The Technology Integration Planning (TIP) Model as a Framework for TPACK

The development of this unit could begin with the Technology Integration Planning (TIP) model as a guide where the teacher assesses him/herself and gains a thorough understanding of the student population and their various learning styles and levels.  The teacher will need to take stock in his/her understanding of technological, pedagogical, and content (TPACK) knowledge to ensure successful planning and implementation of this unit.

Using the six phases of the TIP model by Roblyer & Doering, 2010, the teacher can formulate, implement, and assess not only the plan of the unit but also the degrees and levels of technology integration and the affordances that it offers students.

Phase 1: What is my technological pedagogical content knowledge?  As a consumer of technology, we would recommend that the teachers begin by "playing" with the technology and recreating the lessons for themselves.  This would allow the teacher to understand fully and assess his/her technological pedagogical content knowledge.  "This metacognitive awareness of TPACK enables teachers to set learning goals for themselves and, in turn, make thoughtful decisions for technology integration" (Roblyer & Doering, 2010, p. 51).

Phase 2: Why should I use a technology-based method? This phase allows teachers to consider other forms and strategies of student learning.  The teacher should evaluate the worth of the technology before using it with the children- the relative advantage.  In other words, Is It Worth It? (Harris, 2005).

Phase 3: How will I know students have learned?  The skills necessary within the unit can come from a variety of sources (i.e., standards, components of the discipline, etc.).  Throughout the unit, students are communicating, reflecting, and assessing each other's work products.  This offers the teacher both formative and summative assessments along the way.  Through this process, the teacher can collect data and analyze whether or not the students have learned, applied, and synthesized what was intended.

Phase 4: What teaching strategies and activities will work best?  The methods included in this unit are both directed and constructivist.  The unit presents interdisciplinary approaches "to model real-life activities [that] require the use of a combination of skills from several content areas" (Roblyer & Doering, 2010, p. 57).  This unit incorporates geography and culture into English Language Arts.  This unit also incorporates several student grouping approaches (i.e., individual, pairs, small and large groups).  In considering all aforementioned teaching strategies, a teacher must asses whether or not the technology can support these strategies and how it will appear in a variety of student groupings.

Phase 5: Are essential conditions in place to support technology integration?  This unit assumes that computers, software, and digital cameras are accessible to the students and teacher.  It is also assumed that other resources including the ITRT, librarian, and other adults are available and willing to assist the teacher and students during the unit.

Phase 6: What worked well? What could be improved?  Data collected through informal and formal assessments throughout the unit will assist the teacher in answering questions about results and possible improvements.  Having the students share their opinions and thoughts about the lessons will also assist the teacher in this process.  Through the TIP model, teachers are able to assess their personal TPACK knowledge, become more aware, and inform future instruction.  "The TPACK framework is useful for teachers in aiding their awareness of what knowledge tools they are currently utilizing together when thinking about integrating technology into their classrooms as well as visualizing growth and future possibilities in their teaching with technology" (Roblyer & Doering, 2010, p. 61).

Together, TIP and TPACK "are the theory and practice tools that make technology integration, purposeful, effective, and meaningful" for both teachers and students (Roblyer & Doering, 2010, p. 61).