap and water, shampoo hair, and change into clean clothes.

(x) How and when to obtain emergency medical care.

(xi) When working in pesticide treated areas, wear work clothing that protects the body from pesticide residues and wash hands before eating, drinking, using chewing gum or tobacco, or using the toilet.

(xii) Wash or shower with soap and water, shampoo hair, and change into clean clothes as soon as possible after working in pesticide treated areas.

(xiii) Potential hazards from pesticide residues on clothing.

(xiv) Wash work clothes before wearing them again and wash them separately from other clothes.

(xv) Do not take pesticides or pesticide containers used at work to your home.

(xvi) Safety data sheets provide hazard, emergency medical treatment and other information about the pesticides used on the establishment they may come in contact with. The responsibility of agricultural employers to do all of the following:

(A) Display safety data sheets for all pesticides used on the establishment.

(B) Provide workers and handlers information about the location of the safety data sheets on the establishment.

(C) Provide workers and handlers unimpeded access to safety data sheets during normal work hours.

(xvii) The rule prohibits agricultural employers from allowing or directing any worker to mix, load or apply pesticides or assist in the application of pesticides unless the worker has been trained as a handler.

(xviii) The responsibility of agricultural employers to provide specific information to workers before directing them to perform early-entry activities. Workers must be 18 years old to perform early-entry activities.

(xix) Potential hazards to children and pregnant women from pesticide exposure.

(xx) Keep children and nonworking family members away from pesticide treated areas.

(xxi) After working in pesticide treated areas, remove work boots or shoes before entering your home, and remove work clothes and wash or shower before physical contact with children or family members.

(xxii) How to report suspected pesticide use violations to the State or Tribal agency responsible for pesticide enforcement.

(xxiii) The rule prohibits agricultural employers from intimidating, threatening, coercing, or discriminating against any worker or handler for complying with or attempting to comply with the requirements of this rule, or because the worker or handler provided, caused to be provided or is about to provide information to the employer or the EPA or its agents regarding conduct that the employee reasonably believes violates this part, and/or made a complaint, testified, assisted, or participated in any manner in an investigation, proceeding, or hearing concerning compliance with this rule.

(4) The person who conducts the training must meet one of the following criteria:

(i) Be designated as a trainer of certified applicators, handlers or workers by EPA or the State or Tribal agency responsible for pesticide enforcement.

(ii) Have completed an EPA-approved pesticide safety train-the-trainer program for trainers of workers.

(iii) Be currently certified as an applicator of restricted use pesticides under part 171 of this chapter.

(d) Recordkeeping. (1) For each worker required to be trained under paragraph (a), the agricultural employer must maintain on the agricultural establishment, for two years from the date of the training, a record documenting each worker's training including all of the following:

(i) The trained worker's printed name and signature.

(ii) The date of the training.

(iii) Information identifying which EPA-approved training materials were used.

(iv) The trainer's name and documentation showing that the trainer met the requirements of §170.401(c)(4) at the time of training.

(v) The agricultural employer's name.

(2) An agricultural employer who provides, directly or indirectly, training required under paragraph (a) must provide to the worker upon request a copy of the record of the training that contains the information required under §170.401(d)(1).

§170.403   Establishment-specific information for workers.

Before any worker performs any activity in a treated area on an agricultural establishment where within the last 30 days a pesticide product has been used, or a restricted-entry interval for such pesticide has been in effect, the agricultural employer must ensure that the worker has been informed of, in a manner the worker can understand, all of the following establishment-specific information:

(a) The location of pesticide safety information required by §170.311(a).

(b) The location of pesticide application and hazard information required by §170.311(b).

(c) The location of decontamination supplies required by §170.411.

§170.405   Entry restrictions associated with pesticide applications.

(a) Outdoor production pesticide applications. (1) The application exclusion zone is defined as follows:

(i) The application exclusion zone is the area that extends 100 feet horizontally from the application equipment in all directions during application when the pesticide is applied by any of the following methods:

(A) Aerially.

(B) Air blast application.

(C) As a spray using a spray quality (droplet spectrum) of smaller than medium (volume median diameter of less than 294 microns).

(D) As a fumigant, smoke, mist, or fog.

(ii) The application exclusion zone is the area that extends 25 feet horizontally from the application equipment in all directions during application when the pesticide is applied not as in §170.405(a)(1)(i)(A)-(D) and is sprayed from a height of greater than 12 inches from the planting medium using a spray quality (droplet spectrum) of medium or larger (volume median diameter of 294 microns or greater).

(iii) There is no application exclusion zone when the pesticide is applied in a manner other than those covered in paragraphs (a)(1)(i) and (a)(1)(ii) of this section.

(2) During any outdoor production pesticide application, the agricultural employer must not allow or direct any worker or other person, other than an appropriately trained and equipped handler involved in the application, to enter or to remain in the treated area or an application exclusion zone that is within the boundaries of the establishment until the application is complete.

(3) After the application is complete, the area subject to the labeling-specified restricted-entry interval and the post-application entry restrictions specified in §170.407 is the treated area.

(b) Enclosed space production pesticide applications. (1) During any enclosed space production pesticide application described in column A of the Table under paragraph (b)(4) of this section, the agricultural employer must not allow or direct any worker or other person, other than an appropriately trained and equipped handler involved in the application, to enter or to remain in the area specified in column B of the Table under paragraph (b)(4) of this section during the application and until the time specified in column C of the Table under paragraph (b)(4) of this section has expired.

(2) After the time specified in column C of the Table under paragraph (b)(4) of this section has expired, the area subject to the labeling-specified restricted-entry interval and the post-application entry restrictions specified in §170.407 is the area specified in column D of the Table under paragraph (b)(4) of this section.

(3) When column C of the Table under paragraph (b)(4) of this section specifies that ventilation criteria must be met, ventilation must continue until the air concentration is measured to be equal to or less than the inhalation exposure level required by the labeling. If no inhalation exposure level is listed on the labeling, ventilation must continue until after one of the following conditions is met:

(i) Ten air exchanges are completed.

(ii) Two hours of ventilation using fans or other mechanical ventilating systems.

(iii) Four hours of ventilation using vents, windows, or other passive ventilation.

(iv) Eleven hours with no ventilation followed by one hour of mechanical ventilation.

(v) Eleven hours with no ventilation followed by two hours of passive ventilation.

(vi) Twenty-four hours with no ventilation.

(4) The following Table applies to paragraphs (b)(1), (2), and (3) of this section.

