Examples of filled-in OLMs


EXAMPLE 1

This exerpt of an OLM, showing two outcome pathways, is based on the one developed by Project N2: RMS for Landscapes


Actor(s) who will change in the same way

Their change in practice / behavior

Change in KAS* required to achieve the Practice change

Project strategies to achieve the change in KAS and Practice

Project outputs (i.e., deliverables) involved in changes in KAS and Practice

 Start with this question: if this project is successful, WHO will change? What groups of people or organizations will be affected? Be realistic, and prioritize the most 'affected'. Then, try to be as specific about the actor groups as possible- in some cases you have the names or exact location of the actor(s)- use them here. A change in practice or behavior is a change in the way people (in this case, the 'actors' in the 1st column) DO things. So here, try to use action words- such as 'use', 'coordinate', 'plan', 'participate in', 'integrate', etc. To be able to 'use' something, people usually need to first know/ understand it, and its advantages, or have developed the skills to use it, or at least to believe or trust the benefits of using it.  Look at your practice change, and make explicit 2-4 KAS changes that are key to having the actor groups change their practice.How will your project contribute to make these changes happen? What are your ideas on how to help people change? 
Here, it may help to think what other projects have done before that has NOT worked well- what will your project do that is different? Better? Strategies can be the way (for example, co-develop instead of impose) you do things.
These come straight out of your Gantt chart and your contracted deliverables. Which is (are) your project's main output (s) related to this 'line of change? 


National and Regional Rain Water Management (RWM) systems planners active in study site landscapes, WEREDA

Use more effective tools for planning for RWMS at landscape scale

K: Are aware not only of the good tools available for planning RWMS at landscape level, but also of the benefits of doing strategic RWM. 

S: Have improved capacity to take into account social and ecological differentiation in planning

1) Co-development of the research outputs (tools) with these actors 

2) Trial tools in planning process cycles

Tools for planning (OUTPUT 1.1)


While processes for NRM and agricultural development planning exist at various levels and occur in Ethiopia, RWMS planners do not have sufficient knowledge or adequate tools to engage in landcape- scale, integrated, and multisectoral planning.  N2 will co-develop tools for better landscape-scale planning with Wereda and National and Regional Rain Water Management (RWM) systems planners. N2 will test, refine and support planners in using these tools by engaging in existing planning processes at research sites using LPAs as vehicle. By doing this we support planners in study sites to increase their technical capacity to use evidence based and cross sectoral planning to tailor interventions to different social and ecological landscape niches.


Uptake: Farmers and communities in study site landscapes

Farmers and communities participate increasingly in  individual or RWM collective  action and demonstrate increased innovation and uptake of RMS

K: Farmers know and experience that community resource management actually works in certain landscapes            

S: Increased capacity of farmers and communities to engage in collective action and other local agents to support them

1) Participatory action research in study landscapes based on developing or strengthening institutions for innovation 

2) Testing of clearly defined hypotheses regarding potential interventions, developed through joint baseline assessment and problem identification

Institutions governance assessment (OUTPUT 2.1) 

Multi-level actor engagement (OUTPUT 2.2)  

Incentives and barriers to RMS (OUTPUT 2.3)


Local institutions and their knowledge for NRM are weak, that specific barriers to innovation exist, and that removing barriers and strengthening institutions will help improve innovation and adoption for RMS.  N2 research on change processes & innovation, starting with a baseline assessment of barriers, identifies entry points for action research.  Institutional strengthening in study landscapes, using multi-level actor engagement, will demonstrate the value of RMS, e.g demonstrating the value of managing some community resources in a collective way. From that the knowledge & attitude at community level will improve resulting in action that positively impacts productivity of certain areas of the landscape, further leading to increased innovation and uptake. 

Knowledge, Attitude and/or Skills 

Example 2

This exerpt of an OLM, showing two outcome pathways, is based on the one developed by Project A3: On designing and implementing benefit-sharing mechanisms and Building Collective Action for Water Benefit Sharing Mechanisms in the Andes


Actor(s) who will change in the same way

Their change in practice / behavior

Change in KAS* required to achieve the Practice change

Project strategies to achieve the change in KAS and Practice

Project outputs (i.e., deliverables) involved in changes in KAS and Practice

 Start with this question: if this project is successful, WHO will change? What groups of people or organizations will be affected? Be realistic, and prioritize the most 'affected'. Then, try to be as specific about the actor groups as possible- in some cases you have the names or exact location of the actor(s)- use them here. A change in practice or behavioris a change in the way people (in this case, the 'actors' in the 1st column) DO things. So here, try to use action words- such as 'use', 'coordinate', 'plan', 'participate in', 'integrate', etc. To be able to 'use' something, people usually need to first know/ understand it, and its advantages, or have developed the skills to use it, or at least to believe or trust the benefits of using it.  Look at your practice change, and make explicit 2-4 KAS changes that are key to having the actor groups change their practice.How will your project contribute to make these changes happen? What areyour ideas on how to help people change? 
Here, it may help to think what other projects have done before that has NOT worked well- what will your project do that is different? Better? Strategies can be the way (for example, co-develop instead of impose) you do things.  
These come straight out of your Gantt chart and your contracted deliverables. Which is (are) your project's main output (s) related to this 'line of change? 


