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Passive voice - Thể thụ động


 Use of Passive                                                                                           
 

-> Passive voice is used when the focus is on the action. It is not important or not known, however, who or what is performing the action.

Example: The pupils are punished.

In the example above, the focus is on the fact that the pupils are punished. We do not know, however, who did it.

-> Sometimes a statement in passive is more polite than active voice, as the following example shows:

Example: A mistake was made.

In this case, We focus on the fact that a mistake was made, but we do not blame anyone (e.g. You have made a mistake.).

Form of Passive                                                                                          
 
     S + [be] + Past Participle
 

Passive tense

Simple  Present

 

Structure

 

am/ is / are + P.P+……………

Example

 

A great deal of property is destroyed by hurricanes each year.

Present

Continuous

am/ is  / are  being  + P.P +……

The house is being  painted.

Simple past

 

was  /  were  + P.P +……..

I wasn’t  invited.

Past continuous

 

was  / were being  + P.P +……..

I was being watched.

Present perfect

 

have / has  been +P.P +………….

Has Mary been told?

Past perfect

had been + P.P +………………

I had been  forgotten.

Will future

will be +P.P +…………………

You will be told soon .

Future perfect

Will have  been  + P. P +…………

Everything will have been done by Tuesday.

Going to future

 

Modal

 

 

Am / is / are  going to be + P.P+

 

be + P.P

Who’s going to be invited?

 

These contracts should be signed by the manager today.

 
 Active -> Passive                                                                                       
 
When rewriting active sentences in passive voice, note the following:
  • the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence
  • the finite form of the verb is changed (to be + past participle)
  • the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is dropped)

 

Tense Subject Verb Object
Simple Present Active: Rita writes a letter.
Passive: A letter is written

by Rita.

 

Simple Past Active: Rita wrote a letter.
Passive: A letter was written

by Rita.

 

Present Perfect Active: Rita has written a letter.
Passive: A letter has been written

by Rita.

 

Future I Active: Rita will write a letter.
Passive: A letter will be written

by Rita.

 

Modal verb Active: Rita can write a letter.
Passive: A letter can be written by Rita.

 

Tense Subject Verb Object
Present Progressive Active: Rita is writing a letter.
Passive: A letter is being written

by Rita.

 

Past Progressive Active: Rita was writing a letter.
Passive: A letter was being written

by Rita.

 

Past Perfect Active: Rita had written a letter.
Passive: A letter had been written

by Rita.

 

Future II Active: Rita will have written a letter.
Passive: A letter will have been written

by Rita.

 

Conditional I Active: Rita would write a letter.
Passive: A letter would be written

by Rita.

 

Conditional II Active: Rita would have written a letter.
Passive: A letter would have been written by Rita.

Passive sentences with 2 objects                                                               

Active: S + V + Od + TO + Oi or S + V + Oi + Od
(Oi = Indirect Object, Od = Direct Object)
-> Passive 1: Od + [be] + P.P + TO + Oi (Note: BUY - for)
-> Passive 2: Oi + [be] + P.P + Od
Rewriting an active sentence with two objects in passive voice means that one of the two objects becomes the subject, the other one remains an object. Which object to transform into a subject depends on what you want to put the focus on.
  Subject Verb Object 1 Object 2
Active: Rita wrote a letter to me.
Passive1: A letter was written to me (by Rita).
Passive2: I was written a letter (by Rita).
 
As you can see in the examples, adding by Rita does not sound very elegant. Thats why it is usually dropped.
 
Personal and Impersonal Passive                                                                
 
- Personal Passive simply means that the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. So every verb that needs an object (transitive verb) can form a personal passive.

Example: They build houses. – Houses are built.

- Verbs without an object (intransitive verb) normally cannot form a personal passive sentence (as there is no object that can become the subject of the passive sentence). If you want to use an intransitive verb in passive voice, you need an impersonal construction – therefore this passive is called Impersonal Passive.

Example: he says – it is said

Example: They say that women live longer than men. – Women are said to live longer than men.

The subject of the subordinate clause (women) goes to the beginning of the sentence; the verb of perception is put into passive voice. The rest of the sentence is added using an infinitive construction with 'to' (certain auxiliary verbs and 'that' are dropped).

- Sometimes the term Personal Passive is used in English lessons if the indirect object of an active sentence is to become the subject of the passive sentence.
 

YouTube Video

 
 

Lưu ý                                                                                                           

- Nếu sau by là một đại từ vô nhân xưng mang nghĩa người ta: by people, by sb thì bỏ hẳn nó đi.

- Nếu trong câu chủ động chủ ngữ là nobody, no one, thì khi đổi sang câu bị động, động từ sẽ để ở thể phủ định.