Table—Entry Restrictions During Enclosed Space Production Pesticide Applications

A. When a pesticide is applied:B. Workers and other persons, other than appropriately trained and equipped handlers, are
prohibited in:
C. Until:D. After the expiration of time specified in column C, the area subject to the restricted-entry
interval is:
(1) As a fumigantEntire enclosed space plus any adjacent structure or area that cannot be sealed off from the treated areaThe ventilation criteria of paragraph (b)(3) of this section are metNo post-application entry restrictions required by §170.407 after criteria in column C are met.
(2) As a
(i) Smoke, or
(ii) Mist, or
(iii) Fog, or
(iv) As a spray using a spray quality (droplet spectrum) of smaller than medium (volume median diameter of less than 294 microns)
Entire enclosed spaceThe ventilation criteria of paragraph (b)(3) of this section are metEntire enclosed space.
(3) Not as in (1) or (2), and for which a respiratory protection device is required for application by the pesticide product labelingEntire enclosed spaceThe ventilation criteria of paragraph (b)(3) of this section are metTreated area.
(4) Not as in (1), (2) or (3), and:
(i) From a height of greater than 12 inches from the planting medium, or
(ii) As a spray using a spray quality (droplet spectrum) of medium or larger (volume median diameter of 294 microns or greater)
Treated area plus 25 feet in all directions of the treated area, but not outside the enclosed spaceApplication is completeTreated area.
(5) OtherwiseTreated areaApplication is completeTreated area.

§170.407   Worker entry restrictions after pesticide applications.

(a) After the application of any pesticide to an area of outdoor production, the agricultural employer must not allow or direct any worker to enter or to remain in the treated area before the restricted-entry interval specified on the pesticide product labeling has expired and all treated area warning signs have been removed or covered, except for early-entry activities permitted by §170.603.

(b) After the application of any pesticide to an area of enclosed space production, the agricultural employer must not allow or direct any worker to enter or to remain in the areas specified in column D of the Table in §170.405(b)(4), before the restricted-entry interval specified on the pesticide product labeling has expired and all treated area warning signs have been removed or covered, except for early-entry activities permitted by §170.603.

(c) When two or more pesticides are applied to a treated area at the same time, the applicable restricted-entry interval is the longest of all applicable restricted-entry intervals.

§170.409   Oral and posted notification of worker entry restrictions.

(a) General Requirement. The agricultural employer must notify workers of all entry restrictions required by §§170.405 and 170.407 in accordance with this section.

(1) Type of notification required—(i) Double notification. If the pesticide product labeling has a statement requiring both the posting of treated areas and oral notification to workers, the agricultural employer must post signs in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section and must also provide oral notification of the application to workers in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section.

(ii) Outdoor production areas subject to restricted-entry intervals greater than 48 hours. If a pesticide with product labeling that requires a restricted-entry interval greater than 48 hours is applied to an outdoor production area, the agricultural employer must notify workers of the application by posting warning signs in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section.

(iii) Outdoor production areas subject to restricted-entry intervals equal to or less than 48 hours. If a pesticide with product labeling that requires a restricted-entry interval equal to or less than 48 hours is applied to an outdoor production area, the agricultural employer must notify workers of the application either by posting warning signs in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section or by providing workers with an oral warning in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section.

(iv) Enclosed space production areas subject to restricted-entry intervals greater than four hours. If a pesticide with product labeling that requires a restricted-entry interval greater than four hours is applied to an enclosed space production area, the agricultural employer must notify workers of the application by posting warning signs in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section.

(v) Enclosed space production areas subject to restricted-entry intervals equal to or less than four hours. If a pesticide with product labeling that requires a restricted-entry interval equal to or less than four hours is applied to an enclosed space production area, the agricultural employer must notify workers of the application either by posting warning signs in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section or by providing workers with an oral warning in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section.

(2) Exceptions. Notification does not need to be given to a worker if the agricultural employer can ensure that one of the following is met:

(i) From the start of the application in an enclosed space production area until the end of any restricted-entry interval, the worker will not enter any part of the entire enclosed structure or space.

(ii) From the start of the application to an outdoor production area until the end of any restricted-entry interval, the worker will not enter, work in, remain in, or pass on foot through the treated area or any area within 14 mile of the treated area on the agricultural establishment.

(iii) The worker was involved in the application of the pesticide as a handler, and is aware of all information required by paragraph (c)(1) of this section.

(b) Requirements for posted warning signs. If notification by posted warning signs is required pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section, the agricultural employer must, unless otherwise prescribed by the label, ensure that all warning signs meet the requirements of this paragraph. When several contiguous areas are to be treated with pesticides on a rotating or sequential basis, the entire area may be posted. Worker entry is prohibited for the entire area while the signs are posted, except for entry permitted by §170.603 of this part.

(1) General. The warning signs must meet all of the following requirements:

(i) Be one of the three sizes specified in paragraph (b)(3) of this section and comply with the posting placement and spacing requirements applicable to that sign size.

(ii) Be posted prior to but no earlier than 24 hours before the scheduled application of the pesticide.

(iii) Remain posted throughout the application and any restricted-entry interval.

(iv) Be removed or covered within three days after the end of the application or any restricted-entry interval, whichever is later, except that signs may remain posted after the restricted-entry interval has expired as long as all of the following conditions are met:

(A) The agricultural employer instructs any workers on the establishment that may come within 14 mile of the treated area not to enter that treated area while the signs are posted.

(B) The agricultural employer ensures that workers do not enter the treated area while the signs remain posted, other than entry permitted by §170.603 of this part.

(v) Remain visible and legible during the time they are required to be posted.

(2) Content. (i) The warning sign must have a white background. The words “DANGER” and “PELIGRO,” plus “PESTICIDES” and “PESTICIDAS,” must be at the top of the sign, and the words “KEEP OUT” and “NO ENTRE” must be at the bottom of the sign. Letters for all words must be clearly legible. A circle containing an upraised hand on the left and a stern face on the right must be near the center of the sign. The inside of the circle must be red, except that the hand and a large portion of the face must be in white. The length of the hand must be at least twice the height of the smallest letters. The length of the face must be only slightly smaller than the hand. Additional information such as the name of the pesticide and the date of application may appear on the warning sign if it does not detract from the size and appearance of the sign or change the meaning of the required information. An example of a warning sign meeting these requirements, other than the size and color requirements, follows:

eCFR graphic er02no15.000.gif

View or download PDF

(ii) The agricultural employer may replace the Spanish language portion of the warning sign with equivalent terms in an alternative non-English language if that alternative language is the language read by the largest group of workers at that agricultural establishment who do not read English. The alternative language sign must be in the same format as the original sign and conform to all other requirements of paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section.

(3) Size and posting. (i) The standard sign must be at least 14 inches by 16 inches with letters at least one inch in height.

(ii) When posting an outdoor production area using the standard sign, the signs must be visible from all reasonably expected points of worker entry to the treated area, including at least each access road, each border with any worker housing area within 100 feet of the treated area and each footpath and other walking route that enters the treated area. Where there are no reasonably expected points of worker entry, signs must be posted in the corners of the treated area or in any other location affording maximum visibility.

