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Learning Disabilities: Symptom Permanence and Consequence (LD)

Study dates: 1995-1999

Funding provided by NIH (NS35208)

Co-PIs: Lewis Lipsitt, Stephen Buka


Overall aims: 1) To generate several theoretically-derived typologies of learning disabilities within a large non-referred cohort of children of "normal intelligence" who had standardized cognitive and academic assessments at age seven. 2) To determine the socioeconomic, familial and developmental antecedents of these typologies. 3) To identify, locate and interview 75% of a sample of 908 subjects (454 with documented learning deficits and 454 matched controls) identified through these procedures. 4) To link the extensive baseline data set of socioeconomic, family history, perinatal, physical and psychological data for these subjects with: a) juvenile arrest data from the Family Court of Rhode Island; b) Special Education service data from the Rhode Island Department of Education; c) school records from the Rhode Island school systems; and d) an adult assessment battery covering current neuropsychological functioning, academic achievement, and social adaptation. 5) To determine the social consequences associated with various forms of early learning deficits, for the following domains: academic achievement, school completion, vocational attainment, antisocial behavior (legal difficulties), substance use, and psychological adjustment. 6) To determine which forms of early learning deficits persist into adulthood. 7) To refine the initial typologies based upon natural histories through adulthood. 8) To assess the effects of childhood academic remediation on symptom duration and social functioning. 9) To assess the feasibility of using this and other sites of the NCPP for further prospective studies of learning disabilities.


943 located, 720 interviewed

375 selected and 241 interviewed for March of Dimes subsample


Key Documentation

Introduction (includes sample selection, listing of datasets, variable naming convention, and information on formats)

Overview of protocol

Explanation of LD classification (LDADDCAT)

LD codebook



Filename Title Forms Contents Notes / Additional Documentation
LDCLASS LDCLASS Dataset: NCPP baseline data, including LD and ADD classifications  N/A Listing No form, dataset only
LDTESTS Neuropsychological Measures Form Listing See: Overview and list of neuropsychological measures.pdf
SELFRPRT Self-Report Measures Form Listing See: Overview and list of self-report measures.pdf
DEMO Demographics and Employment Interview Form Listing  
SHI Social History Interview Form Listing  
DISD Psychiatric Diagnoses: Generalized Anxiety Disorder Form Listing See: Overview and list of psychiatric diagnoses.pdf
DISF Psychiatric Diagnoses: Major Depressive Disorder Form Listing  
DISL Psychiatric Diagnoses: Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder Form Listing  
DISP Psychiatric Diagnoses: Anti-Social Personality Disorder Form Listing  
DISR Psychiatric Diagnoses: Alcohol Dependence/ Abuse Form Listing  
DISS Psychiatric Diagnoses: Non-Alcohol Dependence/ Abuse Form Listing  
MUSIC Music Form Listing  
INTSUM Interviewer Summary Form Listing  
- March of Dimes / ADD Supplementary Measures: - - See: Overview of March of Dimes-ADD supp measures.pdf
SELF_AB Self-Report Measures of Attention Form Listing  
DISLA Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder Long Form Form Listing  
CPT Continuous Performance Test N/A Listing  Form not available; computer administered
WCST Wisconsin Card Sorting Test N/A Listing  Form not available; computer administered


Additional Documentation

Miscellaneous forms (consent, release, future contacts)

LD Grant



Buka SL, Satz P, Seidman S. Defining learning disabilities: the role of longitudinal studies. Thalamus. Journal of the International Academy for Research in Learning Disabilities. 1998; 16(2): 14-29.

Buka SL, Shenassa ED, Niaura R. Elevated risk of tobacco dependence among offspring of mothers who smoke during pregnancy: a 30-year prospectivestudy. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2003 Nov; 160(11): 1978-1984. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.160.11.1978. PMID:14594744.

Gilman SE, Kawachi I, Fitzmaurice GM, Buka SL. Family disruption in childhood and risk of adult depression. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2003 May; 160(5): 939-946. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.160.5.939. PMID:12727699.

Kubzansky LD, Martin LT, Buka SL. Early manifestations of personality and adult emotional functioning. Emotion. 2004 Dec; 4(4): 364-377. doi:10.1037/1528-3542.4.4.364. PMID:15571435.

Martin LT, Fitzmaurice GM, Kindlon DJ, Buka SL. Cognitive performance in childhood and adult illness: a prospective cohort study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 2004 Aug; 58(8): 674-679. doi:10.1136/jech.2003.016444. PMID:15252070. PMCID:PMC1732844.

Monuteaux MC, Blacker D, Biederman J, Fitzmaurice G, Buka SL. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring overt and covert conduct problems: a longitudinal study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2006 Sep; 47(9): 883-90. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2005.01566.x. PMID:16930382.

Martin LT, Kubzansky LD, LeWinn KZ, Lipsitt LP, Satz P, Buka SL. Childhood cognitive performance and risk of generalized anxiety disorder. International Journal of Epidemiology. 2007 Apr; 36(4): 769-775. doi:10.1093/ije/dym063. Epub 2007 Apr 30. PMID:17470490.

Goodwin RD, Buka SL. Childhood respiratory disease and the risk of anxiety disorder and major depression in adulthood. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2008 Aug; 162(8): 774-80. doi:10.1001/archpedi.162.8.774. PMID:18678811.

Makris N, Buka SL, Biederman J, Papadimitriou GM, Hodge SM, Valera  EM, Brown AB,  Bush G, Monuteaux MC, Caviness VS, Kennedy DN, Seidman LJ. Attention and executive systems abnormalities in adults with childhood ADHD: a DT-MRI study of connections. Cerebral Cortex. 2008 May; 18(5): 1210-1220. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhm156. Epub 2007 Sep 30. PMID:17906338.

Vasiliadis HM, Gilman SE, Buka SL. Fetal growth restriction and the development of major depression. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 2008 Apr; 117(4); 306-312. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2008.01168.x. PMID:18321355.

Kubzansky LD, Martin LT, Buka SL. Early manifestations of personality and adult health: a life course perspective. Health Psychol. 2009 May; 28(3): 364-372. doi:10.1037/a0014428. PMID:19450043.

Ball SW, Gilman SE, Mick E, Fitzmaurice G, Ganz ML, Seidman LJ, Buka SL. Revisiting the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and ADHD. J Psychiatr Res. 2010 Nov; 44(15): 1058-1062. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2010.03.009. Epub 2010 Apr 21. PMID:20413131.

Vasiliadis HM, Buka SL, Martin LT, Gilman SE. Fetal growth and the lifetime risk of generalized anxiety disorder. Depress Anxiety. 2010 Nov; 27(11): 1066-1072. doi:10.1002/da.20739. Epub 2010 Aug 23. PMID:20734359. PMCID:PMC2975897.

Maselko J, Kubzansky L, Lipsitt L, Buka SL.  Mother's affection at 8 months predicts emotional distress in adulthood. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2011 Jul; 65(7): 621-625. doi:10.1136/jech.2009.097873. Epub 2010 Jul 26. PMID:20660942. PMCID:PMC3118641.