- Khi đổi sang bị động những thành phần trong câu chủ động không đổi: trạng ngữ chỉ thời gian, chỉ địa điểm, ... phải giữ nguyên vị trí như trong câu chủ động (thường thì cụm từ chỉ thời gian được đưa về cuối câu/ mệnh đề).

- Sau các động từ như will, can, must, have to, be going to, ... ta dùng TO BE ở dạng nguyên thể của nó.

Example: The new hotel will be opened next year.

- Không được dùng ở câu bị động:

- Các thì Present Perfect Continuous, Future Continuous, Future Perfect Continuous, Past Perfect Continuous đôi khi không đổi được sang bị động.

- Các động từ không bao giờ đổi sang bị động: seem, appear, have.

- Các nội động từ (Động từ không yêu cầu 1 tân ngữ nào) không được dùng ở bị động:

Example: My leg hurts.

- Đặc biệt khi chủ ngữ chịu trách nhiệm chính của hành động cũng không được chuyển thành câu bị động.

Example: The US takes charge: Nước Mỹ nhận lãnh trách nhiệm

- Thể bị động của MODAL VERB

Cấu trúc 1:

Active: S + modal verb + infinitive -> Passive: S + modal verb + BE + P.P

Dùng để chỉ hành động xảy ra trong hiện tại hoặc tương lai.

Example: I must do this homework. - This homework must be done.

Cấu trúc 2:

Active: S + modal verb + HAVE + P>P -> Passive: S + modal verb + HAVE BEEN + P.P

Dùng để chỉ hành động cần phải làm trong quá khứ, hoặc hành độngđáng lẽ phải xảy ra nhưng không làm, hoặc hành động đoán biết chắc hẳn phải xảy ra.

Example: I must do this homework. - This homework must be done.

- BY hay WITH
- Nếu là người hoặc vật trực tiếp gây ra hành động thì dùng BYnhưng nếu là vật gián tiếp gây ra hành động thì dùng WITH.
Example: The bird was shot with the gun. The bird was shot by the hunter.

- GET thay cho BE

- Đôi khi người ta dùng GET thay cho be trong Passive Voice. 

Example: This room get cleaned often. (Căn phòng này thường được lau)

- Dùng get trong Passive Voice để nói điều gì xảy ra với ai hay với cái gì, thường thì hành động không dự định trước mà xảy ra tình cờ. Example: The dog got run over by a car. (Con chó bị một chiếc xe hơi cán phải).

- Nhưng không phải lúc nào cũng có thể thay be bằng GET.

Example: George is liked by everyone. (Mọi người đều thích George).

- Trong một số trường hợp to be/to get + PP hoàn toàn không mang nghĩa bị động mà mang 2 nghĩa sau:

  • Chỉ trạng thái, tình huống mà chủ ngữ đang gặp phải.
    Could you please check my mailbox while I am gone.
    He got lost in the maze of the town yesterday.
  • Chỉ việc chủ ngữ tự làm lấy
    The little boy gets dressed very quickly.
    - Could I give you a hand with these tires?
    - No thanks, I will be done when I finish tightening these
    bolts.

- Mọi sự biến đổi về thời và thể đều nhằm vào động từ to be, còn phân từ 2 giữ nguyên.

- Bị động của cấu trúc "nhờ ai làm gì"

Active: S + have/ get + sb + (to) Vinf -> Passive: S + have/ get + sth + P.P

Example: I have my father repair my bike. -> I have my bike repaired by my father.

- Bị động của động từ đi sau nó là một động từ ở dạng V-ing

Các động từ như love, like, dislike, enjoy, fancy, hate, imagine, regret, mind

Active: S + V + sb + Ving -> Passive: S + V + sb/ sth + BEING + P.P

Example: I like you wearing this dress. -> I like this dress being worn by you.

- Bị động kép

1. Khi main verb ở thời HIỆN TẠI

+ Active: People/ They + think/ say/ suppose/ believe/ consider/ report ... + THAT + clause

-> Passive 1: IT'S + thought/ said/ supposed/ believed/ considered/ reported ... + THAT + clause

Example: People say that he is a good doctor. -> It's said that he is a good doctor.

+ Active: People/ They + think/ say/ suppose/ believe/ consider/ report ... + THAT + clause  (S + V simple present + O)

-> Passive 2: S + am/ is/ are + thought/ said/ supposed/ ... + TO + Vinf

Example: People say that he is a good doctor. -> He is said to be a good doctor.