(iii) When posting an enclosed space production area using the standard sign and the entire structure or space is subject to the labeling-specified restricted-entry interval and the post-application entry restrictions specified in §170.407, the signs must be posted so they are visible from all reasonably expected points of worker entry to the structure or space. When posting treated areas in enclosed space production using the standard sign and the treated area only comprises a subsection of the structure or space, the signs must be posted so they are visible from all reasonably expected points of worker entry to the treated area including each aisle or other walking route that enters the treated area. Where there are no reasonably expected points of worker entry to the treated area, signs must be posted in the corners of the treated area or in any other location affording maximum visibility.

(iv) If a smaller warning sign is used with “DANGER” and “PELIGRO” in letters at least 7/8 inch in height and the remaining letters at least 1/2 inch in height and a red circle at least three inches in diameter containing an upraised hand and a stern face, the signs must be posted no farther than 50 feet apart around the perimeter of the treated area in addition to the locations specified in paragraphs (b)(3)(ii) or (b)(3)(iii) of this section.

(v) If a smaller sign is used with “DANGER” and “PELIGRO” in letters at least 7/16 inch in height and the remaining letters at least 1/4 inch in height and a red circle at least one and a half inches in diameter containing an upraised hand and a stern face, the signs must be posted no farther than 25 feet apart around the perimeter of the treated area in addition to the locations specified in paragraphs (b)(3)(ii) or (b)(3)(iii) of this section.

(vi) A sign with “DANGER” and “PELIGRO” in letters less than 7/16 inch in height or with any words in letters less than 1/4 inch in height or a red circle smaller than one and a half inches in diameter containing an upraised hand and a stern face will not satisfy the requirements of the rule.

(c) Oral warningsRequirement. If oral notification is required pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section, the agricultural employer must provide oral warnings to workers in a manner that the workers can understand. If a worker will be on the establishment when an application begins, the warning must be given before the application begins. If a worker arrives on the establishment while an application is taking place or a restricted-entry interval for a pesticide application is in effect, the warning must be given at the beginning of the worker's work period. The warning must include all of the following:

(1) The location(s) and description of any treated area(s) subject to the entry restrictions during and after application specified in §§170.405 and 170.407.

(2) The dates and times during which entry is restricted in any treated area(s) subject to the entry restrictions during and after application specified in §§170.405 and 170.407.

(3) Instructions not to enter the treated area or an application exclusion zone during application, and that entry to the treated area is not allowed until the restricted-entry interval has expired and all treated area warning signs have been removed or covered, except for entry permitted by §170.603 of this part.

§170.411   Decontamination supplies for workers.

(a) Requirement. The agricultural employer must provide decontamination supplies for routine washing and emergency decontamination in accordance with this section for any worker on an agricultural establishment who is performing an activity in an area where a pesticide was applied and who contacts anything that has been treated with the pesticide, including, but not limited to, soil, water, and plants.

(b) Materials and quantities. The decontamination supplies required in paragraph (a) of this section must include at least 1 gallon of water per worker at the beginning of each worker's work period for routine washing and emergency decontamination, soap, and single-use towels. The supplies must meet all of the following requirements:

(1) Water. At all times when this part requires agricultural employers to make water available to workers, the agricultural employer must ensure that it is of a quality and temperature that will not cause illness or injury when it contacts the skin or eyes or if it is swallowed. If a water source is used for mixing pesticides, it must not be used for decontamination, unless equipped with properly functioning valves or other mechanisms that prevent contamination of the water with pesticides, such as anti-backflow siphons, one-way or check valves, or an air gap sufficient to prevent contamination.

(2) Soap and single-use towels. The agricultural employer must provide soap and single-use towels for drying in quantities sufficient to meet the workers' reasonable needs. Hand sanitizing gels and liquids or wet towelettes do not meet the requirement for soap. Wet towelettes do not meet the requirement for single-use towels.

(c) Timing. (1) If any pesticide with a restricted-entry interval greater than four hours was applied, the decontamination supplies must be provided from the time workers first enter the treated area until at least 30 days after the restricted-entry interval expires.

(2) If the only pesticides applied in the treated area are products with restricted-entry intervals of four hours or less, the decontamination supplies must be provided from the time workers first enter the treated area until at least seven days after the restricted-entry interval expires.

(d) Location. The decontamination supplies must be located together outside any treated area or area subject to a restricted-entry interval, and must be reasonably accessible to the workers. The decontamination supplies must not be more than 14 mile from where workers are working, except that where workers are working more than 14 mile from the nearest place of vehicular access or more than 14 mile from any non-treated area, the decontamination supplies may be at the nearest place of vehicular access outside any treated area or area subject to a restricted-entry interval.

Subpart F—Requirements for Protection of Agricultural Pesticide Handlers

Source: 80 FR 67567, Nov. 2, 2015, unless otherwise noted.

§170.501   Training requirements for handlers.

(a) General requirement. Before any handler performs any handler activity involving a pesticide product, the handler employer must ensure that the handler has been trained in accordance with this section within the last 12 months, except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section.

(b) Exceptions. The following handlers need not be trained under this section:

(1) A handler who is currently certified as an applicator of restricted use pesticides under part 171 of this chapter.

(2) A handler who is certified or licensed as a crop advisor by a program acknowledged as appropriate in writing by EPA or the State or Tribal agency responsible for pesticide enforcement, provided that a requirement for such certification or licensing is pesticide safety training that includes all the topics set out in §170.501(c)(2) or §170.501(c)(3) as applicable depending on the date of training.

(c) Training programs. (1) Pesticide safety training must be presented to handlers either orally from written materials or audio-visually, at a location that is reasonably free from distraction and conducive to training. All training materials must be EPA-approved. The training must be presented in a manner that the handlers can understand, such as through a translator. The training must be conducted by a person who meets the handler trainer requirements of paragraph (c)(4) of this section, and who must be present during the entire training program and must respond to handlers' questions.

(2) The pesticide safety training materials must include, at a minimum, all of the following topics:

(i) Format and meaning of information contained on pesticide labels and in labeling, including safety information such as precautionary statements about human health hazards.

(ii) Hazards of pesticides resulting from toxicity and exposure, including acute and chronic effects, delayed effects, and sensitization.

(iii) Routes by which pesticides can enter the body.

(iv) Signs and symptoms of common types of pesticide poisoning.

(v) Emergency first aid for pesticide injuries or poisonings.

(vi) How to obtain emergency medical care.

(vii) Routine and emergency decontamination procedures.

(viii) Need for and appropriate use of personal protective equipment.

(ix) Prevention, recognition, and first aid treatment of heat-related illness.

(x) Safety requirements for handling, transporting, storing, and disposing of pesticides, including general procedures for spill cleanup.

(xi) Environmental concerns such as drift, runoff, and wildlife hazards.

(xii) Warnings about taking pesticides or pesticide containers home.

