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 Author(s)  DaimlerChrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, General Motors Corporation
 Title  Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA)
 Edition  Third Edition
 Year  2002
 Publisher  Automotive Industry Action Group (AIAG)
 ISBN  none

Table of Contents

CHAPTER I - General Measurement Systems Guidelines

Section A - Introduction, Purpose, and Terminology

Quality of Measurement Data


  • Summary of Terms
  • True Value

Section B - The Measurement Process

Measurement Process
  • Statistical Properties of Measurement Systems
  • Sources of Variation

The Effects of Measurement System Variability
  • Effect on Decisions
  • Effect on Product Decisions
  • Effect on Process Decisons
  • New Process Acceptance
  • Process Setup / Control (Funnel Experiment)

Section C - Measurement Strategy and Planning

Identify the Purpose of the Measurement Process
Measurement Life Cycle
Criteria for a Measurement Process Design Selection
Research Various Measurement Process Methods
Develop and Design Concepts and Proposals

Section D - Measurement Source Development

Measurement Source Development
  • Datum Coordination
  • Prerequisites and Assumptions

Gage Source Selection Process
  • Detailed Engineering Concept
  • Preventive Maintenance Considerations
  • Specifications
  • Evaluate the Quotations
  • Documentation Deliverables
  • Qualification at the Supplier
  • Shipment
  • Qualification at the Customer
  • Documentation Delivery
  • Suggested Elements for a Measurement System Development Checklist

Section E - Measurement Issues

Types of Measurement System Variation
Definitions and Potential Sources of Variation
Measurement Process Variation
Location Variation
Width Variation
Measurement System Variation

Section F - Measurement Uncertainty

Measurement Uncertainty and MSA
Measurement Traceability
ISO Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement

Section G - Measurement Problem Analysis

CHAPTER II - General Concepts for Assessing Measurement Systems

Section A - Background

Section B - Selecting / Developing Test Procedures

Section C - Preparation for a Measurement System Study

Section D - Analysis of the Results -- Acceptability Criteria

CHAPTER III - Recommended Practices for Simple Measurement Systems

Section A - Example Test Procedures

Section B - Variable Measurement System Study

  • Guidelines for Determining Stability
  • Guidelines for Determining Bias - Independent Sample Method
  • Guidelines for Determining Bias - Control Chart Method
  • Guidelines for Determining Linearity
  • Guidelines for Repeatability and Reproducibility

Range Method

Average and Range Method
  • Average Chart
  • Range Charts
  • Run Chart
  • Scatter Plot
  • Whiskers Chart
  • Error Charts
  • Normalized Histogram
  • X-Y Plot of Averages by Size
  • Comparison X-Y Plots
  • Numerical Calculations
  • Analysis of Results - Numerical
  • Analysis of Results - ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) Method
  • Randomization and Statistical Independence

Section C - Attribute Measurement System Study

Risk Analysis Methods
Analytic Method

CHAPTER IV - Practices for Complex Measurement Systems

Section A - Practices for Complex  or Non-Replicable Measurement Systems

Section B - Stability Studies

S1:  Single Part, Single Measurement per Cycle
S2:  n >= 3 Parts, Single Measurement per Cycle per Part
S3:  Large Sample from a Stable Process
S4:  Split Specimens (General), Single Specimen per Cycle
S5:  Test Stands

Section C - Variability Studies

V1:  Standard GRR Studies
V2:  Multiple Readings with p >= 2 Instruments
V3:  Split Specimens (m = 2)
V4:  Split Specimens (General)
V5:  Same as V1 with Stabilized Parts
V6:  Time Series Analysis
V7:  Linear Analysis
V8:  Time versus Characteristic (Property) Degradation
V9:  V2 with Simultaneous Multiple Readings and p >= 3 Instruments

CHAPTER V - Other Measurement Concepts

Section A - Recognizing the Effect of Excessive Within-Part Variation

Section B - Average and Range Method -- Additional Treatment

Section C - Gage Performance Curve

Section D - Reducing Variation Through Multiple Readings

Section E - Pooled Standard Deviation Approach to GRR


Appendix A - Analysis of Variance Concepts

Appendix B - Impact of GRR on the Capability Index Cp

Appendix C - d2 Table

Appendix D - Gage R Study

Appendix E - Alternate PV Calculation Using Error Correction Term

Appendix F - P.I.S.M.O.E.A. Error Model



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