Standards (also referred to as Proficiencies or Competencies): Established norms or benchmarks for learning that define what students need to know and be able to do.

Graduation Standards (Proficiencies): a standard that focuses instruction on the most foundational, enduring, and leveraged concepts and skills within a discipline.

Performance Indicator: Describes or defines what students need to know and be able to do to demonstrate mastery of a graduation standard.

Learning Targets: The component parts of a performance indicator - that is, the performance indicator has been broken down into a series of progressive steps and digestible chunks.

Source: Great Schools Partnership

* Formative Assessment: Formative assessment refers to a wide variety of methods that teachers use to conduct in-process evaluations of student comprehension, learning needs, and academic progress during a lesson, unit, or course. Formative assessments help teachers identify concepts that students are struggling to understand, skills they are having difficulty acquiring, or learning standards they have not yet achieved so that adjustments can be made to lessons, instructional techniques, and academic support.

* Summative Assessment: Summative assessments are used to evaluate student learning, skill acquisition, and academic achievement at the conclusion of a defined instructional period—typically at the end of a project, unit, course, semester, program, or school year. 

Source: Great Schools Partnership

Common Core State Standards: State education chiefs and governors in 48 states came together to develop the Common Core, a set of clear college- and career-ready standards for kindergarten through 12th grade in English language arts/literacy and mathematics. Today, 43 states have voluntarily adopted and are working to implement the standards, which are designed to ensure that students graduating from high school are prepared to take credit bearing introductory courses in two- or four-year college programs or enter the workforce. (source)

Next Generation Science Standards:  Next Generation Science Standards for Today’s Students and Tomorrow’s Workforce:  Through a collaborative, state-led process managed by Achieve, new K–12 science standards have been developed that are rich in content and practice, arranged in a coherent manner across disciplines and grades to provide all students an internationally benchmarked science education. The NGSS is based on the Framework for K–12 Science Education developed by the National Research Council. (source)

* Personalized Learning Plans: A personal learning plan (or PLP) is developed by students—typically in collaboration with teachers, counselors, and parents—as a way to help them achieve short- and long-term learning goals, most commonly at the middle school and high school levels. Personal learning plans are generally based on the belief that students will be more motivated to learn, will achieve more in school, and will feel a stronger sense of ownership over their education if they decide what they want to learn, how they are going to learn it, and why they need learn it to achieve their personal goals.

* Dual Enrollment: The term dual enrollment refers to students being enrolled—concurrently—in two distinct academic programs or educational institutions. The term is most prevalently used in reference to high school students taking college courses while they are still enrolled in a secondary school, or to the programs that allow high school students to take college-level courses. 

* Definitions from