(xiii) Requirements of this subpart that must be followed by handler employers for the protection of handlers and other persons, including the prohibition against applying pesticides in a manner that will cause contact with workers or other persons, the requirement to use personal protective equipment, the provisions for training and decontamination, and the protection against retaliatory acts.

(3) EPA intends to make available to the public training materials that may be used to conduct training conforming to the requirements of this section. Within 180 days after a notice of availability of such training materials appears in the Federal Register, but no earlier than January 1, 2018, training programs required under this section must include, at a minimum, all of the topics listed in §170.501(c)(3)(i)-(xiv) instead of the points listed in §170.501(c)(2)(i)-(xiii).

(i) All the topics required by §170.401(c)(3).

(ii) Information on proper application and use of pesticides.

(iii) Handlers must follow the portions of the labeling applicable to the safe use of the pesticide.

(iv) Format and meaning of information contained on pesticide labels and in labeling applicable to the safe use of the pesticide.

(v) Need for and appropriate use and removal of all personal protective equipment.

(vi) How to recognize, prevent, and provide first aid treatment for heat-related illness.

(vii) Safety requirements for handling, transporting, storing, and disposing of pesticides, including general procedures for spill cleanup.

(viii) Environmental concerns, such as drift, runoff, and wildlife hazards.

(ix) Handlers must not apply pesticides in a manner that results in contact with workers or other persons.

(x) The responsibility of handler employers to provide handlers with information and protections designed to reduce work-related pesticide exposures and illnesses. This includes providing, cleaning, maintaining, storing, and ensuring proper use of all required personal protective equipment; providing decontamination supplies; and providing specific information about pesticide use and labeling information.

(xi) Handlers must suspend a pesticide application if workers or other persons are in the application exclusion zone.

(xii) Handlers must be at least 18 years old.

(xiii) The responsibility of handler employers to ensure handlers have received respirator fit-testing, training and medical evaluation if they are required to wear a respirator by the product labeling.

(xiv) The responsibility of agricultural employers to post treated areas as required by this rule.

(4) The person who conducts the training must have one of the following qualifications:

(i) Be designated as a trainer of certified applicators or pesticide handlers by EPA or the State or Tribal agency responsible for pesticide enforcement.

(ii) Have completed an EPA-approved pesticide safety train-the-trainer program for trainers of handlers.

(iii) Be currently certified as an applicator of restricted use pesticides under part 171 of this chapter.

(d) Recordkeeping. (1) Handler employers must maintain records of training for handlers employed by their establishment for two years after the date of the training. The records must be maintained on the establishment and must include all of the following information:

(i) The trained handler's printed name and signature.

(ii) The date of the training.

(iii) Information identifying which EPA-approved training materials were used.

(iv) The trainer's name and documentation showing that the trainer met the requirements of §170.501(c)(4) at the time of training.

(v) The handler employer's name.

(2) The handler employer must, upon request by a handler trained on the establishment, provide to the handler a copy of the record of the training that contains the information required under §170.501(d)(1).

§170.503   Knowledge of labeling, application-specific, and establishment-specific information for handlers.

(a) Knowledge of labeling and application-specific information. (1) The handler employer must ensure that before any handler performs any handler activity involving a pesticide product, the handler either has read the portions of the labeling applicable to the safe use of the pesticide or has been informed in a manner the handler can understand of all labeling requirements and use directions applicable to the safe use of the pesticide.

(2) The handler employer must ensure that the handler has access to the applicable product labeling at all times during handler activities.

(3) The handler employer must ensure that the handler is aware of requirements for any entry restrictions, application exclusion zones and restricted-entry intervals as described in §§170.405 and 170.407 that may apply based on the handler's activity.

(b) Knowledge of establishment-specific information. Before any handler performs any handler activity on an agricultural establishment where within the last 30 days a pesticide product has been used, or a restricted-entry interval for such pesticide has been in effect, the handler employer must ensure that the handler has been informed, in a manner the handler can understand, all of the following establishment-specific information:

(1) The location of pesticide safety information required by §170.311(a).

(2) The location of pesticide application and hazard information required by §170.311(b).

(3) The location of decontamination supplies required by §170.509.

§170.505   Requirements during applications to protect handlers, workers, and other persons.

(a) Prohibition from contacting workers and other persons with pesticides during application. The handler employer and the handler must ensure that no pesticide is applied so as to contact, directly or through drift, any worker or other person, other than an appropriately trained and equipped handler involved in the application.

(b) Suspending applications. After January 1, 2018, the handler performing the application must immediately suspend a pesticide application if any worker or other person, other than an appropriately trained and equipped handler involved in the application, is in the application exclusion zone described in §170.405(a)(1) or the area specified in column B of the Table in §170.405(b)(4).

(c) Handlers using highly toxic pesticides. The handler employer must ensure that any handler who is performing any handler activity with a pesticide product that has the skull-and-crossbones symbol on the front panel of the pesticide product label is monitored visually or by voice communication at least every two hours.

(d) Fumigant applications in enclosed space production. The handler employer must ensure all of the following:

(1) Any handler in an enclosed space production area during a fumigant application maintains continuous visual or voice contact with another handler stationed immediately outside of the enclosed space.

(2) The handler stationed outside the enclosed space has immediate access to and uses the personal protective equipment required by the fumigant labeling for applicators in the event that entry becomes necessary for rescue.

§170.507   Personal protective equipment.

(a) Handler responsibilities. Any person who performs handler activities involving a pesticide product must use the clothing and personal protective equipment specified on the pesticide product labeling for use of the product, except as provided in §170.607 of this part.

(b) Employer responsibilities for providing personal protective equipment. The handler employer must provide to the handler the personal protective equipment required by the pesticide product labeling in accordance with this section. The handler employer must ensure that the personal protective equipment is clean and in proper operating condition. For the purposes of this section, long-sleeved shirts, short-sleeved shirts, long pants, short pants, shoes, and socks are not considered personal protective equipment, although such work clothing must be worn if required by the pesticide product labeling.

(1) If the pesticide product labeling requires that “chemical-resistant” personal protective equipment be worn, it must be made of material that allows no measurable movement of the pesticide being used through the material during use.

(2) If the pesticide product labeling requires that “waterproof” personal protective equipment be worn, it must be made of material that allows no measurable movement of water or aqueous solutions through the material during use.

(3) If the pesticide product labeling requires that a “chemical-resistant suit” be worn, it must be a loose-fitting, one- or two-piece chemical-resistant garment that covers, at a minimum, the entire body except head, hands, and feet.

(4) If the pesticide product labeling requires that “coveralls” be worn, they must be loose-fitting, one- or two-piece garments that cover, at a minimum, the entire body except head, hands, and feet.

(5) Gloves must be the type specified on the pesticide product labeling.

(i) Gloves made of leather, cotton, or other absorbent materials may not be worn while performing handler activities unless gloves made of these materials are listed as acceptable for such use on the pesticide product labeling.