Local environmental authorities in each of the basins 

COLOMBIA >  CORTOLIMA, CORPOAMAZONAS and CVC.

ECUADOR > FONAP, Municipalidad de Cuenca

PERU > SENAMHI, Municipalidad de Huaraz

BOLIVIA> EPSAS, Instituto de Hidraulica e Hidrologia

Include in their analysis for investments and economic activities factors and variables offered in the NSS that were not considered before 
Understand and better manage water resources systems 

K: Know how to do resources valuation with emphasis on water and long- term accounting

K: Have increased knowledge on the way watershed systems work on biophysical aspects, and of current systems 

K: Know how to do long term accounting

A: Realize there are different and new ways of using information and technology to improve the achievement of their purposes.

S: Improved capacity in environmental modelling, use of free and open sources of data and in the integration of social and biophsycal knowledge. 

Supporting online documentation 

Supporting online training materials 

Outreach, user engagement and training

Learning Alliance for dissemination of lessons learnt 

Negotiation Analysis Outputs:

A web based Negotiation Support System (NSS) that provides a thorough understanding of the impacts of BSM in any catchment within the Andes including risk analysis and management, incentive design and valuation proposals


In order to induce a change in the way institutions at different levels are valuing resources and taking decisions affecting water and agricultural resources, the project will put at their service a web based Negotiation Support System. This is a system that serves organizations at different scales with data, information and the capability of understanding the impacts of BSM in any catchment within the Andes. Once they are properly engaged in its use, received basic training and guidance, they will be in the possibility of taking more informed decisions, which, in parallel with the involvement of key stakeholders, will modify current affairs towards more sustainable, fair and equitable benefit sharing mechanisms. 


Producers and Trade Associations benefiting from the goods and services provided by the watershed

Establish agreements to make BSMs effective.

Establish agreements for effective benefit sharing.

K: Knowledge of the implications and advantages of BSMs.

S: Capacity to apply BSMs tools

A: Positive attitude in recognizing their role in the establishment of agreements and awareness of the investment this process requires

Capacity Building

Exchange of experiences

Participation in pre-negotiation meetings

A series of agreements between stakeholders (citizens, NGOs, CBOs, governments) through the process of 'Conversatorio for Citizen Action' 


The project will promote that  Producers and Trade Associations of the watershed establish agreements that recognize, value and make effective  the application/implementation of BSMs, recognize, value and have willingness to apply/implement  BSMs, allowing them to recognize the environmental goods and services they use in their economic activities.

Knowledge, Attitude and/or Skills

Example 3

This OLM is based on the one developed by Project N3: On targeting and scaling out RWMs interventions in the Nile. It contains 5 Outcome Pathways with their respective Outcome Pathway Narratives and at the end, the Impact Narrative, or the narrative description of scaling up and scaling out processes thought necessary to achieve longer-term social, economic and/or environmental impact of N3, and why this particular set of outcome pathways is likely to foster them. 

Actor(s) who will change in the same way

Their change in practice / behavior

Change in KAS* required to achieve the Practice change

Project strategies to achieve the change in KAS and Practice

Project outputs (i.e., deliverables) involved in changes in KAS and Practice

National Research Centers (ARARI, OARI)

Broaden the scope of their research beyond the application of blanket approches towards more targeted interventions

K: Understand the need for targeting approaches

K: Improved understanding of the mosaic of different landscapes and socio-economic contexts

S: Improved spatial analysis skills

S: Practice in the use of the methodology developed

1.Co-development of the methodology and targeting approaches
 
2. Joint data collection and validation
 
3. Providing training in spatial analysis and targeting methods

4. Focal points at different institutes collaborate in application of methodology, ie. the undertaking of analysis

1. A generic targeting methodology for identifying what RMS work best in which parts of the Nile basin, that can be applied to other African river basins (OP1)

2. Maps of targeted RMS (OP2) and recommendation domains (OP3)

3. RMS targeting manuals

While research on NRM and agricultural development is conducted at various levels in Ethiopia, the in-appropriateness of "blanket approaches" has not been fully understood by the researchers in the national research institutes.  In consultation with researchers, implementers and policy makers, N3 will come up with a generic methodology for matching technologies with environments.  N3 will conduct tailor-made GIS and spatial analysis training at OARI and ARARI, enabling us to collaborate in data collection and validation, co-develop suitability maps for particular sets of practices.  By doing this, N3 will support researchers in the national research institutes to increase their technical capacity to apply evidence based analysis and GIS approaches to tailor interventions to different social and ecological landscape niches.