+ Active: People/ They + think/ say/ suppose/ believe/ consider/ report ... + THAT + clause (S + V simple past or present perfect + O)

-> Passive 2: S + am/ is/ are + thought/ said/ supposed/ ... + TO + HAVE + P.P

Example: People think he stole my car. -> He is thought to have stolen my car. (= It's thought that he stole my car.)

2. Khi main verb ở thời QUÁ KHỨ

+ Active: People/ They + thought/ said/ supposed/ believed/ considered/ reported ... + THAT + clause

-> Passive 1: It was + thought/ said/ supposed/ believed/ considered/ reported ... + THAT + clause

Example: People said that he is a good doctor. -> It was said that he is a good doctor.

+ Active: People/ They + thought/ said/ supposed/ believed/ considered/ reported ... + THAT + clause  (S + V simple present + O)

-> Passive 2: S + was/ were + thought/ said/ supposed/ ... + TO + Vinf

Example: People said that he is a good doctor. -> He was said to be a good doctor.

+ Active: People/ They + thought/ said/ supposed/ believed/ considered/ reported ... + THAT + clause (S + V simple past or present perfect + O)

-> Passive 2: S + was/ were + thought/ said/ supposed/ ... + TO + HAVE + P.P

People thought he stole my car. -> He was thought to have stolen my car. (= It was thought that he stole my car.)

They thought he was one of famous singers. -> He was thought to have been one of famous singers.

It is said that = người ta nói rằng

He is said to = người ta nói rằng anh ta

- Bị động của 7 động từ: 1. suggest  2. require  3. request  4. order  5. demand  6. insist (on)  7. recommend
Active: S + suggest/ recommend/ order/ require/ ... + THAT + clause (S + infinitive + O)
-> Passive: IT + WAS/ IS/ HAS BEEN/ WILL BE/ ... + P.P (of 7 verbs) + THAT + sth + BE (infinitive) + P.P
Example: He suggested that she buy a new car. -> It was suggested that a new car be bought.
 
- Bị động của động từ MAKE/ LET
Active: S + make/ let + sb + Vinf
-> Passive: S + BE + MADE/ LET + TO+ Vinf

Example: My parents never let me do anything by myself. - I'm never let to do anything by myself.

- TO BE MADE + giới từ

to be made of: Được làm bằng (Đề cập đến chất liệu làm nên vật)
Example: This table is made of wood.

to be made from: Được làm ra từ (đề cập đến việc nguyên vật liệu bị biến đổi khỏi trạng thái ban đầu để làm nên vật)
Example: Paper is made from wood.

Example: to be made out of: Được làm bằng (đề cập đến quá trình làm ra vật)
This cake was made out of flour, butter, sugar, eggs and milk.

Example: to be made with: Được làm với (đề cập đến chỉ một trong số nhiều chất liệu làm nên vật)
This soup tastes good because it was made with a lot of spices.

- MARRY và DIVORCE

- Phân biệt thêm về cách dùng marrydivorce trong 2 thể: chủ động và bị động. Khi không có tân ngữ thì người Anh ưa dùng get mariedget divorced trong dạng informal English.

Example: Lulu and Joe got maried last week. (informal)

     Lulu and Joe married last week. (formal)
     After 3 very unhappy years they got divorced. (informal)
    After 3 very unhappy years they dIvorced. (formal)

- Sau marrydivorce là một tân ngữ trực tiếp thì không có giới từ: To mary / divorce sb
Example: She married a builder.
Example: Andrew is going to divorce Carola

To be/ get married/ to sb (giới từ “to” là bắt buộc)
Example: She got married to her childhood sweetheart.
Example: He has been married to Louisa for 16 years and he still doesn’t understand her.

- Bị động của cấu trúc chủ ngữ giả IT
Active: IT + [be] + adj. (+ FOR sb) + TO V sth.
-> Passive: IT + [be] + adj. + FOR sth + TO BE + P.P
Example: It is difficult for me to finish this test in one hour. -> It is difficult for this test to be finished in one hour.
 
- Các trường hợp đặc biệt

1. Active: It's your duty to + Vinf -> Passive: You're supposed to + Vinf

Example: It's your duty to make tea today. -> You are supposed to make tea today.

2. Active: It's impossible to + Vinf -> Passive: S + CAN'T + BE + P.P

Example: It's impossible to solve this problem. -> This problem can't be solve.

3. Active: It's necessary to + Vinf -> Passive: S + should/ must + BE + P.P

Example: It's necessary for you to type this letter. - This letter should/ must be typed by you.

4. Active: Mệnh lệnh thức + Object -> Passive: S + SHOULD/ MUST + BE + P.P

Example: Turn on the lights! - The lights should be turned on.

 
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