(ii) Separable glove liners may be worn beneath chemical-resistant gloves, unless the pesticide product labeling specifically prohibits their use. Separable glove liners are defined as separate glove-like hand coverings, made of lightweight material, with or without fingers. Work gloves made from lightweight cotton or poly-type material are considered to be glove liners if worn beneath chemical-resistant gloves. Separable glove liners may not extend outside the chemical-resistant gloves under which they are worn. Chemical-resistant gloves with non-separable absorbent lining materials are prohibited.

(iii) If used, separable glove liners must be discarded immediately after a total of no more than 10 hours of use or within 24 hours of when first put on, whichever comes first. The liners must be replaced immediately if directly contacted by pesticide. Used glove liners must not be reused. Contaminated liners must be disposed of in accordance with any Federal, State, or local regulations.

(6) If the pesticide product labeling requires that “chemical-resistant footwear” be worn, one of the following types of footwear must be worn:

(i) Chemical-resistant shoes.

(ii) Chemical-resistant boots.

(iii) Chemical-resistant shoe coverings worn over shoes or boots.

(7) If the pesticide product labeling requires that “protective eyewear” be worn, one of the following types of eyewear must be worn:

(i) Goggles.

(ii) Face shield.

(iii) Safety glasses with front, brow, and temple protection.

(iv) Full-face respirator.

(8) If the pesticide product labeling requires that a “chemical-resistant apron” be worn, a chemical-resistant apron that covers the front of the body from mid-chest to the knees must be worn.

(9) If the pesticide product labeling requires that “chemical-resistant headgear” be worn, it must be either a chemical-resistant hood or a chemical-resistant hat with a wide brim.

(10) The respirator specified by the pesticide product labeling must be used. Whenever a respirator is required by the pesticide product labeling, the handler employer must ensure that the requirements of paragraphs (b)(10)(i) through (iii) of this section are met before the handler performs any handler activity where the respirator is required to be worn. The handler employer must maintain for two years, on the establishment, records documenting the completion of the requirements of paragraphs (b)(10)(i) through (iii) of this section.

(i) Handler employers must provide handlers with fit testing using the respirator specified on the pesticide product labeling in a manner that conforms to the provisions of 29 CFR 1910.134.

(ii) Handler employers must provide handlers with training in the use of the respirator specified on the pesticide product labeling in a manner that conforms to the provisions of 29 CFR 1910.134(k)(1)(i) through(vi).

(iii) Handler employers must provide handlers with a medical evaluation by a physician or other licensed health care professional that conforms to the provisions of 29 CFR 1910.134 to ensure the handler's physical ability to safely wear the respirator specified on the pesticide product labeling.

(c) Use of personal protective equipment. (1) The handler employer must ensure that personal protective equipment is used correctly for its intended purpose and is used according to the manufacturer's instructions.

(2) The handler employer must ensure that, before each day of use, all personal protective equipment is inspected for leaks, holes, tears, or worn places, and any damaged equipment is repaired or discarded.

(d) Cleaning and maintenance. (1) The handler employer must ensure that all personal protective equipment is cleaned according to the manufacturer's instructions or pesticide product labeling instructions before each day of reuse. In the absence of any such instructions, it must be washed thoroughly in detergent and hot water.

(2) If any personal protective equipment cannot or will not be cleaned properly, the handler employer must ensure the contaminated personal protective equipment is made unusable as apparel or is made unavailable for further use by employees or third parties. The contaminated personal protective equipment must be disposed of in accordance with any applicable laws or regulations. Coveralls or other absorbent materials that have been drenched or heavily contaminated with a pesticide that has the signal word “DANGER” or “WARNING” on the label must not be reused and must be disposed of as specified in this paragraph. Handler employers must ensure that any person who handles contaminated personal protective equipment described in this paragraph wears the gloves specified on the pesticide product labeling for mixing and loading the product(s) comprising the contaminant(s) on the equipment. If two or more pesticides are included in the contaminants, the gloves worn must meet the requirements for mixing and loading all of the pesticide products.

(3) The handler employer must ensure that contaminated personal protective equipment is kept separate from non-contaminated personal protective equipment, other clothing or laundry and washed separately from any other clothing or laundry.

(4) The handler employer must ensure that all washed personal protective equipment is dried thoroughly before being stored or reused.

(5) The handler employer must ensure that all clean personal protective equipment is stored separately from personal clothing and apart from pesticide-contaminated areas.

(6) The handler employer must ensure that when filtering facepiece respirators are used, they are replaced when one of the following conditions is met:

(i) When breathing resistance becomes excessive.

(ii) When the filter element has physical damage or tears.

(iii) According to manufacturer's recommendations or pesticide product labeling, whichever is more frequent.

(iv) In the absence of any other instructions or indications of service life, at the end of eight hours of cumulative use.

(7) The handler employer must ensure that when gas- or vapor-removing respirators are used, the gas- or vapor-removing canisters or cartridges are replaced before further respirator use when one of the following conditions is met:

(i) At the first indication of odor, taste, or irritation.

(ii) When the maximum use time is reached as determined by a change schedule conforming to the provisions of 29 CFR 1910.134(d)(3)(iii)(B)(2).

(iii) When breathing resistance becomes excessive.

(iv) When required according to manufacturer's recommendations or pesticide product labeling instructions, whichever is more frequent.

(v) In the absence of any other instructions or indications of service life, at the end of eight hours of cumulative use.

(8) The handler employer must inform any person who cleans or launders personal protective equipment of all the following:

(i) That such equipment may be contaminated with pesticides and there are potentially harmful effects from exposure to pesticides.

(ii) The correct way(s) to clean personal protective equipment and how to protect themselves when handling such equipment.

(iii) Proper decontamination procedures that should be followed after handling contaminated personal protective equipment.

(9) The handler employer must ensure that handlers have a place(s) away from pesticide storage and pesticide use areas where they may do all of the following:

(i) Store personal clothing not worn during handling activities.

(ii) Put on personal protective equipment at the start of any exposure period.

(iii) Remove personal protective equipment at the end of any exposure period.

(10) The handler employer must not allow or direct any handler to wear home or to take home employer-provided personal protective equipment contaminated with pesticides.

(e) Heat-related illness. Where a pesticide's labeling requires the use of personal protective equipment for a handler activity, the handler employer must take appropriate measures to prevent heat-related illness.

§170.509   Decontamination and eye flushing supplies for handlers.

(a) Requirement. The handler employer must provide decontamination and eye flushing supplies in accordance with this section for any handler that is performing any handler activity or removing personal protective equipment at the place for changing required by §170.507(d)(9).

