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HALT, HASS, HASA Explained - Accelerated Reliability Techniques

 Author(s)  Harry W. McLean
 Title  HALT, HASS, and HASA Explained: Accelerated Reliability Techniques, Revised Edition
 Edition  Revised Edition
 Year  2009
 Publisher  ASQ Quality Press
 ISBN  978-0873897662

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 The Importance of High-Reliability Products at Market Introduction—How and Why to Do a HALT
  • Introduction
  • An Overview of HALT
  • Comparisons of Products with and without HALT
  • The HALT Process
  • Cold and Hot Step Stress
  • Rapid Thermal Transitions
  • Vibration Step Stress
  • Combined Stresses in HALT
  • Other HALT Stresses and Special Situations
  • Verification HALT
  • A Perspective on Implementing Corrective Action as a Result of HALT
  • A Proposal for Managing HALT Limits and Issues
  • Using the Process
  • Vibration
  • Comments Regarding the Various Vibration Tables
  • Conclusion

HALT Summarized
  • Illustrating the Value of HALT
  • Some Thoughts Regarding Ruggedizing a Product Prior to HALT
  • The Recording of Failures and Corrective Action
  • Troubleshooting Products under Stress Conditions
  • Conclusion

Chapter 2 Highly Accelerated Stress Screen—HASS
  • Introduction
  • The ABCs of Building Robust Products
  • Production Product Stress Screen HASS
  • Why Does HASS Work?
  • Vibration
  • Rate of Change of Temperature
  • Acceleration Factor for Thermal Cycling
  • Which Stress Levels Are Appropriate?
  • Precipitation and Detection Screens
  • Precipitation Screens
  • Detection Screens
  • A Comment on HASS Profiles or Screens
  • Proof of Screen
  • Fixture Characterization
  • The HASS Profile
  • Defect Detection
  • Life Determination in Proof of Screen
  • Screen Tuning
  • Cables for HASS
  • HASS Summarized
  • Some HASS Successes
  • A Word of Caution
  • Conclusion

Chapter 3 Beyond the Paradigm of Environmental Stress
  • Screening—Using HASA
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Statistical Process Overview
  • Statistics—The System
  • Scenario 1
  • Scenario 2
  • A Control Chart for the HASA Process
  • The Monitoring System Issues
  • Problems Uncovered through HASA
  • An Observation on Using Equation 3.1
  • Conclusion

Chapter 4 Refinements on Highly Accelerated Stress
  • Audit (HASA)
  • Introduction
  • Background and Assumptions
  • Application of the Statistics
  • A Graphical Tool for Detecting Defect Level Changes
  • Conclusion

Introduction to an Improved HASA Process
  • HASA Process Flow
  • Typical Lot Acceptance Sampling Plan
  • HASA Acceptance Sampling Plan

Chapter 5 The Equipment Required to Perform
  • Efficient Accelerated Reliability Testing
  • Overview
  • System Block Diagram
  • Temperature
  • Turbulence
  • Heating
  • Cooling .
  • A Comparison of LN2 Systems and Compressor Systems for HALT and HASS .
  • Vibration
  • Control Systems
  • The Chamber
  • Product Accessibility
  • Ducting Air
  • Work-Area Audible Noise Level
  • Serviceability
  • Service
  • Maximum System Capabilities
  • Post-Sales Support
  • Auxiliary Equipment, Operator Safety, and ESD
  • Failure Analysis Lab
  • Why Develop an In-House Failure Analysis Capability?
  • Initial Analysis
  • Metallographic Sample Preparation
  • Advanced Techniques
  • Failure Analysis Conclusion
  • Conclusion

Chapter 6 How to Sell New Concepts to Management
  • Introduction
  • Overview
  • The Situation Today
  • The Proposed Program
  • Addressing Potential Management Concerns
  • The Savings
  • Conclusion

Chapter 7 Some Commonly Asked Questions and Observations
  • How Would Someone Compare ESS and HASS?
  • What Is HALT in a Few Words?
  • How Would One Compare Product Qualification Methods and HALT?
  • Is HALT for Quality Improvement or Is It Intended to Replace RGT and MTBF Tests?
  • Is There Any Merit to Subjecting a Product to Stresses Far Beyond Its Design Specifications?
  • What Are Product Specific and Generic Stresses?
  • If HALT and HASS Are So Great, Why Isn’t Everyone Using HALT and HASS?
  • Is One HALT Enough?
  • At What Product Level Should HALT Be Performed?
  • Who Should Be Involved with the Accelerated Reliability Program?
  • Physically, Where Should HALT Be Performed?
  • How Many Units Are Required, and What Can Be Done With Them Once We’re Finished with HALT?
  • Why a Cultural Change May Be Required in Order to Perform a Successful HALT
  • Can a Conventional Chamber and Vibration Table Be Used to Perform a HALT?
  • Are All Six Degrees of Freedom Shakers the Same?
  • Are There Any Known Problems in Applying Product Temperature Ramp Rates of 60°C per Minute?
  • Are There Any Advantages to Performing Sequential Rather Than Combined Stress Regimens?
  • Do HALT and HASS Just Uncover Electronic Defects?
  • Can HASS Eliminate My Production Steady State, Elevated Temperature Burn-in?
  • At What Levels of Temperature and Vibration Can I Consider the Product Robust?
  • How Can You Justify Doing HALT on Products with a Very Short Field Life?
  • What Are the Yearly Maintenance Costs for the HALT Chambers?
  • Can the Results of HALT Be Used to Accurately Estimate Field Life?

Appendix A The Derivation of Equation 3.1

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