Adams, P. (2006). Exploring social constructivism: theories and practicalities. Education, 34(3), 3-13.
Adams explores the learning theory of social constructivisim and its related pedagogy with a focus on learning and not performance. It identifies common principles and processes within the constructivist perspective which will help in my contributions to the paper by being able to relate the different theories and their pedagogies by making connections to the bigger picture.
Agostino, A. (1999). The relevance of media as artifact: Technology situated in context. Journal of Educational Technology and Society, 2(4). Retrieved March 8th, 2009 from http://www.ifets.info/journals/2_4/agostino.html
The author looks at the debate as to whether or not media influences learning. He uses the research of R.E. Clark to support the side that media is just a delivery means and that it is the method which influences learning not the media. This is hard to accept for people that believe various media should be integrated into the learning environment to help make it more authentic. He then takes a brief look at situated cognition and suggests (supported with quotes) propositions of John Dewey, Vygotsky and Gibson helped to create an infrastructure for this theory. He convincingly suggests that the research of media has been approached in an incorrect fashion and if we are to discover the true relevance of media, we need to research it based on its role as an embedded artifact of a community of practice. In order for this to occur there must be a paradigm shift away from traditional approaches to research towards a broader method. This article also supports the idea of media playing and integral part of a learning environment that has interaction, social as well as with artifacts, to create understanding, much like the others in this bibliography. This article was well written and makes a great argument against the methods used to support the idea that media does not influence learning.
Al-Bataineh, A., Anderson, S., Toledo, C. & Wellinski, S. (2008). A study of technology integration in the classroom. International Journal of Instructional Media, 35(4), 381-387.
Al-Bataineh describes a lot of pros and cons of integrating technology into the classroom. He and his partners conducted a study on implementation and integration into the classroom. They found that email and electronic grade books was the highest use of technology, and the lowest was using technology as an instructional device. This survey shows how hard it is to integrate technology into the classroom when you have teachers that are trained or interested in doing so.
Alansari, E. M. (2006). Implementation of cooperative learning in the center for community service and continuing education at Kuwait University. Australian Journal of Adult Learning, 46(2), 265-282.
Alansari’s article discusses the benefits and achievements obtained by students in cooperative learning groups as opposed to those who were not. The article is based on adult learners, but nonetheless they are students in a school setting. The information in this article will be beneficial in proofing the benefits of social learning across a broad spectrum of many ages. It will also provide strong evidence for how social learning increases achievement. The source is credible, with multiple references listed. The article is also peer-reviewed.
Alexander, B. (2004). Emergent pedagogical and campus issues in the mobile environment. Educause Center for Applied Research Research Bulletin. 2004(16). Retrieved March 14, 2009 from http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ERB0416.pdf
The focus of this article is how several campuses are handling the new opportunities and challenges that mobile technology has brought to the inside and outside of the classroom. It recognizes the difficulty that this technology is having on the pedagogical practices in academics. The article looks at several examples and comes to the conclusion that pedagogies are changing in regards to mobile technology, much like they did with other technologies. It also states that to some extent this technology will drive social practices and thus breakthroughs and changes to education. The article provided real world information that can be easily related to many situations. This article will be useful for readers search proven methods of pedagogical changes. Many examples are provided from campuses and directly related to the outcome of these changes. The article provides information for thought and reflection that will help establish new and innovative practices.
Allen, K. (2005). Online learning: Constructivism and conversation as an approach to learning. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 42(3), 247-256.
Ken Allen, researcher at Anglia Polytechnic University, UK, has been in the education field for thirty years in England. The last nine years, Allen has been researching learning and technology with a focus on adult learners which led to his current research of creating an online research-based degree course for undergraduate students. He looks at the benefits of using the software program Talk 2 Learn in building learning communities which fosters a constructivist approach to teaching.
Alonso, F., et. al. (2005). An instructional model for web-based e-learning education with a blended learning process approach. British Journal of Educational Technology, 36(2), 217-35.
This article discusses instructional design as it relates to web-based learning. The authors outline a web-based instructional design strategy. This design is based in the constructivist theory. They refer to this as the e-learning instructional model. Perhaps adapting instructional design to web-based learning is needed. The authors seems to have a good idea here with this design; it seems to still stick with some of the same basic ideas from the constructivist ideals.
Ally, M. (2004). Foundation of educational theory for online learning. In T. Anderson & F. Elloumi (Eds.), Theory and practice of online learning (pp. 3-31). Athabasca, Alberta, Canada: Athabasca University. Retrieved March 15, 2009 from http://cde.athabascau.ca/online_book/pdf/TPOL_book.pdf
In this article, Mohammed Ally gives an overview of educational theories as they apply to online learning. Ally emphasizes that no single learning theory can be followed, but several theories must be combined to develop online learning courses and materials. Ally specifically mentions including strategies from traditional schools of learning such as behaviorism (for the facts), cognitivism (for the processes and principles), and constructivism (high level thinking). Ally’s analysis of the combination of learning theories reflects the multi-dimensional nature of education, most especially online education.
Altun, S., et. al. (2007). Teacher and student beliefs on constructivist instructional design: a case study. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice. 7(1), 30-39.
This article was a case study on constructivist instructional design and its effects in a classroom. The data collected also includes students’ feelings toward this idea. It is a good article because it discusses a specific instance in which constructivist theories are applied to instructional design and how that design affected students’ learning as well as how it affected the teacher’s instruction.
Angeli, C., & Valanides, N. (2009). Epistemological and methodological issues for the conceptualization, development, and assessment of ICT-TPCK: Advances in technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK). Computers & Education, 52, 154-168.
Angeli and Valanides address the issue of combining pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) into ICT-TPCK which stands for Information and Communications Technologies Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge. The authors address the issue of PCK not relating to technology, but TPCK not showing the whole picture of how pedagogy and content relate to technology. The parts of the article I found very interesting to my current topic for the final paper referred to the authors writing in referent to why ICT-TPCK is needed. Angeli and Valanides refer to the need for a research basis for integrating technology into the K-12 classroom. The research the authors perform is with pre-service teachers which relates to my topic.
In this article Charoula Angeli and Nicos Valanides explore the issues surrounding the changing field of pre-service teacher education and the relevance of technology integration in the content areas. They take on a transformative view of education theory. This can also apply to technology integration as it relates to distance education in the context of online learning as online learning can include nearly any content area.
Anson, C. M., & Miller-Cochran, S. K. (2009). Contrails of learning: Using new technologies for vertical knowledge-building. Computers and Composition, 26(1), 38-48.
Anson and Miller-Cochran explore a constructivist learning environment in graduate education which they argue was created by emerging technologies. The emerging technologies help the students build upon already existing knowledge and link information through the creation of a wiki. This may provide insight into the effect of emerging technologies on the constructivist learning theories and pedagogies.
Balioan, N., Hoeksema, K., Hoppe, U., & Milrad, M. (2006). Education for the 21st century- impact of ICT and digital resources. In D. Kumar & Turner J. (Eds.), IFIP 19th World Computer Congress: Vol. 210. (pp. 7-16). Boston: Springer.
Dr. Hoppe, Dr. Milard and Kay Hoeksema are with the University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany and Dr. Baloian is with Universidad de Chile. These researchers belong to the project called Collaborative Learning and Distributed Experimentation (COLDEX) and this paper highlights challenge-based learning. The authors provide an accounting of learning pedagogy that influences the challenge-based learning (CBL) method. The projects that are highlighted in this paper are CoVis, Collaborative Visualization and DExT, Digital Experimentation Toolkits. In additional, they include an educational scenario to support CBL activities to promote global learning within the sciences. Connections to learning theories and other learning methods help support COLDEX’s development of CBL methods.
Bandura, A. (2009). Social cognitive theory of mass communication. In J. Bryant & M. Oliver (Eds.), Media effects (3rd ed., pp. 94-124). New York: Routledge.
Bandura’s article describes the increasing role of the media and the effects of modeling. He discusses the challenges people would face without social interactions or learning from modeling. He breaks down his theory into the capabilities present and provides a diagram to display his modeling theory. Bandura is a very credible source, having studied social cognition and written many books and article on this theory. This article links social cognitions with the roles of media and mass communication. It provides a focus towards the effects of technology on social cognition.
Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Reviews of Psychology, 52, 1-26. Retrieved Mar. 16, 2009, from http://www.des.emory.edu/mfp/Bandura2001ARPr.pdf
Bandura’s article discusses the conscious mind and the agnatic factors that influence it. These factors include self-regulatory capabilities and belief systems. He discusses what it means to be human (human agency). These include intentionality, forethought, self-reactiveness, and self-reflectiveness. He also describes the three modes of human agency: personal, proxy, and collective. With a number of references and Bandura’s expertise in Psychology, I have found this article to be credible. Bandura’s paper provides an understanding of where cognitions derive from.
Bandura, A. (1989). Social cognitive theory. In R. Vasta (Ed.), Annals of child development, Vol. 6. Six theories of child development (pp. 1-60). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Retrieved Mar. 9, 2009 from http://www.des.emory.edu/mfp/Bandura1989ACD.pdf
Bandura’s paper explains the impact of social influences through modeling, instruction and social persuasion. The social influences are due to the environment and behaviors of people. These influences do not shape people rather it is a reciprocating interaction between all influences. No matter how people think or people grow, Bandura makes a strong point that they do it socially. This source is very credible, with multiple references and a credible Albert Bandura writing on his research of social cognition. This paper provides great focus on how people are thinking and behaviors are greatly impacted socially.
Barron, B. J. S., Schwartz, D. L., Vye, N. J., Moore, A., Petrosino, A., Zech L., et al. (1998). Doing with understanding: Lessons from research on problem- and project-based learning. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 7 (3/4), 271-311.
Constructivism provides a platform for project-based learning, which can be one example of how educational technology is integrated into curricula today. This entry provides a discussion of actual examples of project-based learning in secondary classrooms and outlines the benefits of using such projects. This entry provides a specific example of constructivist theory in use in the classroom and thus provides more thorough information for analysis. The authors were provided with grants to conduct their research as part of the Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt.
Bearman, M., Cesnik, B. and Liddell, M. (2001). Random comparison of ‘virtual patient’ models in the context of teaching clinical communication skills. Medical Education, 35, 824-832.
This study compares the effects of two types of virtual patient models on communication skills in medical students. The problem-solving model is presented in the case study format and is based in exploratory or problem-based pedagogy. The narrative format is based on reflective learning through experience. Communication skills were assessed via evaluation of an interview with a simulated patient subsequent to completion of a randomly assigned tutorial. The authors conclude that further investigation is required, but the narrative design appears to have greater value in teaching communication skills. This article directly supports my research focus by offering a model other than the case-based approach more typically used in health care education. It contains credible information regarding these two types of virtual patient models, but I have concerns in two areas. First, the statistical analysis doesn’t appear to fully support the conclusions of the authors. Second, teaching and evaluating communication skills is complex and these skills are unlikely to be significantly improved after only one virtual patient encounter.
Beatham, M. (2008, September). Tools of inquiry: Separating tool and task to promote true learning. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 37(1), 61-70.
The author, Mark Beatham, Ed.D, of this article is an associate professor and an epistemologist, maintains a faculty position as Teacher Education Unit Program Leader, Combined B.A./M.S.T. Adolescence Programs at Plattsburgh State University of New York. This article aids in developing an understanding of what and how teachers teach. Beatham believes that teachers mistake tools used to teach a topic as the topic itself. His analysis of three math lessons clearly show teachers use calculations to solve problems and believe this to be math. On the contrary, the calculations are the tools used to understand math. He further concludes if teachers make clear that educational technologies aid in inquiry of the subject, students would experience less confusion about learning.
Beldarrain, Y. (2006). Distance education trends: Integrating new technologies to foster student interaction and collaboration. Distance Education, 27(2), 139-153.
Social software, here defined as Web 2.0 technologies such as blogs, wikis, and podcasts, have the potential to promote interaction in online learning thereby enhancing the learning environment. In this paper, Beldarrain explores examples of current uses of social software in distance education. While the paper is not designed to be a comprehensive use study of social software, it does offer a look at how each of these tools could be applied in the classroom. One of the affordances of these new technologies is student social interaction and collaborative knowledge construction. However, along with this affordance comes the need to adjust teaching methodologies to support technology mediated student “knowledge creation” and increased student interaction. The author refers to this adjusted methodology as the “new models of teaching.” Unfortunately, a framework for this new model is never defined in this paper and no specific citations are given for the model in question. This paper was a good overview and discussion of Web2.0 in the distance classroom discussing both the technology and the impact of that technology on current theories of instruction. The theories of anchored instruction, situated cognition, engagement theory, and contribution-oriented pedagogy are discussed explicitly. The one area that I felt the author could have spent a bit more time investigating was affect and how that is related to enhanced interaction and engagement. Beldarrain’s incorporation of learning theories into this paper reaffirmed my feeling that Web 2.0 technologies are having an impact on the way that current educational theories are applied to the classroom. I found this paper to be a good look at current EdTech trends, and I think it will be useful in my research.
Bell, P., & Winn, W. (2000). Distributed cognitions, by nature and by design. In Jonassen, D.H. & Land, S.M. (Eds.), Theoretical foundations of learning environments (pp. 123-145). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbarum Associates, Publishers.
The authors use a vignette of a chemistry lab--where the students are participating in a learning environment that makes use of various technologies,
artifacts, and media as well as social interaction-- to help examine the nature of Distributed Cognition. This method provides a look at the theory in
action and each participant (student, artifact, technology) is shown to play an important role in the learning process. You can see cognitive theories
such as schema development happening as the students are actively involved in the learning process. In a second example used by the authors, a
class is using an integrated technology tool known as SenseMaker. This tool and the methods used, produces a high amount of social interaction
amongst the learners in this environment. The argument maps created by the students using SenseMaker show a distribution of different perspectives and help to create an environment where constructivist idea of construction of knowledge is strongly present. The authors do a good job at introducing
the idea that the sharing of information amongst other learners, artifacts (which help to scaffold) and the group, help to make the learning more
authentic. The ideas presented in this article are similar to the other articles as they are all supporting the idea of a learning environment based on
activity and interaction.
Benson, A., Lawler, C., & Whitworth, A. (2008). Rules, roles and tools: activity theory and the comparative study of e-learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39(3), 456-457. doi:10.111/j.1467-8535.2008.00838.x
The flexibility of Activity Theory within the realm of online learning is the basis of this research. Two online programs are compared, one in the United States and one in the UK, both using Moodle as their chosen online classroom platform. The authors contrast the unique ways each online program uses Moodle while incorporating Activity Theory. By comparing two unique online Master’s programs using the same online classroom platform, the authors are able to provide some evidence that Activity Theory provides enough flexibility to successfully support diverse online learning situations.
Berger, A. A. (1999). Signs in contemporary culture: An introduction to semiotics. Salem, Wisconsin: Sheffield Publishing Company.
Berger’s Introduction to Semiotics provides background information to define visual literacy including metonymy, forms of signs, problems, identities and latent meanings. I have read this book to further my understanding of images and what they represent so that I may make connections between the images, what it represents, and how that relationship applies to learning.
Bergin, et. al. (2003). Interactive simulated patient- experiences with collaborative e-learning in medicine. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 29(3), 387-400.
The interactive simulated patient (ISP) is used to improve clinical problem solving skills in medical students and is designed to stimulate student centered learning. The ISP has been utilized and evaluated at three international universities and multiple articles have been published regarding this tool. This particular study looked at how the ISP could be used to engage and motivate students and promote collaborative learning. Results found that students thought that the virtual cases were a better way to learn clinical problem solving and were more realistic, fun and interesting than paper-based cases. Students commented that it was a valuable experience to “play” doctor but that this should not be substituted for a opportunity to work with real patients later in the educational process. They also commented that learning with the ISP was more effective when collaboration occurred between pairs of students rather than with larger groups or individually. The details provided in this article provide a fascinating look into how online medical simulations can be developed and definitely support my research focus. The authors represent three well-respected international medical schools-- Karolinska Institutet, Uppsala University, and Stanford University. The list of references is surprisingly short for a peer-reviewed article and more than 1/4 of the articles referenced were published by the primary author.