(b) General conditions. The decontamination supplies required in paragraph (a) of this section must include: at least three gallons of water per handler at the beginning of each handler's work period for routine washing and potential emergency decontamination; soap; single-use towels; and clean clothing for use in an emergency. The decontamination and eye flushing supplies required in paragraph (a) of this section must meet all of the following requirements:

(1) Water. At all times when this section requires handler employers to make water available to handlers for routine washing, emergency decontamination or eye flushing, the handler employer must ensure that it is of a quality and temperature that will not cause illness or injury when it contacts the skin or eyes or if it is swallowed. If a water source is used for mixing pesticides, it must not be used for decontamination or eye flushing supplies, unless equipped with properly functioning valves or other mechanisms that prevent contamination of the water with pesticides, such as anti-backflow siphons, one-way or check valves, or an air gap sufficient to prevent contamination.

(2) Soap and single-use towels. The handler employer must provide soap and single-use towels for drying in quantities sufficient to meet the handlers' needs. Hand sanitizing gels and liquids or wet towelettes do not meet the requirement for soap. Wet towelettes do not meet the requirement for single-use towels.

(3) Clean change of clothing. The handler employer must provide one clean change of clothing, such as coveralls, for use in an emergency.

(c) Location. The decontamination supplies must be located together outside any treated area or area subject to a restricted-entry interval, and must be reasonably accessible to each handler during the handler activity. The decontamination supplies must not be more than 1/4 mile from the handler, except that where the handler activity is more than 1/4 mile from the nearest place of vehicular access or more than 1/4 mile from any non-treated area, the decontamination supplies may be at the nearest place of vehicular access outside any treated area or area subject to a restricted-entry interval.

(1) Mixing sites. Decontamination supplies must be provided at any mixing site.

(2) Exception for pilots. Decontamination supplies for a pilot who is applying pesticides aerially must be in the aircraft or at the aircraft loading site.

(3) Exception for treated areas. The decontamination supplies must be outside any treated area or area subject to a restricted-entry interval, unless the soap, single-use towels, water and clean change of clothing are protected from pesticide contamination in closed containers.

(d) Emergency eye-flushing. (1) Whenever a handler is mixing or loading a pesticide product whose labeling requires protective eyewear for handlers, or is mixing or loading any pesticide using a closed system operating under pressure, the handler employer must provide at each mixing/loading site immediately available to the handler, at least one system that is capable of delivering gently running water at a rate of least 0.4 gallons per minute for at least 15 minutes, or at least six gallons of water in containers suitable for providing a gentle eye-flush for about 15 minutes.

(2) Whenever a handler is applying a pesticide product whose labeling requires protective eyewear for handlers, the handler employer must provide at least one pint of water per handler in portable containers that are immediately available to each handler.

Subpart G—Exemptions, Exceptions and Equivalency

Source: 80 FR 67570, Nov. 2, 2015, unless otherwise noted.

§170.601   Exemptions.

(a) Exemption for owners of agricultural establishments and their immediate families. (1) On any agricultural establishment where a majority of the establishment is owned by one or more members of the same immediate family, the owner(s) of the establishment are not required to provide the protections of the following provisions to themselves or members of their immediate family when they are performing handling activities or tasks related to the production of agricultural plants that would otherwise be covered by this part on their own agricultural establishment.

(i) Section 170.309(c).

(ii) Section 170.309(f) through (j).

(iii) Section 170.311.

(iv) Section 170.401.

(v) Section 170.403.

(vi) Section 170.409.

(vii) Sections 170.411 and 170.509.

(viii) Section 170.501.

(ix) Section 170.503.

(x) Section 170.505(c) and (d).

(xi) Section 170.507(c) through (e).

(xii) Section 170.605(a) through (c) and (e) through (j).

(2) The owners of agricultural establishments must provide all of the applicable protections required by this part for any employees or other persons on the establishment that are not members of their immediate family.

(b) Exemption for certified crop advisors. Certified crop advisors may make their own determination for the appropriate personal protective equipment for entry into a treated area during a restricted-entry interval and substitute their self-determined set of personal protective equipment for the labeling-required personal protective equipment, and the requirements of §§170.309(e), 170.309(f), 170.313(k), 170.503(a), 170.507 and 170.509 of this part do not apply to certified crop advisors provided the application is complete and all of the following conditions are met:

(1) The crop advisor is certified or licensed as a crop advisor by a program acknowledged as appropriate in writing by EPA or a State or Tribal agency responsible for pesticide enforcement.

(2) The certification or licensing program requires pesticide safety training that includes all the information in §170.501(c)(2) or §170.501(c)(3) as applicable depending on the date of training.

(3) The crop advisor who enters a treated area during a restricted-entry interval only performs crop advising tasks while in the treated area.

§170.603   Exceptions for entry by workers during restricted-entry intervals.

An agricultural employer may direct workers to enter treated areas where a restricted-entry interval is in effect to perform certain activities as provided in this section, provided that the agricultural employer ensures all of the applicable conditions of this section and §170.605 of this part are met.

(a) Exception for activities with no contact. A worker may enter a treated area during a restricted-entry interval if the agricultural employer ensures that all of the following conditions are met:

(1) The worker will have no contact with anything that has been treated with the pesticide to which the restricted-entry interval applies, including, but not limited to, soil, water, air, or surfaces of plants. This exception does not allow workers to perform any activities that involve contact with treated surfaces even if workers are wearing personal protective equipment.

(2) No such entry is allowed until any inhalation exposure level listed in the pesticide product labeling has been reached or any ventilation criteria required by §170.405(b)(3) or the pesticide product labeling have been met.

(b) Exception for short-term activities. A worker may enter a treated area during a restricted-entry interval for short-term activities, if the agricultural employer ensures that all of the following requirements are met:

(1) No hand labor activity is performed.

(2) The time in treated areas where a restricted-entry interval is in effect does not exceed one hour in any 24-hour period for any worker.

(3) No such entry is allowed during the first 4 hours after the application ends.

(4) No such entry is allowed until any inhalation exposure level listed in the pesticide product labeling has been reached or any ventilation criteria required by §170.405(b)(3) or the pesticide product labeling have been met.

(c) Exception for an agricultural emergency. (1) An agricultural emergency means a sudden occurrence or set of circumstances that the agricultural employer could not have anticipated and over which the agricultural employer has no control, that requires entry into a treated area during a restricted-entry interval, and when no alternative practices would prevent or mitigate a substantial economic loss. A substantial economic loss means a loss in profitability greater than that which would be expected based on the experience and fluctuations of crop yields in previous years. Only losses caused by the agricultural emergency specific to the affected site and geographic area are considered. Losses resulting from mismanagement cannot be included when determining whether a loss is substantial.

(2) A worker may enter a treated area where a restricted-entry interval is in effect in an agricultural emergency to perform tasks necessary to mitigate the effects of the agricultural emergency, including hand labor tasks, if the agricultural employer ensures that all the following criteria are met:

(i) The State department of agriculture, or the State or Tribal agency responsible for pesticide enforcement declares an agricultural emergency that applies to the treated area, or agricultural employer has determined that the circumstances within the treated area are the same as circumstances the State department of agriculture, or the State or Tribal agency responsible for pesticide enforcement has previously determined would constitute an agricultural emergency.

