Unit 2 - The Chemical Basis of Life

This unit includes the emergent properties of water and organic compounds and how they are essential for life on earth. How is life a product of the organization and interaction of matter? This unit comprises 12% of the information on the Keystone exam. 

Objectives: 
1.) Describe the unique properties of water and how these properties support life on Earth (eg: freezing point, specific heat, cohesion).
2.) Explain how carbon is uniquely suited to form biological macromolecules.
3.) Describe how biological macromolecules form from monomers.
4.) Describe the role of an enzyme as a catalyst in regulating a specific biochemical reaction.
5.) Explain how factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration levels can affect enzyme function. 

Questions you should be able to answer and what you should be able to do: 
**USE GOOGLE IF YOU HAVE TO**

1.) Describe the unique properties of water and explain how these unique properties make life on earth possible. (Water Video) *SEE THE WATER WORKSHEET BELOW
2.) Explain the levels of biochemical organization - (Atoms (made of subatomic particles called protons, neutrons, and electrons), Molecules, Macromolecules - Carbohydrates and Proteins are 2 Kinds of Macromolecules). Useful website. 
3.) Describe the structure of a carbon atom and explain how carbon atoms bond to form biological macromolecules. (Carbon Video
4.) How do biological macromolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids) form from monomers?(Molecules Video)
5.) Compare the structure and function of carbohydrates(info link about carbo's), lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids in organisms. (Biological Molecules Video)
6.) Explain some common biochemical reactions (condensation and hydrolysis). This cliffnotes website has some good information. 
**Example of another biochemical reaction - ammonia
7.) How do enzymes act as catalysts to regulate biochemical reactions?
8.) Explain how environmental factors affect the function and reaction rate of the enzyme. **See the objectives above - hint: temperature and pH, but HOW?** Good website with information about enzymes. 
9.) Interpret graphs to analyze enzyme catalyzed reactions (picture from class).  Extra pictures of diagram.

**Water Worksheet - Print out a copy of this worksheet and bring it to class on Wednesday to prove that you have been visiting the website. *You may copy the questions on loose leaf if you can't print out the page*  See if you can answer any of the questions listed. 

**TEST HINTS: 
    1.) Know the chart done in class today on Macromolecules - it will be on the test.
    2.) Along with that information from the chart, be able to describe the general composition (what is the structure composed of, made up of) of a protein molecule.  
    3.) Be able to describe how the structure of a protein is different from a carbohydrate.  (We looked at these pictures in class)
    4.) Be able to describe how the functions of proteins are different from the function of carbohydrates. 
    5.) Know how the pH can affect an enzyme.
    6.) There is a diagram of Enzyme Activity vs. Temperature on the test.  Be able to explain what happens from what you observe in the diagram  (See the pictures of the diagrams above).
    7.) Recall that enzymes are proteins, so they are affected by pH, temperature or poison.  Be able to say what type of inhibitor something is if it attaches to an enzyme and behaves a certain way.  *See the handout on enzymes and the two types of inhibitors - competitive and noncompetitive inhibitors (the hint is also in the name).
    8.) Important vocab is labeled in red below - know the terms, diagrams, and information associated with those words. 

Missing Definitions
Allosteric - relating to or denoting the alteration of the activity of a protein through the binding of an effector molecule at a specificsite.
Active Site - a region on an enzyme that binds to a protein or other substance during a reaction.
Competitive Inhibitor - A molecule that inhibits enzyme activity by competing with the substrate at the enzyme's active site.
Dehydration Synthesis - type of condensation reaction in which monomers join together into polymers while losing water molecules. This process is carried out by losing (-OH) from one of the monomers and (H) from another monomer. The two unstable monomers join together, and the (-OH) and (H) combine forming water (H2O). Know how to identify a reaction of this type. (Water is formed in the product).
Evaporative Coolingusing evaporation to take heat away from an object 
Hydrogen Bond - weak bond between two molecules resulting from an electrostatic attraction between a proton in one molecule and an electronegative atom in the other.
Hydrolysisthe chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction with water.
Induced Fit - A model to describe the formation of enzyme-substrate complex wherein the active site of the enzyme may be induced to alter its conformation to surround the substrate and create a close fit.
Noncompetitive Inhibitor - Inhibition of enzyme activity that results from the inhibitor binding at a site other than the active site and altering the enzyme's shape to make it less active.
Polaritythe tendency of living organisms or parts to develop with distinct anterior and posterior (or uppermost and lowermost) endsor to grow or orient in a particular direction.
Properties - are qualities or attributes that can be used to distinguish on sample of matter from others.
Reaction RatesThe amount of reactant converted to product in a set period of time.
Surface Tension the tension of the surface film of a liquid caused by the attraction of the particles in the surface layer by the bulk of theliquid, which tends to minimize surface area.
Versatile Solventa substance that can dissolve almost anything, example: water.




Vocabulary:
activation energy 
active site 
adhesion 
allosteric 
amino acid 
buffer 
capillary action 
carbohydrates 
catalyst 
cohesion 
competitive inhibitor 
concentration
dehydration synthesis (condensation) 
enzyme 
evaporative cooling 
hydrogen bond 
hydrolysis 
induced fit 
lipids (know structure) 
macromolecule 
monomer 
monosaccharide 
noncompetitive inhibitor 
nucleic acids 
nucleotide 
pH 
polarity 
polymer 
properties (scientific) 
proteins 
reaction rates 
specific heat 
substrate 
surface tension 
transpiration 
universal solvent
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