Bergin, R.A. and Fors, U.G.H. (2003). Interactive simulated patient- an advanced tool for student-activated learning in medicine and health. Computers and Education, 40, 361-376.
In health care education it can be difficult to provide students with real-life patient encounters. Bergin and Fors (2003) describe the development of an Interactive Simulated Patient (ISP) designed to support student-centered, collaborative, and problem-based learning in medical, dental, nursing, and other allied health profession programs. Field tests found a positive student response to the ISP with 80% rating the simulation as realistic. This article is credible and the authors have published multiple studies in peer-reviewed journals regarding the ISP. The ISP has been in development for well over a decade and many of the references cited reflect the long-term nature of this process. This information is directly applicable to my research focus and contains valuable details regarding the development of simulations for health care education and the underlying pedagogy.
Bodomo, A. (2006). Interactivity in web-based learning. International Journal of Web-Based Learning and Teaching Technologies, 1(2), 18-30. Retrieved March 9, 2009, from PsycINFO database
The author of this article investigates first what is meant by interactivity in online courses. There are multiple interactions in an online environment including student interaction with the course media, resources, experts, and electronic exchange. These interactions are critical to the success of the course and all must include interactivity to be successful.
As with other articles, this author stresses the importance of interaction between the class members in the online environment. The teacher’s role should be one of fostering online dialogue without overpowering the conversation.
Boeree, G. (1999). Social psychology basics. Shippensburg, PA: Shippensburg University. Retrieved Mar. 9, 2009, from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/socpsy.html
Dr. Boeree’s article is on the social aspects of learning, such as environment, observation, and imitation. He discusses how behaviors are learned through social communications and interactions. His article lacks in connecting social learning with education, but it clearly explains the different types of social learning. Dr. Boeree is a psychology professor at Shippensburg University and is well qualified to write on this topic; however, his paper is limited in references. His paper was clear to read and easy to follow, which allowed me to gain focus on the different types of social learning.
Borsheim, Carlin, Merritt, Kelly, & Reed, Dawn (2008). Beyond technology for technology's sake: Advancing multiliteracies in the twenty-first century. Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, 82(2), 87-90.
Borsheim, Merritt, and Reed review multiliteracies. They consider multiliteracies to be as people interact and use text and how technology has impacted the nature of text. This model is based off of the constructivist model of learning. With integrating technology into the curriculum it is most important that we still reach every child and not generalize that every student has the same experience with technology. Classroom curriculum and technology has to be something that is taken very seriously as it is implemented to all students.
Bostock, S. J. (1998, July). Constructivism in mass higher education: A case study. British Journal of Educational Technology, 29(3), 225-240.
Bostock’s case study focuses on a semester-long course for undergraduate students in both a traditional and non-traditional setting. There were suggested lectures, but after the first week student attendance dropped drastically. The author focuses on five main areas: authentic assessment, student responsibility and initiative, generative learning strategies, authentic learning context, and cooperative support. The study took a class that was usually taught at the university and transformed into a class where students generated a final course report on a research topic of their choice. The students were supported with access to computers, the Internet, and a graduate assistant. Although this case study deals with constructivism and higher education, it does not particularly deal with teachers as I am trying to focus my study. It does, though, offer good information into what an initial design at a university level might look like. The case study does offer quantitative data as others like Gibson and Skiaalid did not, but the study is from 1998, so the statistics and opinions might have lost some relevance to current technology opinions. The authors have adult and IT experience and seems to have gained the knowledge of the case study first hand.
Bowers-Campbell, J. (2008). Cyber "Pokes": Motivational antidote for developmental college readers. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 39(1), 74-87.
Bowers-Campbell’s article discusses the many benefits of social networking. The article describes how Facebook can be implemented into the classroom to increase student’s self-efficiency and learning. The article understands the interests of students in this day and age. Its main goal is to target and use student interest to enhance student understanding. This source is credible being as there are numerous references to support statements and the source has been peer-reviewed.
Bronack, S., Riedl, R., & Tashner, J. (2006). Learning in the zone: A social constructivist framework for distance education in a 3-dimensional virtual world. Interactive Learning Environments, 14(3), 219-232. Retrieved March 13, 2009, from PsycINFO database
When this paper was written, Bronack, Tashner, and Riedl were all professors at Appalachian State University. Bronack identifies himself as a social constructivist, a teacher, and a facilitator who creates learning communities for students to learn in groups and activity. The authors examine a three-dimensional virtual world looking at how they can create communities of practice to help online students and teachers interact while creating learning and expertise.
Brown, K., & Cole, M. (2000). Socially shared cognition: System design and the organization of collaborative research. In Jonassen, D.H. & Land, S.M. (Eds.), Theoretical foundations of learning environments (pp. 197-214). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbarum Associates, Publishers.
The authors use research done on an afterschool activity known as the Fifth Dimension to introduce the ideas of Socially-Shared Cognition. This theory is connected to cultural psychology and is characterized by joint mediated action which helps learning to occur. It rejects the ideas of stimulus response in favor of the active mind in connection to its environment as the role for interpretation. The authors delve deeply into the Fifth Dimension and cover a case study of the interaction between a learner using a computer program, a college intern, and a college researcher to adequately provide proof of the value of this theory. Through the interactions you can see scaffolding occur which is based on the constructivist idea of helping learners construct their knowledge. It is through this study that the interaction between the participants in this learning environment (learner, computer, intern—which serves as scaffolding, and the researcher) all help to make this learning environment more authentic. The ideas presented in this article are similar to the other articles as they are all supporting the idea of a learning environment based on activity and interaction. Brown and Cole are both professors at University of California in San Diego and have written papers about the Fifth Dimension project. The Fifth Dimension project has different names depending on where it is implemented. Common components are: a wizard, children between the ages of 6 to 14 and usually placed in an after school setting. Some programs hire a site coordinator. Children are engaged in authentic problem solving, a staple of social constructivist theory. Each learning environment takes on a look of its own based on the community and participates involved with the program. Brown and Cole use a real-world example to show the benefits of socially shared cognition in the community. This article explains how theoretical ideas can be applied to classrooms and afterschool settings. The program utilizes University students to work with children afterschool on computers through a program known as the Fifth Dimension. The article is based on research taken directly from observation and experiences obtained during the design and implementation of the after-school program. This article provides a concrete example for my research focus.
Camp, W. G., & Doolittle, P. E. (1999). Constructivism: The career and technical education perspective. Journal of Vocational and Technical Education, 16(1). Retrieved April 29, 2009 from http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JVTE/v16n1/doolittle.html
Doolittle, the director of the School of Education at Virginia Tech, and Camp, Virginia Tech professor, support a shift from behaviorism to constructivism in the classroom. They have also drawn upon the research of an impressive list of scholarly resources to discuss the need for this shift but also to discuss the challenges that are presented. They outline the fundamentals for a constructivist classroom, but call for more research about this shift, stating that there is much work to be done to make this necessary transition more smoothly.
Castro D.J., Donna J., Taylor, Lydotta M., & Walls, Richard T. (2004). Tools, time, and strategies for integrating technology across the curriculum. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 17, 121-136.
This article presents research and findings of the Phase 9 study involving the Board of Education, W.V. Department of Education, fifty-five county boards of education, W.V. colleges and universities, communication companies, and the EdVenture Group. The study was a result of a Technology Innovation Challenge Grant awarded by the U.S. Department of Education. Teachers, in collaborative groups of three, created two curriculum units containing five lessons each which focused on constructivist teaching techniques and integrated technology as a learning tool These teacher, as well as teacher not using these units, and students were observed, surveyed, and assessed on the success of the closely followed curriculum units. The findings conclude teacher and student use of constructivist techniques and technology as a tool increased and learning was more effective.
