background‎ > ‎


The material below was studied at the start of the MIXED project in 2007. Some of the materials that were readily accessible have moved, or disappeared, or changed direction. The whole list has been revisited on 2010-10-22, and numerous changes to urls have been made. Really foundational materials have been saved as local copies, attached to this page. These local copies are not necessarily the most recent versions of the documents, especially when the documents represent ongoing work.

Records management and archival standards

DANS DataSealOfApproval.  Quality guidelines, assessment and review procedure for data repositories serving the scientific and scholarly communities.

Trusted Digital Repository 

Trusted Digital Repositories: Attributes and Responsibilities. An RLG/OCLC Report (May 2002). (pdf) The Research Libraries Group, OCLC Online Computer Library Center.


Standard about best archiving practices. Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System. (pdf, local copy attached as OAIS-650.0-B-1.pdf) Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems. 2002. (ISO Standard 14721:2003).


Competenznetwerk Langzeitarchivierung. Memorandum zur Langzeitverfügbarkeit digitaler informationen in Deutschland, 2006. (pdf)

ISO 15489-1

Information and documentation – Records management – Part 1 General. 2001 (NEN/ISO 15489-1). This ISO standard was developed to standardize international best practice in records management.

Auxiliary standards


Open Document Format (native format of OpenOffice, also: interchange format) (oasisCover pagesWikipedia local copy attached as OpenDocument-v1.0-os.pdf). Contains as sublanguage: OFL (local copy attached as openformula-20070117.pdf), Open Formula Language, see also oasis. There is a new group trying to promote adherence to ODF, the ODF alliance. In the Netherlands, there is the Open Doc Society.


Microsoft Office 2007 native format and interchange format (ECMAOpenXML DeveloperWikipedia); overview (pdf, local copy attached as OpenXML White Paper.pdf); Open Packaging Convention (OPC) (pdf, local copy attached as OpenXML-OPC.pdf)


Open format for Office documents from China. (Wikipedia), intro, presentation (pdf). Based on ODF, with many Chinese extra's. Standard body: CESI (Chinese website; I cannot find the standard text on the English version of this site).

Comparison ODF and OpenXML

Interoperability ODF and OpenXML

Comparison between two converter tools.

Design patterns, templates, practices

SOA (Server Oriented Architecture)

wikipediaintroductory article from ibm.


Enterprise Service Bus (wikipediadefining the ESB).


Business Process Execution Language (wikipedia).


Nederlandse Overheid Referentie Architectuur (version 2.0, Dutch).

Auxiliary resources


Preserving Access to Digital Resources (National Library of Australia).


Format repository. Lists information about formats of digital information: applications, vendors, versions (main site). Contains:


DROID (Digital Record Object Identification), with software tools, belongs to PRONOM


JStore/Harvard Object Validation Environment. A framework for determining the formats of digital objects.

Related projects


Easy Archiving System. Project documentation. Self-service archive, built and maintained by DANS (Data Archiving and Networked Services).

Testbed digitale duurzaamheid

Project carried out by the National Archive of the Netherlands. The project delivered a number of white papers, which are difficult to find on the website of the National Archive, especially in their English versions (2010-10-22). This link comes closest. There are local copies attached to this page.
  • Preserving Spreadsheets: local copy attached as volatility-permanence-spreadsh-en.pdf
  • Preserving Databases: local copy attached as volatility-permanence-databases-en.pdf
  • XML en Digitale Bewaring (Dutch): local copy attached as white-paper_xml-nl.pdf


Joint project of the universities of Michigan (USA) and Leeds (UK) to evaluate preservation strategies. Here is a report on migration on request. Nowadays (2010-10-22)  the project page mentions emulation rather than migration.


Cultural, Artistic and Scientific knowledge for Preservation, Access and Retrieval - an Integrated Project co-financed by the European Union within the Sixth Framework Programme, that started on 1 April 2006. CASPAR will research, implement, and disseminate innovative solutions for digital preservation based on the OAIS reference model (ISO:14721:2002).