Policy makers, MOARD and AG bureaus

These actors will incorporate the concept of tailoring water management policies to specific bio-physical and socio-economic conditions in the Ethiopian highlands in their decision making process

K: Understanding the need for targeting approaches
A: positive attitude to invest differently in different regions
A: eagerness to apply evidence-based decision making
K: Understand how to use the results from priority setting studies

1. Facilitate linkages between policy makers and technical people, thereby fostering a collaborative attitude                              2. Through early and continuous engagement work towards inclusion of their needs in the framework, thereby improving the knowledge and acceptance of methodology and results                               3. Participate in policy dialogues (N5) and use these to communicate clear and concise policy messages

Maps and recommendation domains of most suitable RMS for different regions in the Ethiopian highlands (OP 2 and 3)

N3 contributes to potential policy change by participating in national policy dialogue processes lead by N5, providing results and ensuring relevance of these results through early engagement.  The N3 team will work together with policy makers, researchers and implementers to come up with RMS definition and scenarios; they will also work out the requirements of targeting tools and maps, so that the needs of different stakekolders are taken into account. As the actual targeting analysis is likely to remain the responsibility of technical analysts in the national research institutes, N3 will endeavour to bring technical and policy actors together through workshops and follow-up discussions, thereby fostering a collaborative attitude

Extension services and NGOs from Amhara, Tigray and Oromia regions of the Blue Nile

Field agents and staff are more effectively tailoring the interventions to specific biophysical and socio-economic conditions in the Ethiopian highlands

K: Understanding the need for targeting approaches

A: Positive attitude to use novel approaches by seeing the benefits of their use

K and A: Understand the importance of the decision making tools and maps and how to use them

1. Building on existing information (i.e. IWMI AWM project, WOCAT), the project team will engage with NGOs, extension officers, etc., to complete the understanding of the niches for water management interventions

2. Proof of concept of how targeting can help to select good RMS for particular regions (with N2)                                            

3. Development of appropriate dissemination and communication materials for well-targeted audiences                                  

4. Avail consolidated databases                             

5. Co-production and co-ownership of outputs to ensure buy-in from local partners

Maps and recommendation domains of most suitable RMS for different regions in the Ethiopian highlands (OP 2 and 3)

The knowledge of implementing actors such as NGOs and extension agents about RMS and the evidence-base for targeting them is relatively weak.  N3 in collaboration with N2 will demonstrate the value of RMS and its matching to social and ecological niches.  With input from researchers and implementers in the region the existing databases on RMS and bio-physical as well as socio-economic characteristics of the Blue Nile Basin will be updated.  N3, in collaboration with N5, will ensure free access to these consolidated and well-documented databases. N3 will further develop appropriate dissemination and communication materials, making sure the maps and tools are helpful for the local actors. From that the knowledge & attitude will improve resulting in action that improves productivity of certain areas of the landscape.

Regional partners (ASARECA, NBI)

Scale out methodologies to similar land use systems elsewhere in the Nile Basin

K: Understand where and when targeted approaches bring benefits   

S:Ability to use tools and apply the methodology in other areas

1. Proof of concept of how targeting can help to select good RMS for particular regions (with N2)
                                           2. Through N5, regularly update the regional partners on progress and results

3. Co-develop clear and concise policy messages

OP1, 2 and 3

Frameworks and methods for 'targeting and outscaling' are needed by regional researchers and development agents alike to strengthen research impact and rainwater management strategies throughout the Nile Basin.  N3 (in close collaboration with N2) will demonstrate the value of targeted RMS and endeavour to provide intermediate and final outputs to regional players throughout the project life.  Concise and clear policy messages will be developed and fed into the relevant on-going policy dialogues (through N5). 

The other NBC projects

These actors are using N3 results in their research and communication activities

A: Appreciate the benefit of a targeting and outscaling framework                       

K: Data and indicator values on suitable social and ecological niches for RMS

1. Co-develop framework and scenarios       

2. Provide intermediate outputs and final results to other projects in a timely manner                      

3. Avail consolidated databases                                  

4. Disseminate results through national and international scientific workshops and CPWF TWG

OP1, 2 and 3

The methods and data for targeting and outscaling are needed by other Nile BDC projects.  N3 will co-develop the research frameworks, the list of potential RMS and scenarios together with NARES and the other Nile BDC projects (N2 and N4), to ensure that results of the different projects are compatible and serve the needs of associated projects and other researchers in the region. N3 will endeavour to provide intermediate as well as final outputs to other BDC project in a timely way so that they can use them, and will these through traditional scientific channels and CPWF TWG to serve the larger scientific community.

Impact Narrative

N3 focuses on targeting and out-scaling RMS throughout the Ethiopian Blue Nile.  It will engage from an early stage with researchers, implementers and policy makers in the region to harvest their knowledge, assess their needs so as to tailor training, methodology development, final results and communication strategies to their needs.  Throughout the project life, N3 will work closely with national research institutes to further develop and implement the targeting methodology.  Different scenarios will be evaluated, recommendation domain maps produced and policy messages extracted.  Those actors more loosely engaged in N3 will gain awareness of the benefits associated with targeting RWS to the social and ecological context and will be able to interpret and use the results of the project.  Within the regional research institutes we expect to see an increased capacity and positive attitude to use tools and approaches to better target and outscale RMS.  N3 will benefit a lot of the activites of N5 in terms of engagement and communication with a wide range of stakeholders.  It will contribute data and analysis to N2 and N4.  







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