Cavanaugh, C., Barbour, M., & Clark, T. (2009). Research and practice in K-12 online learning: A review of open access literature. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 10(1). Retrieved March April 2, 2009 from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/607/1182
This article investigates the abundance of research in various areas of online learning and course design. The authors reiterate the reasons online learning has seen more immersion in K-12 education, the types of virtual schools, and what are considered the challenging components of virtual schools. The authors state that the amount of evidence on virtual schools is limited and has focused mainly on the benefits of online school construction and management from the teacher and administrator's perspective. It is evident from the number of articles available that more research is needed for groups such as the designers, technology coordinators, and guidance counselors. Areas with a limited amount of literature include student motivation, student readiness, and improving student skills. The authors state, as has been stated in other articles, that virtual schools "may facilitate better instruction than traditional classrooms" but it should be stressed that "there is no guarantee" that this will happen without careful consideration to the course and the learners. Too often the benefits and allure of online learning overshadow the need for education and do not use the full potential of the technology.
Chambers, J. M., Carbonaro, M., & Rex, M. Scaffolding knowledge construction through robotic technology: A middle school case study . Electronic Journal for the Integration of Technology in Education , 6, 55-70.
The authors of this article use a pilot program case study of the integration of a robotics course to show how the integration of this technology can support higher learning skills. The environment was based on Constructivist and Constructionist theories which are connected to the theories of situated, distributed and socially-shared cognition. The environment allowed the students to interact with various aged students in collaborative groups (a lot of interaction between participants in the learning community), the technology of flowcharts to help design programs (this served a scaffolding), and with the robot kits themselves. The problem solving activities that arose were linked directly to the environment in which the problems occurred. This is one of the tenants of communities of practice and situated cognition. This article gives a great example of how the technologies used in the learning environment act as artifacts that are interacted with to assist the learning process. The authors spend a great deal of time explaining how the research was conducted so as to paint a clearer understanding of the validity of the claims made. This article is connected to the ideas expressed in the articles about Distributed Cognition, Socially shared Cognition and Situated Cognition.
Chang, C., & Wang, H. (2008). Issues of inquiry learning in digital learning environments. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40 (1), 169-173. doi:10.1111/j.1467.5835.2008.00850.x
This article explores the strengths and weaknesses of inquiry based learning. The article then addresses the shifts in these strengths and weaknesses when inquiry based learning occurs in digital learning environments. While some stated weaknesses of inquiry based learning are absolved through the uniting of digital learning environments, this article prompts many more questions that it resolves. The article does give some practical experiences using inquiry based learning with technology, most being based on scientific or mathematical content.
Chen, L.S., Cheng, Y.M., Weng, S.F., Chen, Y.G., & Lin, C.H. (2009). Applications of a time sequence mechanism in the simulation cases of a web-based medical problem-based learning system. Educational Technology & Society, 12(1), 149–161.
This study looks at the development of a web-based problem-based learning system that implements the use of a time sequence within each teaching case in which a patient’s condition unfolds over time. The article describes the complicated multimedia system that allows students to evaluate virtual patients in a way that better reflects the true clinical picture. The learning process used in this study was structured according to “The Seven-Jump Procedure in PBL” and incorporates the theoretical framework of authentic learning. The description of the project was quite extensive. However, the research study itself was rather brief and was limited to a Likert scale summarizing student responses to a variety of questions asked by the researchers. Learning outcomes were not looked at. The authors admit that these results are preliminary and work remains to be done in this area. The reference list is adequate and contains sources from a variety of journals including publications by recognized leaders in the field.
Chen, Chao-Hsiu (2008).Why do teachers not practice what they believe regarding technology integration. The Journal of Educational Research, 102, 65-75.
Chen’s research is focused on teacher beliefs. When you try and integrate technology into the classroom, it needs to be what the teacher believes and wants to facilitate in their classroom. He also states again that the teachers need to be aware of the learning theories and be able to practice as a constructivist. This learning theory seems to come up again and again in the research of integrating technology in the curriculum.
Chen, Sue-Jen (2007). Instructional design strategies for intensive online courses: An objectivist-constructivist blended approach. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 6(1), 72-86. Retrieved on April 29, 2009 from http://www.ncolr.org/jiol/issues/PDF/6.1.6.pdf
This article provides a comparison of Objectivist and Constructivist design. Not only does it provide this comparison, it discusses its use in an online summer course. The author believes that instructional design for online courses should be modified to a more constructivist design. Keep in mind that the constructivist learner is controlling the learning process.
Cramer, Susan R. (2007).Update your classroom with learning objects and twenty-first century skills. Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, 80, 126-132.
Cramer reviews different types of materials that can be found on the Internet to enhance lessons in the classroom. She states that teaching with technology changes the curriculum and how it is taught. Teaching with technology engages students into inquiry-based learning. Using authentic instruction and assessment takes the student into the real world and gives them opportunity to put their lessons into context. Integrating technology into the classroom really puts more learning on the student.
Crawford , Caroline, & Brown, Evelyn (2003). Integrating internet based mathematical manipulatives within a learning environment. Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 22, 169-180.
Crawford and Brown present using digital manipulatives in math. Manipulatives are not a new thing to math but using the Internet to retrieve them enhances the students learning. They found that it gains the learners attention, engages the student in productive work, and increases perceptions of control. It takes a lot of thought and consideration in the design of the course that this would be used in.
Cronje, J. (2006).Paradigms regained: Toward integrating objectivism and constructivism in instructional design and the learning sciences. Educational Technology Research and Development, 54(4), 387-416.
This article is about integrating the Objectivist and Constructivist approaches to Instructional Design. The author feels these two theories are complementary rather than oppositional. Several tables are offered as examples of how objectivism and constructivism relate. The author proposes a design that incorporates both theories rather than choosing one over the other.
Cunningham, C.E., Deal, K., Neville, A., Rimas, H. and Lohfeld, L. (2006). Modeling the problem-based learning preferences of McMaster University undergraduate medical students using a discrete choice conjoint experiment. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 11, 245-266. doi:10.1007/s10459-006-0003-6
Problem-based learning (PBL) began at McMaster University in 1969. In 2002 a decision was made to improve their problem-based medical education program and involve students in the redesign. Results show that 86% of the students “preferred a small-group, web-supported, problem-based learning approach led by content experts who facilitated group process”. This scholarly article is current (2005) and the authors are well-qualified to present the research. It contains a review of problem-based learning that is consistent with other research. I was initially intrigued by this article because of the suggestion that the birthplace of problem-focused learning (McMaster University) was changing the focus of their educational model. Upon further review of the article, it does not support the direction of my research. Rather, it focuses on the market research methodology used to determine student preferences. Only two references are made to educational technology- the preference of students for web-supported learning and the taskforce that will be developed to add electronic enhancements to the program.
Dede, C. (2000). Emerging influences of information technology on school curriculum. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 32(2), 281-303. Retrieved April 29, 2009 from http://www.virtual.gmu.edu/ss_pdf/DedeJCS.pdf
Dede presents a very interesting overview of the influences of emerging IT on school curriculum. Dede argues that IT can be integrated into the curriculum in positive ways that help to engage and educate the millennial learner but that this integration necessitates changes in how we deliver curriculum. Dede asserts that the question is not how can technology improve what we are already doing, but rather how these emerging technologies can be used to enhance education in ways that take us further than before. Using mini vignettes of several NSF funded classroom IT integration projects, Dede illustrates how emerging technologies can be used to assist low achieving students or to teach complex or abstract skills not addressed by our traditional curriculums (e.g. modeling, manipulation of complex data, and multi-level data handling). The case put forward by Dede was well supported with theories such as project-based learning, constructivism, and discovery learning; however, there was little empirical data presented. However, there are barriers to curricular change; Dede addressed this saying “the primary barriers to altering curricular, pedagogical, and assessment practices are not technological or economic, but psychological, political, and cultural.” Dede’s was hypothesis was well-presented and supported. The only thing I believe could have strengthened Dede’s argument was a presentation of empirical data.
Desai, M., Hart, J., & Richards, T. (2008). E-learning: paradigm shift in education. Education, 129 (2), 327-334.
