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The Handbook of Applied Acceptance Sampling (Stephens)

 Author(s)  Kenneth S. Stephens
 Title  The Handbook of Applied Acceptance Sampling
 Year  2001
 Publisher  ASQ Quality Press
 ISBN  0-87389-475-8

Table of Contents



Chapter 1  Introduction to Acceptance Sampling
1.0 The Rationale for Acceptance Sampling and Inspection
1.1 Mood's Theorem
1.1.1 Red Bead Sampling Experiment
1.2 Deming's kp Rule
1.3 The Role of Acceptance Sampling / Inspection
1.4 Acceptance Sampling Inspection and Process Control / Improvement
1.5 Significant Features of the Handbook
1.6 Problem Exercises

Chapter 2  The Basic Mathematics / Statistics of Acceptance Sampling
2.0 Simple Acceptance Sampling Plans
2.1 Performance of a Sampling Plan
2.1.2 The Operating Characteristic Curve
2.2 Probability Functions
2.2.1 Hypergeometric Probability Distribution Function
2.2.2 Binomial Probability Distribution Function
2.2.3 The Poisson Probability Distribution Function
2.2.4 f Binomial - Hypergeometric Approximation
2.2.5 Normal Probability Distribution Function - Approximations
2.3 Spreadsheet Software Computations and Graphs
The Hypergeometric Function
The Binomial Function
The Poisson Function
The Normal Function
2.4 Nomographs for Quick Approximation
2.5 Characteristics of OC Curves
Effect of the Acceptance Number
Effect of the Sample Size
2.6 Common Misconceptions
2.6.1 The 10 Percent Sampling Scheme
2.7 Discrimination in Acceptance Sampling Plans
2.7.1 The Operating Ratio
2.7.2 Uniqueness / Deficiency of Zero Acceptance Numbers
2.8 Type A and Type B OC Curves (Sampling Plans)
2.9 Chapter Summary
2.10 Problem Exercises

Chapter 3  Some Basic Language and Concepts of Acceptance Sampling - An Overview
3.0 Single, Lot-by-Lot, Attributes Acceptance Sampling Plan
3.1 Classification of Sampling Plans
3.1.1 Acceptable Quality Level / Limit (AQL) or Reference Quality Level (RQL)
3.1.2 Lot Tolerance Percent Defective (LTPD) Limiting Quality
3.1.3 Limiting Quality (LQ) and the Limiting Quality Level (LQL)
3.1.4 Rectification Sampling Inspection
3.1.5 Average Outgoing Quality (AOQ)
3.1.6 Average Outgoing Quality Limit (AOQL)
3.1.7 Average Total Inspection (ATI)
3.2 Double Sampling Plans
3.2.1 OC Curves for Double Sampling Plans
3.2.2 Average Sample Number (ASN)
3.2.3 Inspection Curtailment or Truncation
3.2.4 Average Total Inspection for Double Sampling
3.2.5 Double Sampling Summary
3.3 Multiple Sampling Plans
3.4 Sequential Sampling Plans
3.5 Variables Acceptance Sampling Plans
3.6 Continuous Sampling Plans
3.7 Skip-Lot Sampling Plans
3.8 Chain Sampling Plans
3.9 Chapter Summary
3.10 Problem Exercises


Chapter 4  Design Your Own Acceptance Sampling Plans
4.0 Single Acceptance Sampling Plans
4.0.1 A Nomograph for Designing Your Own
4.1 Double Acceptance Sampling Plans
4.2 Multiple Acceptance Sampling Plans
4.3 Sequential Acceptance Sampling Plans
4.3.1 Sequential Probability Ratio
4.3.2 Spreadsheet Computations
4.3.3 Parametric Equations for p, Pa, and ASN
4.3.4 A Sequential Sampling Nomograph
4.3.5 Tables of Sequential Sampling Plans
4.4 Chapter Summary
4.5 Problem Exercises


Chapter 5  Attributes Acceptance Sampling Plan Tables
5.0 Z1.4 Sampling Tables
5.1 Table 1 - Sample Size Code Letters - Inspection Levels
5.2 Tables 2-A, B, C; Normal, Tightened, and Reduced Inspection; Single Sampling
5.3 Tables 3-A, B, C; Tables 4-A, B, C; Double and Multiple Sampling
5.4 Switching Rules
5.4.1 Normal to Tightened
5.4.2 Tightened to Normal
5.4.3 Discontinuation of Inspection
5.4.4 Normal to Reduced
5.4.5 Reduced to Normal
5.5 Producer's Risks
5.6 Consumer's Risk (LQL) - Tables 6-A, B, C; Tables 7-A, B, C
5.7 AOQL - Tables 8-A and B
5.8 Average Sample Size Curves
5.9 OC Curves - Tables 10-A through S
5.10 Z1.4 Scheme Performance
5.10.1 AOQL Scheme Performance
5.10.2 LQ Scheme Performance
5.10.3 Average Sample Size Tables for Scheme Performance
5.10.4 Operating Characteristic Curves for Scheme Performance
5.11 Chapter Summary
5.12 Problem Exercises