Network of Excellence on Digital Libraries partially funded by the European Commission in the frame of the Information Society Technologies Programme (IST). The main objectives of DELOS are research, whose results are in the public domain, and technology transfer, through cooperation agreements with interested parties.

On cluster of the programme (WP6) is dedicated to digital preservation issues. Integrated research in the preservation cluster will provide the methodological framework and theory for ensuring that digital libraries research addresses preservation issues and digital libraries incorporate preservation elements in their designs.


Project and toolkit by the Swiss Federal Archives. When we started MIXED we only had limited information at our disposal. At the end of MIXED we decided to prefer the SIARD format for databases over the format we had adopted during the project, which was e-David.

  • intro local copy attached as bundesarchiv_en_tcm9-849.pdf
  • intro, local copy attached as 0408054.pdf
  • the SIARD suite can be ordered here
  • specification of SIARD database format (pdf, local copy attached as SIARD%2BFormat_en.pdf)


This is a company that used the SIARD approach for commercial archiving of live databases.
A position paper on the PresDB conference, Edinburgh 2007 (pdf, local copy attached as Germany_CHRONOS_PresDB07.pdf).


Project at the UKDA (UK Data Archive, University of Essex, Colchester), aiming to provide researchers and support staff working with primary research data with a suite of tools that will enable data to be long-term curated and exchangeable. Projectplan (doc, local copy attached as DEXTProjectPlan.doc).


Project related to the Portuguese Repositório de Objectos Digitais Autênticos. A position paper by Luís Faria on the PresDB conference, Edinburgh 2007 (pdf, local copy attached as Luis Faria.pdf). Paper on Relational Database Preservation through XML modelling (pdf, local copy attached as ExtremeMarkupLanguages07.pdf).


A Swedish online academic archive. Related to it a paper with unclear provenance (pdf, local copy attached as erpaTrainingVienna_Mueller.pdf).


Project to investigate significant properties of electronic content. JISC funded, carried out at King's College, London.

Open Data Foundation

Non-profit organization dedicated to the adoption of global metadata standards and the development of open-source solutions promoting the use of statistical data. Supporter of DDI.


Flexible Extensible Digital Object Repository Architecture. Organization and software framework for archiving digital objects. Fedora provides a core repository service (exposed as web-based services with well-defined APIs).


Typed Object Model. A networked service to document information types. Moreover: a system of conversions between information types. Clients can look for conversion services through type brokers. A completely different approach to digital durability than MIXED tries to implement. The original link TOM cannot be followed (2010-10-22), it is mentioned still at GDFR: "TOM is a data model for describing a wide variety of data types and formats. In a broader sense, the term "TOM" is also used to describe a supporting architecture built around mediator agents called "type brokers", that receive and maintain descriptions of data formats, describe them to clients, and contact servers that interpret and translate data in those formats."


A European project, now (2010-10-22) a foundation, with a mission to develop, maintain and monitor digital preservation (planning) tools. It supports the SIARD format for databases.


Koninklijke Bibliotheek (Royal Library (Netherlands)). Several reports, jointly with IBM. Collection of papers with specific interest in emulation techniques.

Digital Preservation Coalition (DPC)

Organisation concerned with digital preservation at the strategic level. Paper Mind the Gap (pdf, local copy uknamindthegap.pdf). See also the list of allied organisations.


Open Source as Part of Software Strategy (Open Source als Onderdeel van de Software Strategie). Now (2010-10-22) called: Nederland Open In Verbinding. Dutch program reflecting on the role of open source in the Dutch government. Definition of "true" open source (Dutch); definition of "true" open standards (Dutch).


PREservation Metadata: Implementation Strategies, an initiative of OCLC (OCLC is a worldwide library cooperative since 1967).

Articles, journals, reports, books

Digital curation (journal)

The State of Digital Preservation: An international perspective (report)

Digital Preservation and Permanent Access to Scientific Information: The State of the Practice. CENDI - 2004-3. (online report).

Long-term Preservation of Digital Documents: Principles and Practices. Book by Uwe M. Borghoff, Peter Rödig, Jan Scheffczyk, Lothar Schmitz.