This article explores the change in education, both theory and practice, with the advancement of technology. Online learning is explored and dissected bringing to light strengths and weaknesses. Learning is compared between a brick and mortar building and an online learning environment. Theoretically, much of the research and observation supporting e-learning have aspects of constructivism. The authors push the field of education toward redefining teaching and learning in today’s society.
Deubel, P. (2003). An investigation of behaviorist and cognitive approaches to instructional multimedia design. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 12(1), 63-90.
This article investigates the similarities and differences between the behaviorist and cognitivist approaches to instructional design. The author discusses the use of multimedia design incorporating both learning theories. It is a good source for someone who wants to look at how to incorporate technology into instructional design using either behaviorism or cognitivism. The author cites examples of each design method such as the Dick and Carey model and Gagne’s model.
de Villiers, M. (2007). An action research approach to the design, development and evaluation of an interactive e-learning tutorial in a cognitive domain. Journal of Information Technology Education, 6, 455-479.
This article contains research about e-learning software designed in the cognitive domain. This is a case study about the University of South Africa and some of their CAI software. This article is a good article because it provides a good example of the use of cognitive theories in instructional design.
Dillon, P. (2004). Trajectories and tensions in the theory of information and communication technology in education. British Journal of Educational Studies, 52(2), 138-150.
Dillon explores the assumptions and influence constructivism on information and communication technology in education. He also looks at how the different forms of constructivism are interacting with technology and information. Dillon magnifies the current issues regarding the field of ICT which includes information and communication technology and educational technology, and finding coherent theoretical guidelines in the context of acquiring knowledge. He dissects social constructivism, situativity, action-theoretical constructivism, and the information transmission approach and their uses in the ICT field. He makes apparent glaring holes in the theoretical fabric defining ICT under one learning approach. Dillon promotes an “ecology of ideas” where “competing ideas can exit simultaneously” as research continues and the theory behind ICT in education evolves.
Doolittle, P. E., Lusk, D.L., Byrd, C.N., and Mariano, G.J. (2009). iPods as mobile multimedia learning environments: Individual differences and instructional design. In Ryu, H. and Parsons,
D. (Eds.) Innovative Mobile Learning: Technologies and Techniques. Hershey, NY, IGI Global.
This article focuses on the use of portable digital media players, especially iPods in education platforms. It explores the use of this technology along with the individual use and individual learning environments. Information is provided on current research and establishes that current research focuses on the use of mobile technologies infused within the classroom or outside learning environment. The article goes on to provide various studies and implementations from many different areas of education. Each of these examples included a short synopsis of the research results. In conclusion, the article states that iPods are being used and are the main pedagogy of choice and that students are learning from them. It also goes on to establish that little research has been done that demonstrates the efficiency of the mobile devices. This article provided a great deal of information for the reader. The portion of the article that seems to have the most relevance was hidden in the article. The discovery of high and low working memory in regards to the efficiency of iPods was provided at the very end of the article which may not be the best place for the information.
Ely, D. (2008). Frameworks of educational technology. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39 (2), 245-250.
Ely reviews the way in which learning theories have contributed or amended the field of educational technology. Through this review, Ely explains how this causes difficulty in defining the field of educational technology. The article answers many questions regarding why confusion exists behind learning with technology and theoretical foundations. The article points out that many find disagreement in what educational technology actually is and explains why defining the field is difficult.
Faryadi, Q. (2007) Instructional design models: What a revolution! Retrieved on April 29, 2009 from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/28/03/f0.pdf
This paper examines different ID models such as ASSURE and Robert Gagne. This paper is a good resource when researching different Constructivist design models. It is important to note the differences between these models. This paper is a good analysis of these models and the theories that drive them.
Felten, P. (2008). Visual literacy. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 40(6), 60-64.
Felten examines the connection between visual literacy and emerging technologies and how they are becoming central to communication. It also reviews the study of physiological and cognitive systems involved in visual perception. The exploration of visual cognition and perception will support the relationship between visual literacy and cognitive learning theories.
Fox, E. J. (2006). Functional contextualism in learning and instruction: Pragmatic science or objectivism revisited. Educational Technology Research and Development, 54(1), 5-36.
This article suggests the idea of constructivist instructional design is not as effective as functional contextualism. The author advocates this new theory, not as a replacement but as an upgrade to constructivism. The author feels that constructivist instructional design is over used. Is contextualism merely an objectivist idea renamed? Some critics of this article suggest it could be. The author advocates functional contextualism over constructivism, however this view is not a widely held view by a majority of instructional designers.
Freitas, S. d., & Neumann, T. (2009). The use of ‘exploratory learning’ for supporting immersive learning in virtual environments. Computers & Education, 52(2), 343-352.
The use of ‘exploratory learning’ for supporting immersive learning in virtual environments presents an overview of an exploratory (or experiential as the authors use both terms) learning model (EML) developed by the authors. The EML was designed to assist instructors in reevaluating how they teach in virtual environments and in producing more engaging curricula. Developed based on Kolb’s constructivist experiential learning model, the EML endeavors to shift the classroom focus from just content delivery to looking at entire learning experiences. According to the authors, "Teaching in these contexts provides less emphasis upon curriculum and more emphasis upon sequencing learning experiences, meta-reflection, peer assessment and group work.” The authors presented a very thorough overview of the EML model and its relationship to prior theories; however, the case studies and conclusions presented were not as strong. The authors presented two case studies, both medically themed games. While the authors relate the case studies back to the EML model, I do not feel that they did a very good job in breaking down the game to match the various components of their theory; they took a broad stroke approach to the comparison rather than a granular one. Overall the paper presented a strong background and support base for their EML model, further research on the effectiveness of the theory would be a nice addition to the support of this model. Like several of the other papers presented in this bibliography, the EML is rooted in constructivist principals, and I believe it will be a nice tie in with my research topic.
Freitas, S., Oliver, M. Mee, A. & Mayes, T. (2007). The practitioner perspective on the modeling of pedagogy and practice. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 24, 26-38. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2729.2007.00241.x
This article evaluates the Becta (British Educational Communication Technology Agency) learning model MEEL (Modeling Effective E-Learning) as explored by K-12 teachers, Post-16 educators, and community learners. This model, being presented as a work in progress, was molded and apprised by the three different groups both prior to and after using the model.
Garris, R., Ahlers, R., & Driskell, J. E. (2002). Games, motivation, and learning: A research and practice model. Simulation & Gaming, 33(4), 441-467. DOI: 10.1177/1046878102238607
In this paper Garris et al. provide a through overview of the current state of educational gaming research, their proposed model based on that research, as well as a comprehensive discussion of their model and future directions. Educational games have been poorly defined since their incorporation into the classroom, however as we shift towards a more student centered approach to learning, they are becoming more popular. This article sought to explore how and why games interest and motivate students as well as how they impact student achievement. Through a well-cited literature review the authors identified six aspects that are important to the success of an academic game’s ability to foster intrinsic motivation, flow, and learning. The characteristics identified were: fantasy, rules/goals, sensory stimuli, challenge, mystery, and control. A game that adequately addresses all six of these characteristics should be better equipped at helping a player to enter, what the authors have called, and a game cycle. A game cycle is a cyclical process involving user judgment, an elicited behavior, followed by immediate feedback through which the user gains some knowledge. I found this paper to be well-written and very thorough. The educational gaming model they suggest appears to be soundly rooted in theory aligning nicely with Kolb’s theory of experiential learning, the zone of proximal development, as well as other theories of constructivist learning. Due to the nature of this paper, the impact of games on learning theory is not directly investigated but the findings of this paper reinforce the materials presented in Digital game-based learning: Towards an experiential gaming model (Kiili, 2005).
Garrison, D.R. (1993). Quality and access in distance education: Theoretical consideration. In D. Keegan (Ed.), Theoretical Principles of Distance Education (pp. 9-21). New York: Routledge.
