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Mrs. T. Stallard
US II History




Answer key for Chapter 6 From Farm to Factory

Directions:  Use “Our America” textbook to answer the following questions:

The Business of Being Big – Page 88

1.      What brought a “sweeping” change to America in the years between 1870 and 1914?  Railroads, steamships, telephones, electricity, automobiles and the arrival of huge new labor force from overseas

2.    How did Cyrus McCormick’s invention of the reaper impact farming? Reduced labor needs and increased production so fewer farm hands were needed

3.    What changed the business of farming forever?  mechanization

4.    Explain how each of the following had an impact on the prosperity of big businesses.

FASTER TRANSPORTATION

 

Image result for steam engine train

 

Made the nation “smaller”  Trips across the country could be completed in days.  Many small towns had access to the railroads

 

LOWER COSTS

 

Image result for 1920 mass produce machines

 Machines could mass produce things that used to be made by hand.  This led to lower production costs.

ADVERTISING

 

Image result for early 1900s advertisements

 Advertising made people spend and buy more.

CAPTAINS OF INDUSTRY

Text Box:   

Smart and daring entrepreneurs willing to take risks to succeed, changed the way American businesses worked.

 

WHY INDUSTRIES GREW – page 89

5.    How did the following help industries grow:

New Energy Sources – electricity ran machines more efficiently

Trains and steamships – moved raw materials more quickly and easily from field or mine to factory or market

Immigrant Labor – plenty of people willing to work for America’s new industries.  New immigrants willingly worked long hours for low wages.  Young children were a source of cheap labor

New Inventions – needed factories built

Financial Resources – new ways to borrow money to start businesses led to the rapid growth of all sorts of new companies

FAREWELL FARM, HELLO CITIES – page 89

6.     During the half-century after the Civil War, why did people “flock” to America’s industrial cities? African Americans were fleeing the Jim Crow South; immigrants arriving from Europe were desperate to work.

7.    Factories were churning out clothing, furniture, and all the parts needed to make more machinery to meet what demands?  To meet the demands of national markets

8.    Speedy trains began to deliver new items to people all across America due to the new “invention” of what?  Mail-order catalogs

FINDING THE MONEY TO MAKE MORE MONEY – page 89

9.     Where did people get the money to start companies?  Borrowed money from the banks, sold small “shares” of their business to people willing to take a chance on investing

10.  Explain the way of funding new businesses that became the cornerstone of America’s economy. Shareholders getting a percentage of the money a business made – many people made enormous fortunes by offering financial resources to help new businesses begin or expand

C

1.      At what age was Vanderbilt running a profitable ferry business in New York? 16

2.    What did that business eventually grow into for Vanderbilt? Huge fleet of steamships servicing ports all along the Atlantic Coast    How did he improve the railroad industry? railroads ran on time and provided great service

 CAPTAINS OF INDUSTRY – page 90 - 91

1.      From what country did Andrew Carnegie emigrate? Scotland

2.    The companies Andrew Carnegie invested in needed a great deal of what? steel  So soon he was running the biggest, most profitable steel   mill in America.

3.    What did he do with his money after selling his companies? He gave 90% of it away to build more than 2,500 public libraries.  His wealth built schools and coll


1.     Rockefeller decided that what would be the perfect product to distribute?  oil

2.    What was the name of Rockefeller’s new business? Standard Oil

3.    What did he use much of his fortune to fund?  Medical research and public health efforts



 

 WHAT IS STEEL? 

11.   How do you make steel? Make iron then mix with the carbon from coal.  Add limestone.  Heat then expose it to oxygen, pour into molds and let cool

WHAT IS REFINING? Using heat and chemicals to extract the part of the oil that is best

LITTLE LABORERS – page 92

1.      Who were the “little laborers”?  young boys and girls working 12 hours a day in dangerous conditions

2.    Where did they work and what were some of the consequences of their jobs?  Mine shafts, cotton fields, street corners selling newspapers, preying shellfish apart; lost fingers, their hearing, raw fingers

WORK, WORK, WORK! – page 92

3.    During the Industrial Age, children’s days were filled with work and no play.

4.    How much did the ten-year-old “trap boy” get paid for opening and closing doors in the dark mine shaft? 60 cents a day

5.    How did photographer Lewis Hine describe the working conditions of a child working in the mines:

Thick dust that penetrated the boys’ lungs; a kind of slave driver stands over the boys prodding or kicking them into obedience

CHILD’S “PLAY” – page 92

6.     Describe the following jobs kids had:

Newsies – newspapers sold by small children on street corners

Messengers – messages were delivered by children who were “on call day and night”

Piece-Work -  making flowers

WHEN I GROW UP I WANT TO BE . . . page 93

7.     What advantage did young boys have working in the mines?  They could squeeze into tight places

8.    How much did children make a day working in the textile mills and glass factories?  Pennies a day

9.    What would often happen to children who worked too slowly?  They were beaten

HOPE FOR THE FUTURE – page 93

10.  What were the organizations called that were started to protect factory workers from bosses who exploited them?  Trade unions

