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Technical guidelines


 
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Minimum List of Descriptors for East African Highland Bananas (1.2 MB) 
MusaNet Diversity Thematic Group (TAG), 2017 
These guidelines aim to establish a standardised procedure for the routine morphological characterization of the banana subgroup East African Highland Bananas (EAHBs).
Photographs are provided to help score the 18 minimum descriptors, which were developed following testing by and input from Musa curators and researchers taking part in the 
MusaNet workshops at NARO, Uganda in December 2016.
 
 


Minimum List of Descriptors for Musa (1.5 MB) English version  French version  Spanish version
Taxonomy Advisory Group (TAG), 2010 (latest revision January 2016, Bioversity)
These guidelines aim to establish a standardised procedure for the routine morphological characterization of banana plants.
Photographs are provided to help score the 34 minimum descriptors. They have been updated several times since their publication in 2010 following testing by and input from Musa curators and researchers taking part in 
MusaNet characterization workshops in Guadeloupe, India and Malaysia from 2013 to 2017.
 



Minimum List of Descriptors for Plantains (1.5 MB) English version  French version
MusaNet Diversity Thematic Group (TAG) 2016
This list of 33 minimum descriptors  includes many from the Minimum List of Descriptors for Musa (above) as well as descriptors from the original booklet (IPGRI/INIBAP/CIRAD 1996, see below) that are particularly discriminating for the characterization of the plantain subgroup. The list was developed by TAG and other experts for the MusaNet West and Central African regional workshop on Musa characterisation and documentation held at CARBAP in Cameroon in 2015.              
 


Guidelines for taking the minimum set of photos (English) (440 KB) Spanish version
Taxonomy Advisory Group (TAG), 2010. 
This document provides instructions on how to document using photos of the most highly discriminating descriptors for banana.


 
 

Technical Guidelines for the Safe Movement of Musa Germplasm, 3rd edition (3.7 MB) 
These guidelines, edited by John Thomas, are an update of the Diekmann and Putter 1996 version (see below). They describe technical procedures that minimize the risk of pest (virus) introductions due to the movement of Musa germplasm for research, crop improvement, plant breeding, exploration or conservation. Contributors include specialists from University of Queensland, Bioversity, IITA, CIRAD and University of Liege.
  

Banana and plantain embryogenic cell suspensions - Technical Guidelines 8 (1.3 MB) French - Spanish

Strosse, H., Domergue, R., Panis, B., Escalant, J. and Côte, F. Vezina, A. and Picq, C. (eds.). 2003. Banana and plantain embryogenic cell suspensions. INIBAP Technical Guidelines. INIBAP, Montpellier (FRA). 31p.

These guidelines present two protocols to produce embryogenic cell suspensions by using scalps or immature male flowers. The protocols have been developed by the Laboratory of Tropical Crop Improvement of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KULeuven) and the cellular biology laboratory of the Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement (CIRAD).

   Cryopreservation of Musa germplasm, 2nd edition - Technical Guidelines 9 (1.3 MB) French - Spanish
Panis, B. 2009. Cryopreservation of Musa germplasm, 2nd edition, INIBAP Technical Guidelines. INIBAP, Montpellier (FRA). 48p.

The aim of this publication is to provide information and guidance on cryopreservation methodologies suitable for use on Musa germplasm. The different methods currently used at Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KULeuven) for cryopreserving Musa cultures are described as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each of them. The areas where research is still required to further optimize the protocols are also identified. It is hoped that the detailed descriptions of the methodologies will facilitate their adoption and standard use in different laboratories.

 
Regeneration Guidelines for Banana (250KB) French - Spanish
Tomekpe, K. and Fondi, E. SGRP, Rome, 2008. 9 pages

Genebanks must ensure that their germplasm accessions are kept viable and at high quality for as long as possible. Even under the highest standards of management, however, germplasm deteriorates with time and needs to be regenerated. For many genebanks, maintaining collections at acceptable levels of viability and quality is difficult due to the costs involved and their limited capacity and technical expertise). This has resulted in regeneration backlogs, which is putting important unique material in danger. The Global Crop Diversity Trust therefore requested Bioversity International, acting on behalf of the System-wide Genetic Resources Programme (SGRP), to develop crop-specific regeneration guidelines for the 21 major food crops, including bananas. These guidelines refer specifically to the regeneration of banana in field collections and include information on the establishment of a new field collection.

  Descriptors for Banana (0.4 MB) Spanish - French
IPGRI, INIBAP, CIRAD. 1996. Descriptors for Banana (Musa spp.). IPGRI, Rome, Italy; INIBAP, Montpellier, France; CIRAD, France. 55 pp.
 

 

Evaluation of Musa germplasm for resistance to Sigatoka diseases and Fusarium wilt - Technical Guidelines 3 (1.1 MB) French - Spanish
Orjeda, G. 1998. Evaluation of Musa germplasm for resistance to Sigatoka diseases and Fusarium wilt. INIBAP Technical Guidelines. INIBAP, Montpellier (FRA). 63p.

Contains protocols for the evaluation of resistance to leaf spot and wilt diseases. Two protocols were defined to enable two levels of evaluation. The protocols were developed in response to increasing demand from numerous national programmes that wished to evaluate germplasm under local conditions and because of the need to perform in-depth studies on the pathogens and their hosts at a more limited number of locations.


 

FAO/IPGRI Technical guidelines for the safe movement of germplasm: Musa spp. (2nd edition) (0.7 MB)
Diekmann M, Putter CAJ, editors. 1996. FAO/IPGRI Technical Guidelines for the Safe Movement of Germplasm. No.15. Musa spp. 2nd edition. Publisher: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome; International Plant Genetic Resources Intstitute, Rome, Italy. 28 pp.