In this article, D. Randy Garrison proposes that discussion and debate of distance education centers around two main topics: quality and accessibility. Garrison argues that these concerns are really not helpful and can even distract from both theoretical and practical understanding of distance education. He states that the distance or separation is overemphasized, and the only real difference between distance and non-distance learning is that there is a mediator in distance learning. The quality and accessibility of education are not determined by the distance between teacher and student, but the methodologies that are employed in instruction.
Gemino, A., & Parker, D. (2009). Use case diagrams in support of use case modeling: deriving understanding from the picture. Journal of Database Management, 20(1), 1-24.
Gemino’s study uses UML use case modeling and The Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning to hypothesize that the inclusion of a diagram (visual) in instruction enhances learning. The paper supports the use of graphic representations in conjunction with text to create more effective learning environments. This paper relates to my research topic by introducing a theory that applies to digital visual literacy.
Gerber, S., & Scott, L. (2007). Designing a learning curriculum and technology’s role in it. Educational Technology Research & Development, 55(5), 461-478.
This article details the process that was undertaken in developing and online master’s course. The course designer’s and the author’s give insight into their decisions for the course construction using social constructivism. Students were asked to participate and consider themselves JPF’s or “Just Plain Folks” as the course was designed to introduce students to research methodologies. The authors point out that often online courses, specifically the constructivism approach, focus too much on the technology and the curriculum is designed around the technology instead of using the technology. The authors took an interesting approach in using cell phones to facilitate spontaneous answers. They sent text messages to students at random times. The students were to leave a voicemail with their response. The voicemail was then transcribed and made available to the rest of the class. This was an interesting approach and was designed to make the student’s responses more spontaneous. Other approaches were the use of bulletin boards and online reading assignments.
Gibson, S., & Skaalid, B. (2004). Teacher professional development to promote constructivist uses of the Internet: a study of one graduate-level course. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 12(4), 577-592.
Gibson and Skiaalid describe a case study of educators in a graduate level course experiencing and learning about constructivism. The teachers were engaged in activities based on constructive theory then challenged to create activities for their classrooms. The course challenged the teachers’ views of constructive or student centered learning particularly dealing with the Internet. The study offers opinions of in-service teachers dealing with constructivism in the classroom. The article lacks specific statistics and focuses more on a qualitative research.
Gokool-Ramdoo, S. (2008). Beyond the theoretical impasse: extending the applications of transactional distance theory. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 9(3), 1-17.
This article discusses Transactional Distance Theory which is a theory that in mainly connected to distance learning. The author proposes that TDT can be adopted as a global theory for distance learning. These claims are supported by the use of comparing other theories within this field with TDT and showing that these other theories can be placed under TDT successfully. The author also suggests that TDT can also help with the creation of policy and quality control issues in distance education. As TDT is connected to the area of distance education it is very much connected to the use of technology as this is the manner of content distribution. This theory also supports the idea that learning will occur based on a give and take between the teacher and learner where the learner takes on more responsibility for their own learning. The communication and interactions between the learner and teacher make the transactional distance between them shorten and thus improves learning. The overall result of this process is the creation of an autonomous learner. This paper mentions some connections with other learning theories but doesn’t do it that well. I include this paper as it discuses TDT which is a theory that relies heavily on technology and its use to promote learning. In this article Sushita Gokool-Ramdoo, of the University of South Australia, proposes that Transactional Distance Theory, or TDT, be accepted as a global theory in development of distance education programs. Gokool-Ramdoo claims that TDT is the most comprehensive theory, incorporating other widely-discussed theoretical perspectives and expanding further. In demonstrating how TDT transitions learning from a behaviorist to constructivist, Gokool-Ramdoo appeals to a broader audience of theoretical opinion. She also contends that TDT can be applied to other approaches to learning such as ADDIE.
Gold, S. (2001). A constructivist approach to online training for online teachers. Journal for Asynchronous Learning Networks, 5(1), 35-57. Retrieved February 28, 2009 from http://www.aln.org/publications/jaln/v5n1/pdf/v5n1_gold.pdf
Sanford Gold earned his M.Ed. in Instructional Technology and Ed.D in Politics and Education from Teachers College, Columbia University. He has served has Project Manager in the Distance Learning Department at Prudential Securities University. This article analyzes a two week workshop taken by professors who are beginning the transformation from teaching in a traditional classroom to teaching an online course. The workshop is based on constructivist teaching methods. The creators of the workshop felt an effective online teacher needs to experience taking an online course first or they will just continue teaching the same way online as in their traditional courses. A result of taking the workshop was professors shifted to more of a constructivist learning environment and reported feeling an online environment was actually more interactive than their traditional classrooms. The article identified three key fundamental roles of online moderators: organization, social, and intellectual. Huang (2002) identified the need for instructors to address the problem of social isolation of the online learner to ensure quality learning environments.
Gulati, S. (2008). Compulsory participation in online discussions: Is this constructivism or normalization of learning? Innovations in education and teaching international, 45(2), 183-192.
This article gives an overview of the philosophy of constructivism in education. The author stresses that there is a shift from facts to models where learners are to rely on their experiences in acquiring new knowledge. Education should move from a linear approach where content is delivered and assignments are given in which the learner receives instruction from the teacher and gets tested on their retention. Figures for the linear and the more complex constructivist approach is given and illustrated. Instead learners should be given the opportunity to be more active in the learning process. One way this is often accomplished is through online discussions whether chats or message boards. The author investigates the silent observer and reasons why this type of learner does not feel comfortable enough to post to the class forums. Careful consideration should be paid to the learning environment and making the learners feel safe and part of an online group. This article points to the teacher’s role as a facilitator specifically in how they relate to online discussions. If a goal of constructivism is for learners to form knowledge, then the participants should feel free to voice their opinions. The role of the teacher, if too restrictive or overburdening, may hamper this discussion. Who has the “power” in the online courses, as with all forms of education, will have an effect on the impact and the learning that takes place. Although structure may be required, the learners should be free to select topics and feel free to add to online discussions.
Gulbahar, Y. (2008). Improving the technology integration skills of prospective teachers through practice: A case study. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 7(4), 1-11. Retrieved on April 29, 2009 from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/42/a0/1b.pdf
Gulbahar did a study on the perspective of teachers and integrating technology. His results where done from pre-service teachers and their beliefs and attitudes of having technology in the classroom. The overall thought of pre-service teachers was that technology had to be part of their classroom.
Hannafin, M. J. (2006). Functional contextualism in learning and instruction: Pragmatic science or objectivism revisited? Educational Technology Research and Development, 54(1), 37-41.
This article argues that the constructivist approach to instructional design may not be as effective as the traditional design models. It also suggests that several designers have taken a bandwagon approach to constructivist instructional design. The commentary also proposes this new idea of functional contextualism may be a revisit of objectivism.
Hannafin, M. J., & Land, S. M. (2000). Student-centered learning environments. In D. Jonassen & S. Land (Eds.), Theoretical foundations of learning environments (pp. 1-23). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Through their individual research as professors, Hannafin and Land collaborate to use constructivist theories to build a better connection between teaching, learning, and technology. They make comparisons between existing learning environments and provide a framework for utilizing those most consistent with constructivism. However, they provide information about concerns with inquiry-based learning as well, a specific example being learned helplessness. Hannafin and Land demonstrate through their own research that students have become so dependent on traditional learning/teaching practices that they rely heavily upon external sources and that inquiry-based learning can fail the learner if there is not proper scaffolding. This is an argument for more of a blending of methodologies. This chapter explores the similarities and differences of student-centered learning environments with the renewed interest in constructivist learning environments. It also addresses technology as both enabling and extending pedagogical approaches such as the creation of graphical images to illustrate a system however cautions that the capabilities of technology may yield to problems in grounding designs with established theories.
Hansford, D., Adlington, R. (2009). Digital spaces and young people's online authoring: Challenges for teachers. Australian Journal of Language & Literacy, 32(1), 55-68.