The data documentation initiative: a preservation standard for research by Karsten Boye Rasmussen and Grant Blank. (article in Archival Science)

ICPSR meets OAIS: applying the OAIS reference model to the social science archive context by Mary Vardigan and Cole Whiteman (article in Archival Science)

Addressing the uncertain future of preserving the past. Stijn Hoorens, Jeff Rothenberg,  Constantijn van Oranje, Martijn van der Mandele,  Ruth Levitt. Published in 2007 by the RAND corporation. The purpose of the document is to analyse the Koninklijke Bibliotheek’s e-Depot strategy in the context of wider developments in the archiving and publishing environment. Online at KBat RANDlocal copy attached as KB website Rand_report_e-depot_TR510_3c_Cover.pdf. Presentation of the same titel bij Stijn Hoorens: (pdf online).

A Proposed Standard for the Scholarly Citation of Quantitative Data. By Micah Altman, Gary King. The interesting topic for MIXED here is UNF (Universal Numeric Fingerprints). This is a technology to take fingerprints from tabular data; the fingerprints are sensitive to the values of the data, not to the file format of the data. MIXED may use UNFs to test whether a format conversion preserves the actual data faithfully, an important quality check.

Material by Henry M. Gladney

(book) Preserving Digital Information Springer 2007. ISBN 978-3-540-37886-0
(article) Principles for Digital Preservation. (local copy attached as p111-gladney.pdf)
(presentation) Principles for 100 year Digital Preservation (pdf)
(article) Preserving Digital Records: A Method Guided by Scientific Philosophy (pdf, local copy attached as TDO_4_Archivaria_submitted_17_Nov.pdf)
(journal) Digital Document Quarterly. (from 2002-Q1 till 2010-Q1, as per 2010-10-22).

(Inter)national cooperation

DANS is working in close collaboration with a number of national and international organisations:


  • CESSDA. Council of European Social Science Data Archives
  • ESFRI. European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures
  • CODATA. Committee on Data for Science and Technology
  • ICPSR. Inter-university Consortium for Policital and Social Research
  • IASSIST. International Association for Social Science Information Service and Technology
  • DDI. Data Documentation Initiative (Alliance)
  • DARIAH. Digital Research Infrastructure for the Arts and Humanities
  • CLARIN. Common Language Resources and Technology Infrastructure


  • NCDD. National Coalition for Digital Preservation
  • SURF is the collaborative organisation for higher education institutions and research institutes aimed at breakthrough innovations in ICT.


UN database browser

This database browser is an example what you can do once you have harmonized access to databases of different vendors and types.

Dirk Roorda,
22 Oct 2010, 02:42
Dirk Roorda,
22 Oct 2010, 01:26
Dirk Roorda,
22 Oct 2010, 02:58
Dirk Roorda,
22 Oct 2010, 03:11
Dirk Roorda,
22 Oct 2010, 02:52
Dirk Roorda,
22 Oct 2010, 01:30
Dirk Roorda,
22 Oct 2010, 04:52
Dirk Roorda,
22 Oct 2010, 03:08
Dirk Roorda,
29 Mar 2011, 02:59
Dirk Roorda,
7 Oct 2010, 08:15
Dirk Roorda,
22 Oct 2010, 01:22
Dirk Roorda,
22 Oct 2010, 01:19
Dirk Roorda,
22 Oct 2010, 01:31
Dirk Roorda,
22 Oct 2010, 02:46
Dirk Roorda,
22 Oct 2010, 04:35
Dirk Roorda,
22 Oct 2010, 02:42
Dirk Roorda,
22 Oct 2010, 03:43
Dirk Roorda,
7 Oct 2010, 08:24
Dirk Roorda,
22 Oct 2010, 04:31
Dirk Roorda,
22 Oct 2010, 04:10
Dirk Roorda,
22 Oct 2010, 02:20
Dirk Roorda,
22 Oct 2010, 02:21
Dirk Roorda,
22 Oct 2010, 02:21