Chapter 5 Separating Mixtures

    Information about Distillation

    Distillation: Definition and the Basics

    Animation of Fractional Distillation of Petroleum

    Experiment 5.1 Fractional Distillation
Title, Purpose as usual  
Data and Observations
Line graph of time vs. temp. of original mixture    
Summary data table of class data
    -  Line graphs of boiling point of fractions 1,2,3

Conclusion statement (Reread the purpose.)
        Begin: "The mixture was successfully separated into...."
Discussion Respond to the following questions and include part of the question in your response.
                Use complete sentences.
        1. Fractional distillation is a technique used to...
        2. This technique depends on differences in what characteristic property?
        3. How many substances make up the mixture?
        4. Describe the EVIDENCE collected to support your response to question #3. Refer to the graph.
        5. During the heating of the mixture, what happened to the substances?
        6. What happened to the substances as they entered the collecting tube? Why?   
        7. Finally,
state the possible identity of the substances in each of the fractions.
-Support your hypothesis with actual versus collected data. Use tables in your textbook
                  and the results from experiment 4.6.
Sources of Error-Answer the following question
       1.  If the mixture was heated too quickly, how might that affect the appearance of the time versus temperature graph?
       2. How might heating too quickly affect the fractions collected?

Experiment 5.4 The Separation of a Mixture of Solids
Title, Purpose as usual  
Data and Observations
Table or organized bullet points of qualitative observations during EACH step.

Table of Qualitative Observations (color, texture and other observations)

Mixture before water                
Mixture with water

Residue on filter paper

Filtrate after evaporation

Conclusion statement
        -respond to the purpose based on the data collected.

Discussion Questions (Use part of the question in a complete sentences to respond.)
1. Before mixing with water, did the yellow mixture of solids appear to be a mixture?
2. Which solid did not go through the filter paper? Why?
3. Define the term, filtrate.
4. Why did the white solid go through the filter paper into the filtrate?
5. Why did the white solid appear in the evaporating dish as the solvent was boiled away?
6. What is a solid that crystallizes out of a saturated solution called?
          7. What characteristic property differed between the two substances, allowing them to be
              separated by this method?
Sources of Error (Use complete sentences.)
        If the filter paper was not flush against the funnel or torn in some way, how would this have
        affected your results? 

Experiment 5.6 Paper Chromatography
Title, Purpose as usual  
Data and Observations
Table (or maybe an actual sketch would be good) of qualitative observations throughout the steps.
Chromatograph (i.e. the paper strip) of the green ink.
Conclusion statement
        -respond to the purpose based on the data collected.
       1. Describe what happened to the ink.
       2. Identify if the original green ink is a mixture or a single substance.
       3. How many substances make up the green ink. Describe your evidence.
       4. Is the change observed as the ink travels up the paper indicative of a physical change (when NO new substances are created.)
                or a chemical change (one in which new substances ARE created.

       - Key Words: separation, chromatograph, mixture, substances

       - Words NOT to include: Forbidden 15          
Sources of Error
       -Describe specific procedural errors that could have affected the results.