In Digital spaces and young people's online authoring, Hansford and Adlington argue for the inclusion of multimodal text in education. Citing research from authors such as Gee and Prensky, Hansford and Adlington assert that it is pedagogically important that students of this generation to be able to express themselves with digital text. The argument if also made that digital texts are engaging and poses a level of social relevancy to the lives of students making digital texts a great target for leveraging in the classroom. This article calls for teachers to reevaluate their current definitions of effective writing and reconsider writing assessment. Multiple scenarios are outlines where instructors have successfully harnessed wiki writing within their classrooms and a set of challenges to educators are outlined. While this was a fairly interesting read I found the paper to be a bit biased towards the incorporation of new media into the classroom, perhaps at the expense of the old, without a thorough consideration of the ramifications of moving away from conventional definitions of literacy. While I feel that we do need to consider new forms of literacy I am not sure I am yet willing to sacrifice the old to bring in the new; perhaps a more tempered approach that leverages the affordances of new digital texts while still conveying the concepts of syntax, grammar, etc. would be more appropriate. The paper also failed to directly address why digital texts would be beneficial for students learning; aside from arguing that students are already participating in this type of activity and like it, Hansford and Adlington fail to present a model of learning that could support their argument.
Harper, B., Squieres, D., and McDougall, A. (2000). Constructivist simulations: A new design paradigm. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 9(2), 115-130.
Simulations were first used in education in the late 1950’s, but until recently, their popularity had declined. The first simulations were classified as “symbolic”. They were passive in nature and did not support constructivist learning. New multimedia technologies allow for experiential simulations in which the learning can carry out an authentic role more closely replicating real world tasks. In this article the authors suggest that a hybrid pedagogy combining aspects of both the symbolic and experiential simulations has evolved. This article supports my research focus by providing additional information the educational theories that educational simulations are based on. Other articles discussed experiential simulations but not symbolic ones. This source is a bit outdated but still provides valuable information. Specific credentials of the authors are not noted, this would have been helpful for evaluating the credibility of the information.
Hayne, S. C., & Smith, C. (2008). The relationship between e-collaboration and cognition. In L. Tomei, Online and Distance Learning: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications (pp. 601-617). Hershey: Information Science Reference (an imprint of IGI Global).
The authors of this article makes several proposals that will help to facilitate e-collaboration. The article discusses theories such as Distributed Cognition, Transactive Memory, Stimulating structures, Template Theory and memory chunks to paint a picture of how to create an e-collaboration system that will ultimately reduce the amount of cognitive load for its participants. This allows more cognitive power to be directed to solving problems and therefore the group becomes more productive. The information in this article is relevant because it discusses the idea within Distributed Cognition that certain information can be off loaded from the cognitive processors onto an artifact for easy retrieval when needed. It also suggests that a technology-based collaboration system may allow, with the proper set up, groups to become more productive, thus supporting the idea that technology rich learning environments are helpful to the cognitive process. The author uses many examples to support his distributed socio-technical system which is a learning environment that promises to improve group performance.
Helland, B. (2004). The constructivist learning environment scorecard: A tool to characterize online learning. Paper presented at the Academy of Human Resource Development International Conference, Austin, TX. [G4] Retrieved on April 29, 2009 from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/1b/da/4f.pdf
This article relates to methods for evaluating learning environments from the viewpoint of constructivism. An evaluation of social constructivism is given and related to how learners are challenged to solve problems. The author relates a method for evaluating the learning environment using a scorecard with the following criteria: Interactive Learning, Collaborative Learning, Facilitating Learning, Authentic Learning, Learner Centered Learning, and High Quality Learning. The scorecard assigns points to each of the criteria to evaluate how strictly the environment adheres to the constructivist approach. This scorecard was evaluated and the results shown for an online masters course.
This article and the scorecard presented is useful as a starting point for evaluating online content and gives some solid recommendations on establishing an online learning environment. Teachers are to facilitate learning and create a safe environment for students to dialogue. This is sometimes a fine line as teachers can disrupt the critical safe environment by not being able to manage the learning environment. This is a shift in thinking as teachers are challenged to move from teacher-centered to teacher as facilitator.
Higdon, J., & Topaz, C. (2009, Spring2009). Blogs and wikis as instructional tools: A social software adaptation of just-in-time teaching. College Teaching, 57(2), 105-110.
Blogs and Wikis as Instructional Tools: A Social Software Adaptation of Just-in-Time Teaching is an overview of how emerging Web2.0 technologies can be used to support the Just in Time Teaching (JiTT) methodology. Higdon and Topaz propose a generalized approach to JiTT that leverages blogging as a means of student data gathering and aggregation. The article focuses on educator concerns that arise from making the shift to a model such as blogging enhanced JiTT and therefore spends a bit of time providing “tips” on how to make the model work in the classroom. The tips seem appropriate; however they are anecdotal and seemed a bit out of place in the article. The authors also spend some time relating the blogging enhanced JiTT model to constructivist learning theory. In general this paper seems sound, but it is extremely under-cited; the authors rely almost exclusively on a single source for the entire paper which makes the paper seem under-researched.
Hill, A. M., & Smith, H. E. (1998). Practice meets theory in technology education: A case of authentic learning in the high school setting. Journal of Technology Education, 9 (2), 29-45.
Hill and Smith are among the faculty at Queen’s University in Ontario, Canada. They received a grant to sponsor their studies of how specific secondary schools have successfully integrated technology into curricula and of the underlying educational theories involved. Drawing information from their case studies and data collection, they concluded that constructivist practices led to more meaningful learning. Their case studies were specific to the science classroom, however, and did not summarize findings about project-based learning in any of the other disciplines.
Hilty, D.M., Alverson, D.C., Alpert, J.E., Tong, L., Sagduyu, K., Boland, R.J., Mostaghimi, B.S., Leamon, M.L., & Fidler, D. (2006). Virtual reality, telemedicine, web, and data processing innovations in medical and psychiatric education and clinical care. Academic Psychiatry, 30(6), 528-533.
Technology alone is not sufficient to support the learning process and the importance of the underlying learning pedagogy cannot be ignored. This article discusses the pros and cons of several emerging technologies including virtual reality and telemedicine applicable to psychiatric education and clinical care. An important point brought up by this article not addressed in others that I have reviewed is the potential use of simulations in supplementing objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) commonly used for clinical assessment in medical and psychiatric education as well as recently implemented at chiropractic institutions. This article supports my research focus and provides specific examples of simulation technologies utilized in various universities. It is a good starting point for exploration of various simulation technologies through the high quality peer-reviewed references. These authors are highly credentialed, associated with reputable medical universities and the article appears in a peer-reviewed publication.
Hodgkinson-Williams, C., Sieborger, I., & Slay, H. (2008). Developing communities of practice within and outside higher education institutions. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39 (3), 442-443.
This article discusses collaboration within the experiences of two African higher education institutions involved in the e-Yethu project. The collaboration addressed in this project included students of two universities, government, communities, business, and educators. The article is based in social constructivism. The authors present both the challenges and opportunities found when higher education institutions use information and communication technologies in a collaborative effort through the introduction of a new educational technology project, e-Yethu. Following the C4P framework for communities of practice, the authors dissect the project within the areas of conversation, content, connections, and context.
Hoic-Bozic, N. (2009). A blended learning approach to course design and implementation. IEEE Transactions on Education, 52(1), 19-30.
This article is very comprehensive in its description of how learning theories can be applied to online course design and in the various approaches to implementing the learning activities. In addition to constructivism, the authors tie in the theories of behaviorism and cognitivism. The authors argue that all three theories are applied to successful online learning environments. Pedagogical foundations are investigated and methods for integrated online learning into courses are discussed including courses that are offered wholly online. The authors detail their research with an online course management system called AHyCo. It is not necessary to use this learning managements system in order to find the article applicable to other systems. They use the system in a blended approach in which some content is offered online while there is still face to face interaction between the course members. The article states that this blended approach can be used where there is a desire to undertake online learning in a more traditional classroom. This article makes a valid point that more than one learning theory can be integrated in order to make online learning successful. It is certainly not enough to take traditional lecture and tests and add them online. An emphasis on activity on the student’s part is one of the tenants of the theories discussed.
Holzinger, A., Kickmeier-Rust, M.D., Wassertheurer, S., and Hessinger, M. (2009). Learning performance with interactive simulations in medical education: Lessons learned from results of learning complex physiological models with the HAEMOdynamics SIMulator. Computers & Education, 52, 292-301.
