Kingdom Archaebacteria

The Archaebacteria kingdom is made up of THREE different kinds of Archaebacteria. Their funtions and structers of their genes are more similar to EUKARYOTES than to Eubacteria.
 
      The first type is called Methanogens
  • This type of Archaebacteria live in oxegen free enviornments and they produce Methane gasess. 
  • Places methangogens can be found are: marshes, lake sediments, and digestive tracts of animals. 
  • Commercial use: used in sewage plant to help breakdown sewage.
    
      The second type of archaebacteria is the Halophiles
  • Halophiles live in water with a very high concentration of salt. 
  • Halophiles can be found: in Utah's Great Salt Lake and The Dead Sea in the Middle East.
 
       The third type of archaebacteria is known as Thermophiles
  • These types of archaebacteria t live in hot areas.
  • The water is a very hot/acidic sulfur spring.  
  • It is anaerobic and thrives in the deep cracks of the ocean floor.
  • It is also a(n) Autotrophic producer.
 
 

Reproduction of Bacteria: Asexual and Sexual
  1. Asexual- The asexual process called Binary fission. Since Bacteria do not have a nucleus or a pair of chromosomes. The first bacterium makes a copy of it self. Now there are two chromosomes in the cell. The cell starts grows larger and eventually the two chromosomes move to oppiosite end of the cell. Then a wall begains to form in the middle of the cell, then the cell separates into two new cells. the two cells are genetically identical.
        2. Sexual- The sexual process is called conjugation. This method produces bacteria with a whole new genetic combination. The Pilus is a bridge-like structure that one bacterium uses to connect with another bacteria. The first bacteria         transfers all or part of its chromosome to the second bacterium through the pilus. Now the second bacteria has a mix of genetic material. This bacteria reproduces by Binary fission and now there are two cells with the new genetic material.

   
      Mobility of Archaebacteria: two types of ways
  1. some move by using a cilia
    • thread like structure helps them move around.
        2. others move by using a flagella
    • a long whip-like tail at one end of the bacteria
    • can have one or two flagella
    • helps the bacteria get a sense of direction.

          Possible relationships:


        Endangered species in this kingdom:
  •         As of now, scientist do not know of any endangered species of bacteria. Its possible there are some, but we have not discovered any yet.


        Why are these species in this particular kingdom:
  1. They are prokaryotes and unicellular organisms that do not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles.
  2. Bacteria are classified in two different kingdoms Archaebacteria and Eubacteria
  3. The difference between Eubacteria and Archaebacteria is their cell walls and the lipids in their plasma membranes.
  4. in addition, the structure and function of the genes of Archaebacteria are more similar to eukaryotes than to eubacteria.


    A single inividual or species from the Archaebacteria domain is called arechaeon (sometimes spelled "archeon".) They have no cell nuclous and no other membrane bound orgenell within their cells.  In the past these rare forms were known as Archeabacteria but Archean have an independant evolutionary history and have shown many differences in their biochemistry. Archeabacteria are organised into four recognised phyla but many more phyla may exist.
  Of these groups Crenarchaeota and the Euryarchaeota are the most closely studied. Classification is still difficult, beacuse a vast majority have never benn studied in a lab and have only been by analyisis of their nucleic acid in samples from the enviornment.  Archea and bacteria have many similarites in shape and size, although a few archean have unusual shapes.
 
 
    Here is a great video on Bacteria (works for both archaebacteria and eubacteria)
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