(ii) The agricultural employer determines that the agricultural establishment is subject to the circumstances that result in an agricultural emergency meeting the criteria of paragraph (c)(1) of this section.

(iii) If the labeling of any pesticide product applied to the treated area requires workers to be notified of the location of treated areas by both posting and oral notification, then the agricultural employer must ensure that no individual worker spends more than four hours out of any 24-hour period in treated areas where such a restricted-entry interval is in effect.

(iv) No such entry is allowed during the first 4 hours after the application ends.

(v) No such entry is allowed until any inhalation exposure level listed in the pesticide product labeling has been reached or any ventilation criteria required by §170.405(b)(3) or the pesticide product labeling have been met.

(d) Exceptions for limited contact and irrigation activities. A worker may enter a treated area during a restricted-entry interval for limited contact or irrigation activities, if the agricultural employer ensures that all of the following requirements are met:

(1) No hand labor activity is performed.

(2) No worker is allowed in the treated area for more than eight hours in a 24-hour period.

(3) No such entry is allowed during the first 4 hours after the application ends.

(4) No such entry is allowed until any inhalation exposure level listed in the pesticide product labeling has been reached or any ventilation criteria required by §170.405(b)(3) or the pesticide product labeling have been met.

(5) The task is one that, if not performed before the restricted-entry interval expires, would cause substantial economic loss, and there are no alternative tasks that would prevent substantial loss.

(6) With the exception of irrigation tasks, the need for the task could not have been foreseen.

(7) The worker has no contact with pesticide-treated surfaces other than minimal contact with feet, lower legs, hands, and forearms.

(8) The labeling of the pesticide product that was applied does not require that workers be notified of the location of treated areas by both posting and oral notification.

§170.605   Agricultural employer responsibilities to protect workers entering treated areas during a restricted-entry interval.

If an agricultural employer directs a worker to perform activities in a treated area where a restricted-entry interval is in effect, all of the following requirements must be met:

(a) The agricultural employer must ensure that the worker is at least 18 years old.

(b) Prior to early entry, the agricultural employer must provide to each early-entry worker the information described in paragraphs (b)(1) through (8) of this section. The information must be provided orally in a manner that the worker can understand.

(1) Location of early-entry area where work activities are to be performed.

(2) Pesticide(s) applied.

(3) Dates and times that the restricted-entry interval begins and ends.

(4) Which exception in §170.603 is the basis for the early entry, and a description of tasks that may be performed under the exception.

(5) Whether contact with treated surfaces is permitted under the exception.

(6) Amount of time the worker is allowed to remain in the treated area.

(7) Personal protective equipment required by the pesticide product labeling for early entry.

(8) Location of the pesticide safety information required by §170.311(a) and the location of the decontamination supplies required by §170.605(h).

(c) Prior to early entry, the agricultural employer must ensure that each worker either has read the applicable pesticide product labeling or has been informed, in a manner that the worker can understand, of all labeling requirements and statements related to human hazards or precautions, first aid, and user safety.

(d) The agricultural employer must ensure that each worker who enters a treated area during a restricted-entry interval is provided the personal protective equipment specified in the pesticide product labeling for early entry. The agricultural employer must ensure that the worker uses the personal protective equipment as intended according to manufacturer's instructions and follows any other applicable requirements on the pesticide product labeling. Personal protective equipment must conform to the standards in §170.507(b)(1) through (9).

(e) The agricultural employer must maintain the personal protective equipment in accordance with §170.507(c) and (d).

(f) The agricultural employer must ensure that no worker is allowed or directed to wear personal protective equipment without implementing measures sufficient to prevent heat-related illness and that each worker is instructed in the prevention, recognition, and first aid treatment of heat-related illness.

(g) The agricultural employer must instruct each worker on the proper use and removal of the personal protective equipment, and as appropriate, on its cleaning, maintenance and disposal. The agricultural employer must not allow or direct any worker to wear home or to take home employer-provided personal protective equipment contaminated with pesticides.

(h) During any early-entry activity, the agricultural employer must provide decontamination supplies in accordance with §170.509, except the decontamination supplies must be outside any area being treated with pesticides or subject to a restricted-entry interval, unless the decontamination supplies would otherwise not be reasonably accessible to workers performing early-entry tasks.

(i) If the pesticide product labeling of the product applied requires protective eyewear, the agricultural employer must provide at least one pint of water per worker in portable containers for eyeflushing that is immediately available to each worker who is performing early-entry activities.

(j) At the end of any early-entry activities the agricultural employer must provide, at the site where the workers remove personal protective equipment, soap, single-use towels and at least three gallons of water per worker so that the workers may wash thoroughly.

§170.607   Exceptions to personal protective equipment requirements specified on pesticide product labeling.

(a) Body protection. (1) A chemical-resistant suit may be substituted for coveralls. If a chemical-resistant suit is substituted for coveralls, any labeling requirement for an additional layer of clothing beneath the coveralls is waived.

(2) A chemical-resistant suit may be substituted for coveralls and a chemical-resistant apron.

(b) Boots. If chemical-resistant footwear with sufficient durability and a tread appropriate for wear in rough terrain is not obtainable, then leather boots may be worn in such terrain.

(c) Gloves. If chemical-resistant gloves with sufficient durability and suppleness are not obtainable, then during activities with plants with sharp thorns, leather gloves may be worn over chemical-resistant glove liners. However, once leather gloves are worn for this use, thereafter they must be worn only with chemical-resistant liners and they must not be worn for any other use.

(d) Closed systems.(1) When pesticides are being mixed or loaded using a closed system that meets all of the requirements in paragraph (d)(2) of this section, and the handler employer meets the requirements of paragraph (d)(3) of this section, the following exceptions to labeling-specified personal protective equipment are permitted:

(i) Handlers using a closed system to mix or load pesticides with a signal word of “DANGER” or “WARNING” may substitute a long-sleeved shirt, long pants, shoes and socks, chemical-resistant apron, protective eyewear, and any protective gloves specified on the labeling for handlers for the labeling-specified personal protective equipment.

(ii) Handlers using a closed system to mix or load pesticides other than those specified in paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section may substitute protective eyewear, long-sleeved shirt, long pants, and shoes and socks for the labeling-specified personal protective equipment.

(2) The exceptions of paragraph (d)(1) of this section apply only in the following situations:

(i) Where the closed system removes the pesticide from its original container and transfers the pesticide product through connecting hoses, pipes and couplings that are sufficiently tight to prevent exposure of handlers to the pesticide product, except for the negligible escape associated with normal operation of the system.

