Antenna and Wave Propagation

1. Basic antenna concepts                                        05%

1.1 Various definitions, antenna parameters 
1.2 transmission formula, sources of radiation 
1.3 comparison between antennas & transmission lines

2. Point sources                                                       04%
2.1 Power patterns of various sources, radiation intensity, directivity, beam width, sources with pattern of arbitrary shape, gain, field & phase patterns
2.2 Directivity, beam width, sources with pattern of arbitrary shape, gain, field & phase patterns

3. Arrays of point sources                                        14%
3.1 Arrays of 2 isotropic point sources, non-isotropic point sources, principle of pattern multiplication, linear arrays of non-isotropic point sources of equal amplitude and spacing
3.2 principles of pattern multiplication, linear arrays of non-isotropic point sources of equal amplitude & spacing
3.3 broad side, end fire arrays, radiation pattern determination of linear arrays 
3.4 Schelkunoff theorems for linear arrays, Dolph-Tchebysheff Distribution for linear arrays

4. Electric dipole and thin layer antennas                 12%
4.1 Short electric dipole radiation of short dipole, various field components radiation patterns, radiation resistance of linear antenna
4.2 Various field components radiation patterns 
4.3 Radiation resistance of linear antenna
4.4 Radiation resistance of half wave dipole, quarter wave dipole 

5. Loop Antenna                                                       09%
5.1 Small loop short magnetic dipole, comparison of far field of small loop and Short dipole loop antennas
5.2 Comparison of far field of small loop and Short dipole loop antennas
5.3 Field pattern of circular loop antenna & its radiation resistance

6. Helical antenna                                                    05%
6.1 Helical geometry, transmission radiation modes 
6.2 practical design consideration, wide band circuit of helical antenna 

7. Arrays of dipoles & apertures                              10%
7.1 Horizontal antennas and vertical antenna above a ground plane 
7.2 Arrays with parasitic elements, freq. scanning arrays retro arrays, adaptive arrays & smart antennas
7.3 Long wire antennas, location methods of Feeding antennas, folded dipole antennas

8. Reflector antennas & feed systems                      12%
8.1 Plane sheet reflectors & diffraction, aperture distribution & efficiency 
8.2 corner reflectors, Parabola, paraboloid reflector 
8.3 reflectors, cassegrain feed of other reflector antennas 

9. Slot horn & complementary antennas                   05%
9.1 Slot antenna, its pattern, principle & complementary antennas 
9.2 Independence of slot antennas & various types of horn antennas 

10. Lens antennas                                                   04%
10.1 Dielectric lens, reflector lens antennas, Polyroid 

11. Broadband & Freq. Independent antennas          04%
11.1 Broadband antenna, Freq. independent antenna 
11.2 Log periodic antennas, yagi-uda antenna and corner log periodic arrays

12. Microstrip Antennas                                          04%
12.1 Microstrip and Striplines, Microstrip Antennas-Advantages, Disadvantages, Model, Radiational Analysis

13. Antennas measurement                                     06%
13.1 Measurement of far-field radiation pattern, gain, phase, directivity, efficiency, polarization, impedance and scattering parameters

14. Radio wave propagation                                    06%
14.1 Modes of propagation, Ground wave, Tropospheric wave, Sky wave Definitions, Multi hop propagation
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