11.  What was founded in 1904 to end the tragedy of small children who had been deprived of their childhoods? National Child Labor Committee (NCLC)

WE WILL NOT WORK! – page 94

12.  By the 1870s, why was big trouble brewing in the rail yards, factories, mills, and mines of America? Wages were low, hours long, and working conditions were extremely dangerous

TROUBLE BREWS – page 94

13.  What happened to the railroad between 1873 and 1875?  25% of railroads closed and what was the result?  Thousands of businesses closed, people lost their jobs, and those who did have jobs saw their pay cut almost in half

 

THE RAILROAD STRIKE OF 1877 – page 94

14.   Why did railroad workers in West Virginia go on strike? Their wages were cut

15.  How did the workers get the management’s attention?  They used violence against the railroad property to keep the trains from running

16.  What did the government do to restore order?  Used U.S. soldiers to restore order

THE RISE OF THE LABOR UNION – page 95

17.  What is the American Federation of Labor (AFL)?  Organized many of the labor unions in the U.S .into one powerful group

18.  What did the AFL fight for? 8-hour work day, safer working conditions, and other benefits for workers

THE HOMESTEAD STRIKE OF 1892 – page 95

19.   Describe the Homestead Strike of 1892.  Carnegie decided that his Homestead steel mill would not renew its contract with the union.  He cut the wages.  A tall fence around the plant, topped with barbed wire was put up, and he locked the workers out.  The workers went on strick and nonunion worker were hired at lower wages.  A fight with union workers began and the government sent in 8,000 troops to maintain order.

20. What was the outcome for the workers?  Desperate for jobs, they returned to work at lower pay and without their union.  The men worked 12-hour shifts.

 

 

  

A TIME FOR CHANGE – page 96

1.     What happened at the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory on March 25, 1911? Caught fire killing 146 women

2.    Why couldn’t the women escape through the exit doors? Bosses had locked the doors to keep workers from stealing

MEET THE MUCKRAKERS – page 96

3.    What group of people made up the Muckrakers?  Photographers and writers

4.    What did the Muckrakers vow to do?  Make Americans aware of all the injustice in the nation

FIXING WHAT WAS BROKEN -page 97

5.    What was the aim of the Progressive Movement?  To fix all that was broken in American society, from abuses in the workplaces to excessive alcohol consumption to “political machines” that cheated to win elections

6.    Why break up the powerful industrial trusts? No competition, reduce bad food and medicine, add new national parks

A CHANGE FOR THE BETTER – page 97

7.    List three changes brought about by the Progressive Movement. Safety conditions were improved, work hours reduced, first child labor laws were passed

8.    Why did women want to ban alcohol? A drunk man might get hurt on the job or drink up his earnings

THE MEAT INDUSTRY, USELESS MEDICINES, POLITICAL CORRUPTION – page 97

9.    Why did Upton Sinclair’s book, The Jungle, sicken readers?  Horrifying descriptions of filthy working conditions and the poverty of the people

10.  What was a result of having no regulations on the drug industry?  People could sell anything and some of what they sold was deadly

11.   Many elections were bought by politicians intent on staying in power.

WHISKEY, WOMEN, AND THE VOTE – page 98

12.  On what were men spending most of the week’s salary? alcohol

13.  How did this affect the women?  They were forced to feed their hungry children with little money

BAN THE BOOZE! – page 98

1.     Who led the Prohibition Movement?  women

2.    Why?  They bore the burdens of caring for their families

3.    What became seen as a “moral disgrace” to the nation?  Drinking alcohol

4.    What became against the law as a result of the 18th Amendment? Making, selling, and transporting alcohol

5.    What Amendment repealed the 18th? 21st

6.    Why was the 18th Amendment repealed?  The 18th Amendment was not working

WOMEN CAN VOTE – page 99

7.    What opportunity increased women’s awareness of how unfair life was for them?  education

8.    How did women compare their lives to the slaves?  They had no voice in government and as a result had no rights

WOMEN ARE PEOPLE TOO! – page 99

9.    List five ways women from all across the country “battled” for their right to vote.  Marched in parades, picketed the White House, and held rallies, went to prison, held hunger stricks

10.  What amendment gave women the right to vote in 1920?  19th

FIGHTING FOR EQUALITY – page 99

11.   What two women led the fight to allow women to vote?  Susan B. Anthony; Elizabeth Cady Stanton

12.  To what did they devote their lives?  Gaining equal rights for women

13.  Why was Susan B. Anthony arrested?  Voting

14.  Neither woman lived to see what?  The amendment that gave women the right to vote

 

 

 

 

 

Subpages (1): Course Description