(ii) When loading intact, sealed, water soluble packaging into a mixing tank or system. If the integrity of a water soluble packaging is compromised (for example, if the packaging is dissolved, broken, punctured, torn, or in any way allows its contents to escape), it is no longer a closed system and the labeling-specified personal protective equipment must be worn.

(3) The exceptions of paragraph (d)(1) of this section apply only where the handler employer has satisfied the requirements of §170.313 and all of the following conditions:

(i) Each closed system must have written operating instructions that are clearly legible and include: Operating procedures for use, including the safe removal of a probe; maintenance, cleaning and repair; known restrictions or limitations relating to the system, such as incompatible pesticides, sizes (or types) of containers or closures that cannot be handled by the system; any limits on the ability to measure a pesticide; and special procedures or limitations regarding partially-filled containers.

(ii) The written operating instructions for the closed system must be available at the mixing or loading site and must be made available to any handlers who use the system.

(iii) Any handler operating the closed system must be trained in its use and operate the closed system in accordance with its written operating instructions.

(iv) The closed system must be cleaned and maintained as specified in the written operating instructions and as needed to make sure the system functions properly.

(v) All personal protective equipment specified in the pesticide product labeling is immediately available to the handler for use in an emergency.

(vi) Protective eyewear must be worn when using closed systems operating under pressure.

(e) Enclosed cabs. (1) If a handler applies a pesticide from inside a vehicle's enclosed cab, and if the conditions listed in paragraph (e)(2) of this section are met, exceptions to the personal protective equipment requirements specified on the product labeling for applicators are permitted as provided in paragraph (e)(3) of this section.

(2) All of the personal protective equipment required by the pesticide product labeling for applicators must be immediately available and stored in a sealed container to prevent contamination. Handlers must wear the applicator personal protective equipment required by the pesticide product labeling if they exit the cab within a treated area during application or when a restricted-entry interval is in effect. Once personal protective equipment is worn in a treated area, it must be removed before reentering the cab to prevent contamination of the cab.

(3) Handlers may substitute a long-sleeved shirt, long pants, shoes and socks for the labeling-specified personal protective equipment for skin and eye protection. If a filtering facepiece respirator (NIOSH approval number prefix TC-84A) or dust/mist filtering respirator is required by the pesticide product labeling for applicators, then that respirator need not be worn inside the enclosed cab if the enclosed cab has a properly functioning air ventilation system which is used and maintained in accordance with the manufacture's written operating instructions. If any other type of respirator is required by the pesticide labeling for applicators, then that respirator must be worn.

(f) Aerial applications—(1) Use of gloves. The wearing of chemical-resistant gloves when entering or leaving an aircraft used to apply pesticides is optional, unless such gloves are required on the pesticide product labeling. If gloves are brought into the cockpit of an aircraft that has been used to apply pesticides, the gloves shall be kept in an enclosed container to prevent contamination of the inside of the cockpit.

(2) Open cockpit. Handlers applying pesticides from an open cockpit aircraft must use the personal protective equipment specified in the pesticide product labeling for use during application, except that chemical-resistant footwear need not be worn. A helmet may be substituted for chemical-resistant headgear. A helmet with a face shield lowered to cover the face may be substituted for protective eyewear.

(3) Enclosed cockpit. Persons occupying an enclosed cockpit may substitute a long-sleeved shirt, long pants, shoes, and socks for labeling-specified personal protective equipment.

(g) Crop advisors. (1) Provided the conditions of paragraphs (g)(2) through (g)(4) of this section are met, crop advisors and their employees entering treated areas to perform crop advising tasks while a restricted-entry interval is in effect may substitute either of the following sets of personal protective equipment for the personal protective equipment specified on the pesticide labeling for handler activities:

(i) The personal protective equipment specified on the pesticide product labeling for early entry.

(ii) Coveralls, shoes plus socks and chemical-resistant gloves made of any waterproof material, and eye protection if the pesticide product labeling applied requires protective eyewear for handlers.

(2) The application has been complete for at least four hours.

(3) No such entry is allowed until any inhalation exposure level listed in the pesticide product labeling has been reached or any ventilation criteria required by §170.405(b)(3) or the pesticide product labeling have been met.

(4) The crop advisor or crop advisor employee who enters a treated area during a restricted-entry interval only performs crop advising tasks while in the treated area.

§170.609   Equivalency requests.

(a) States and Tribes that have promulgated worker protection regulations to protect agricultural workers and pesticide handlers from occupational pesticide exposure effective prior to January 1, 2016, have the option of requesting authority to continue implementing any provision(s) of the State's or Tribe's existing regulations that provides equivalent or greater protection in lieu of implementing any similar provision(s) in this part.

(b) States or Tribes must submit requests for the authority to continue implementing State or Tribal regulation provision(s) in lieu of any similar provision(s) in this part by June 29, 2016. The request must be in the form of a letter from the State or Tribe to EPA that includes all of the following:

(1) Identification of the provision(s) of this part for which the State or Tribe is requesting regulatory equivalency.

(2) Appropriate documentation establishing that the pertinent State or Tribal worker protection provision(s) provides environmental and human health protection that meets or exceeds the protections provided by the identified provision(s) in this part.

(3) Identification of any additional modifications to existing State or Tribal regulations that would be necessary in order to provide environmental and human health protection that meets or exceeds the similar provisions of this part, and an estimated timetable for the State or Tribe to effect these changes.

(4) The expected economic impact of requiring compliance with the requirement(s) of this part in comparison with compliance with the State or Tribal requirement(s), and an explanation of why it is important that employers subject to the State or Tribal authority comply with the State or Tribal requirement(s) in lieu of similar provision(s) in this part.

(5) The signature of the designated representative of the State or Tribal agency responsible for pesticide enforcement.

(c) EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs will review the State's or Tribe's letter and supporting materials and determine whether the State or Tribal provision(s) provide environmental and human health protection that meets or exceeds the comparable provision(s) of this part.

(d) EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs will inform the State or Tribe of its determination through a letter. The letter will either:

(1) Authorize the State or Tribe to continue implementing its worker protection regulatory provision(s) in lieu of the comparable provision(s) of this part; or

(2) Deny the State or Tribe authorization to continue implementing its worker protection regulatory provision(s) in lieu of the comparable provision(s) of this part and detail any reasons for declining authorization.

(e) Subsequent revisions. Any State or Tribe that has received authorization from EPA through the process outlined in this section to continue implementing its State or Tribal worker protection regulatory provision(s) must inform EPA by letter within six months of any revision to the State or Tribal worker protection laws or regulations. The letter must contain the same information outlined in paragraph (b) of this section. The State or Tribe may continue implementing provisions of its worker protection regulations identified under paragraph (b) of this section unless and until EPA informs the State or Tribe through a letter that EPA has determined that the State's or Tribe's worker protection regulations no longer provide environmental and human health protection that meets or exceeds the comparable provision(s) of this part based on the revisions.

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