These guidelines are divided into two parts. The first part makes general recommendation on how best to move Musa germplasm. The second part covers the important viral diseases of quarantine concern: abaca mosaic, banana bract mosaic, bunchy top, cucumber mosaic and banana streak.

 

Global evaluation of Musa germplasm for resistance to Fusarium wilt, Mycosphaerella leaf spot diseases, and nematodes: In-depth evaluation - Technical Guidelines 6 (0.9 MB) French - Spanish
Carlier, J., De Waele, D. and Escalant, J. Vezina, A. and Picq, C. (eds.). 2002. Global evaluation of Musa germplasm for resistance to Fusarium wilt, Mycosphaerella leaf spot diseases and nematodes: in-depth evaluation. INIBAP Technical Guidelines. INIBAP, Montpellier (FRA). 63p.

These Technical Guidelines replace Technical Guidelines 1 and 3 as far as indepth evaluations are concerned. These changes were made to reflect the apparition of a third disease caused by a Mycosphaerella fungus (eumusae leaf spot disease), to simplify the guidelines, and to group under one cover the evaluations for the main pests and diseases affecting bananas.


Global evaluation of Musa germplasm for resistance to Fusarium wilt, Mycosphaerella leaf spot diseases, and nematodes: Performance evaluation - Technical Guidelines 7 (1.1 MB) French - Spanish
Carlier, J., De Waele, D. and Escalant, J. Vezina, A. and Picq, C. (eds.). 2003. Global evaluation of Musa germplasm for resistance to Fusarium wilt, Mycosphaerella leaf spot diseases and nematodes: Performance evaluation. INIBAP Technical Guidelines. INIBAP, Montpellier (FRA). 57p.

These Technical Guidelines replace the Technical Guidelines 1 and 3 as far as performance evaluations are concerned.
Technical Guidelines for in-depth evaluations, which were also part of Technical Guidelines 3, are published separately. The Fusarium wilt and Mycosphaerella leaf spot sections have been updated following recommendations and comments made after analysing IMTP II results.

 

Phenotyping bananas and plantains for adaptation to drought (1.0 MB)
Ravi, I. and Uma, S. 2011. Phenotyping bananas and plantains for adaptation to drought. p431-447. In: Monneveux, P. and Ribaut, J.M. (eds.). Drought phenotyping in crops: from theory to practice. CGIAR, CIMMYT, Texcoco (MEX).

Increased production of bananas and plantains with limited resources, especially water, is a priority. This can be achieved through improved production technologies and improvement of varieties for water-limited environments. Improvement of varieties through conventional and novel approaches relies on identification of traits conferring drought tolerance. A genetic base with vast diversity is available across the globe within various national systems. Phenotyping this diversity for drought tolerance to identify useful accessions for banana improvement is very important.

 


Post-harvest characteristics of black Sigatoka resistant banana, cooking banana and plantain hybrids - Technical Guidelines 4 (1.5 MB)
Dadzie, B.K. 1998. Post-harvest characteristics of black Sigatoka resistant banana, cooking banana and plantain hybrids. INIBAP Technical Guidelines. INIBAP, Montpellier (FRA). 75p.

This manual is based on the results of 2.5 years (1993-1995) of research work conducted at the Fundación Hondureña de Investigación Agrícola (FHIA) in Honduras. The manual describes post-harvest characteristics at harvest, maturation, green-life, ripening quality and organoleptic features of black Sigatoka resistant hybrids.

 

Refinement and standardization of storage procedures for clonal crops
Benson, E.E., Harding, K., Debouck, D., Dumet, D., Escobar, R., Mafla, G., Panis, B., Panta, A., Tay, D., Van Den Houwe, I. and Roux, N. 2011. Refinement and standardization of storage procedures for clonal crops - Global Public Goods Phase 2: Part title Collective Action for the Rehabilitation of Global Public Goods Phase 2. SGRP, Rome (ITA). 108p.


Part I, Project landscape and general status of clonal crop in vitro conservation technologies (2.5 MB)
Part II, Status of in vitro conservation technologies for Andean root and tuber crops, cassava, Musa, potato, sweetpotato and yam (3.5 MB)
Part III, Multi-crop guidelines for developing in vitro conservation best practices for clonal crops (4.6 MB)

 

Routine post-harvest screening of banana/plantain hybrids: Criteria and methods Technical Guidelines 2 (1.6 MB) French - Spanish
Dadzie, B.K. and Orchard, J. 1997. Routine post-harvest screening of banana/plantain hybrids: criteria and methods. INIBAP Technical Guidelines. INIBAP, Montpellier (FRA). 63p.

This manual describes the key post-harvest criteria and methods/procedures for routine selection of new Musa hybrids. There are many post-harvest criteria for screening new banana, cooking banana and plantain hybrids, however the major ones include : post-harvest characteristics at harvest, fruit maturation, green-life and shelf-life, fruit ripening quality, sensory quality, cooking or boiling quality, processing quality, mechanical damage, physiological disorders and post-harvest diseases.

 


Screening of Musa germplasm for resistance and tolerance to nematodes - Technical Guidelines 1 (5.7 MB) French
Speijer, P.R. and De Waele, D. 1997. Screening of Musa germplasm for resistance and tolerance to nematodes. INIBAP Technical Guidelines. INIBAP, Montpellier (FRA). 47p.

In most regions of the world, nematodes are recognized as important pests of bananas. Because banana nematodes attack the root and/or corm tissues, plant growth and yield are affected. The objective of these technical guidelines is to stimulate interest in nematode resistance and tolerance screening in bananas, and to provide a methodology for carrying out such screening: plant material, nematode inoculum, screening experiments in pots or in the field, nematode reproduction assessment, and damage assessment.


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