Chapter 6  Further Attributes Acceptance Sampling Plan Tables
6.0 Dodge-Romig Sampling Tables
6.0.1 LTPD Tables - Single Sampling
6.0.2 LTPD Tables - Double Sampling
6.0.3 AOQL Tables - Single Sampling
6.0.4 AOQL Tables - Double Sampling
6.0.5 Summary of the Dodge-Romig Sampling Tables
6.1 Q3 Sampling Procedures and Tables
6.1.1 Isolated Lots - Table A1
6.1.2 Further Characteristics - Table A2
6.1.3 Tables B1 - B10, Single Sampling Plans for LQ Values
6.1.4 Double and Multiple Sampling in Q3
6.1.5 Probability of Zero Nonconforming Items in a Sample
6.1.6 Q3 Summary
6.2 Special Sampling Schemes
6.2.1 Tightened-Normal-Tightened (TNT) Schemes
6.2.2 Quick Switching Acceptance Sampling Systems
6.2.3 A Lot Sensitive Sampling Plan
6.2.4 MIL-STD-1916
6.2.5 Sampling Plans for ppm Quality
6.3 Chapter Summary
6.4 Problem Exercises


Chapter 7  Continuous Sampling Plans
7.0 Brief Introduction to Continuous Sampling Plans
7.1 Basic Parameters, Operation, Evaluation, and Application of CSP-1
7.1.1 Parameters
7.1.2 Operation
7.1.3 Evaluation
7.1.4 Application
7.2 Additional Continuous Sampling Plans
7.2.1 CSP-2 and CSP-3
7.2.2 CSP-A
7.2.3 CSP-M
7.2.4 CSP-F
7.2.5 CSP-T
7.2.6 CSP-V
7.2.7 CSP-R
7.2.8 CSP-C
7.3 Nomographs and Their Use
7.3.1 Plan Selection for CSP-1
7.4 Sampling Tables and Their Use
7.4.1 CSP-1
7.4.2 CSP-2
7.4.3 CSP-F
7.4.4 CSP-T
7.4.5 CSP-V
7.5 Chapter Summary
7.6 Problem Exercises

Chapter 8  Skip-Lot and Chain Sampling
8.0 Skip-Lot Sampling Plans
8.0.1 Basic Parameters, Operation, Interpretation, and Application
8.1 Extensions of Skip-Lot Sampling Plans and Applications
8.1.1 SkSP-2
8.1.2 Design Your Own SkSP-2 Sampling Plan
8.1.3 Two-Level Skip-Lot Sampling Plans
8.1.4 SkSP-2 Applied to Reduced Inspection
8.2 ANSI/ASQC Standard S1-1996
8.2.1 Basic Operation and Evaluation of S1
8.3 Chain Sampling
8.3.1 Basic Parameters, Operation, Evaluation, and Application
8.3.2 Fractional Acceptance Numbers
8.4 Extensions of Chain Sampling
8.4.1 ChSP-4 and ChSP-4A
8.4.2 General Family of Chain Sampling Inspection Plans
8.5 Comparisons with Single and Double Sampling
8.6 Evaluation of Response Characteristics
8.7 Chapter Summary
8.8 Problem Exercises


Chapter 9  Variables Sampling Plans
9.1 Known Sigma Variables Sampling Plans
9.2 Unknown Sigma Variables Sampling Plans
9.3 A Nomograph for Variables Sampling Plans
9.4 OC Curve Computation for Variables Sampling Plans
9.5 Z1.9 Variables Sampling Tables
9.5.1 Measurement of Variability Options
9.5.2 Table A-1, AQL Conversion Table
9.5.3 Table A-2, Sample Size Code Letters - Inspection Levels
9.5.4 Standard Deviation Method - Variability (Sigma) Unknown
9.5.5 Range Method - Variability (Sigma) Unknown
9.5.6 Standard Deviation Method - Variability (Sigma) Known
9.5.7 The Sampling Schemes of Z1.9
9.5.8 The Normality Assumption of Z1.9
9.6 Some Special Related Sampling Procedures
9.6.1 Mixed Variables-Attributes Sampling Plans
9.6.2 Narrow Limit Gaging
9.6.3 Variables Control Charts
9.6.4 Variables Acceptance Control Charts
9.7 Additional Variables Sampling Procedures
9.8 Chapter Summary
9.9 Problem Exercises


Chapter 10  Inspection and Inspection Systems
10.1 Effect of Inspection Error on Sampling Plans
10.2 Steps in the Preparation and Development of Acceptance Sampling Plans
10.2.1 Preliminary Quality and Test Information
10.2.2 Refined Quality and Acceptability Information
10.2.3 Determining Sampling Methods and Sampling Plans
10.3 Inspection System Procedures and Requirements
10.4 Metrology System Procedures and Requirements
10.5 Some Administrative Aspects of Inspection
10.6 Measurement Principles and Techniques
10.6.1 A Practical Measurement Principle
10.6.2 Error of Measurement and Rational Subgrouping
10.6.3 Repeatability and Reproducibility (R&R) Studies
10.6.4 Summary
10.7 Chapter Summary
10.8 Problem Exercises


Appendix A  Development of P(x, X - x) = P(x) * P(X - x) for Mood's Theorem 2

Appendix B  Tables of the Summation of Terms (Cumulative) of the Poisson Probability Distribution

Appendix C  Values of np That Yield Pa (of "c or Less" Nonconforming Units or Nonconformities) in a Sample of n

Appendix D  Areas Under the Standard Normal Curve

Appendix E  Values of Operating Ratio

Appendix F  Unit Sequential Sampling Plans

Appendix G  Selected Deviates of the Standard Normal Distribution

Bibliography and References


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