This study compared learning outcomes between medical physiology content taught via textbook only, simulation only and combined simulation/additional support material. Results showed equivalent results between simulation and textbook and significantly better learning outcomes with the combined approach. This article is very pertinent to my research focus and provides evidence that can be used to enhance learning occurring with the use of simulations. The authors of this peer-reviewed article are highly qualified and the reference list is peer-reviewed and extensive. Much of the information in this article is comparable to other works I have reviewed. However, this is the only article that compares learning results obtained teaching with simulations alone to textbook or combined methods and emphasizes the importance of the knowledge the student brings into the simulation experience as well as the importance of guidance provided by the instructor.
Hratinski, S. (2008, June). A theory of online learning as online participation. Computers & Education, 52, 78-82. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2008.06.009
In this article Stefan Hratinski proposes his theory of online learning as online participation. He bases his theory on both constructivist and social perspective of learning. He argues that these are often pitted against each other in theoretical discussion, but in the context of online participation they can actually work together: individuals’ engagement in learning experiences in enhanced by social interaction. Hratinski defines participation as interaction not only between instructors as learners, but also as interaction between learners and internal dialogue learners have with themselves. Hratinski presents research concluding that “learners participating in collaborative or group learning were related with as high or higher learning outcome as those in traditional settings” and measured learning as “perceived learning, grades, tests, and quality of performances and assignments.” Hratinski presents his conclusions as based on empirical evidence, although some may see “perceived learning” as subjective.
Huang, H. (2002). Toward constructivism for adult learners in online learning environments. British Journal of Educational Technology, 33(1), 27-37.
Hsiu-Mei Huang is an Associate Professor of Management Science at National Taichung Institute of Technology in Taiwan. There are seven issues facing online educators trying to provide a constructivist learning environment to distance learners. These barriers can cause social isolation which is the opposite of what social constructivism learning environments should be providing its learners. When instructors are aware of the barriers, they can take steps to address them when designing their course materials and choosing a course management system.
Huitt, W. (2006). Social cognition. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved Mar. 13, 2009, from http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/soccog/soccog.html.
Huitt provides a brief but concise explanation of social cognition. He mentions the many theorists associated with social cognition and briefly mentions their theories. The article is well cited by credible resources. The purpose of this article is to define and introduce social cognition. This article provides a starting point for my research focus.
Hung, D., Looi, C.K., & Koh, T.S. (2004). Situated cognition and communities of practice: First-person "lived experiences" vs. third-person perspectives. Educational Technology & Society, 7(4), 193-200.
The authors of this article use the ideas presented in Being and Time, a book by Martin Heidegger, to connect the ideas of Communities of Practice with the learning theory of Situated Cognition. They even go as far as to say that theoretical foundations for Situated Cognition can be given by his writings. This article presents enough examples to support their claims and weaves an interesting and thought- provoking web of ideas which leave one wanting to know more about Situated Cognition. They then delve into the implications of Educational Technologies such as communicative technologies, such as the one created on the Internet, Virtual worlds, video technologies and concept and mind mapping technologies. For each technology they provide a brief statement as to how it is helping cognition in the learning community. This article presents a lot of the same information on Situated Cognition as do the others but at a deeper level. The implications for educational technology section give ideas for uses and integration by learners in the learning community.
Jonassen, D.H. (2006). Revisiting activity theory as a framework for designing student-centered learning environments. In Jonassen, D.H. & Land, S.M.(Eds.), Theoretical foundations of learning environments (pp. 89-121). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
This chapter deals with the activity theory and student-centered learning environments. Student-centered learning is a basis of constructivism. One of the basics of web-based instructional design is making the design student-centered. This idea follows closely with other constructivist ideas. Even in the instructional design field it is important to keep in mind the student-centered learning environments and how the activity theory would apply. Even though activity theory may seem like the best idea for learning, the author stresses the analysis of the activity needs to be conducted to make sure no contradictions are evident. Based upon the data collected through the development of his own student-centered learning environment (SCLE), Jonassen concludes that the more engaging the student experience is, the better the understanding of the experience. The SCLE that was developed in order to arrive at this conclusion was made in order to provide students in a college of business with practice in aggregate planning. Jonassen argues that SCLEs are technology-supported learning environments which support collaboration among learners. SCLEs are described in terms of activity theory, which argues that students cannot understand something without acting on it. This is actually an argument against other entries in this bibliography, as it goes against the theory that students must have a knowledge base before learning to use the knowledge. Jonassen reflects upon the works of many resources, and draws upon his own published research as well. Chapter 4 in this text defines activity theory, discusses how this theory relates to student-centered (constructivist) learning environments, and outlines a process for applying activity theory to these environments. Certain aspects of this chapter are related to my research focus. For example, there is a great deal of information on constructivist theories as related to case-based learning and simulations in health professional education are often related to cases. However, activity theory is supported with a business education model quite different from the health care model of my research focus. This is a credible source and the author of the chapter (Jonassen) has published extensively in peer-reviewed literature on constructivist theories in education. The constructivist information contained in this chapter is consistent with other sources I have reviewed, but I do not recall activity theory being mentioned elsewhere. Although the book is somewhat dated (2000) , this does not appear to affect the validity of the basic concepts that it describes. More up-to-date examples based on new software applications would have been helpful. Also, comparison to models other than the business model may have helped with understanding. In this article David H. Jonassen discussed activity theory within the framework of student centered learning environments. Jonassen describes activity theory as the interdependence of conscious processes of the mind and performance of activity. Activity theory relies on the cooperation of learners, learning context and community, expectations and tools. Online learning can be assumed to be one of these tools that subjects of learning may utilize.
Jonassen, D.H. (2006). Distributed cognitions, by nature and by design. In Jonassen, D.H. & Land, S.M. (Eds.), Theoretical foundations of learning environments (pp. 123-146). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Distributed cognition is a theoretical framework for the investigation of learning communities composed of both humans and technologies. The theory of distributed cognition is similar to social constructivism; however, unlike social constructivism distributed cognition considers, and is sensitive to, the needs of both the individual learner and the group. Jonassen expressed this idea by stating that the focus of the “the distributed cognition framework is that is argues for shifting the designer’s unit of analysis away from that of the individual engaged in cognition-in-the-mind to a consideration of individuals engaged in cognitive activity within social and material contexts” (p. 133). I think distributed cognition has an interesting relationship with web 2.0 technologies in particular. Wikis and blogs offer a phenomenal resource for individuals participating in distributed cognition as they can serve as technological mediators and repositories. I think the framework of distributed cognition was an interesting tie in with the paper by Beldarrain (2006) because it gave me a new way to look at the information that was presented in that paper.
Jung, I. (2001). Building a theoretical framework of web-based instruction in the context of distance education. British Journal of Education Technology, 32(5), 525-534.
In this article, Insung Jung attempts to move away from the traditional theories of cognitive flexibility, constructivism, and information process theory and develop a new framework for web-based instruction within the context of the more recently emerging transactional distance theory. Transactional distance theory provides a more context specific theoretical base for web-based distance learning environments and allows facilitators to find a better focus for appropriate instruction.
Kafai, Y. B., & Resnick, M. (1996). Constructionism in practice: Designing, thinking, and learning in a digital world. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Kafai and Resnick’s book is on the theory of Constructionism; however, they do discuss social influences on learning and mention the importance of implementing computers with social interactions as opposed to the student learning directly from the computer. They also incorporate and agree with theories of Piaget and his assimilation and accommodation. The book is very credible. It contains many references and has been published. I find this book useful in pulling some resources from a constructionist’s point of view on social learning.
Keengwe, J., Onchwari, G., & Onchwari, J. (2009). Technology and student learning: Toward a learner-centered teaching model. Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education Journal, 17 (1), 11-22.
Keengwe, Onchwari and Onchwari argue in favor of the successful implementation of educational technologies in order to promote student-centered learning. They also emphasize, however, that this new shift must be integrated into curricula while preserving the best of traditional learning methods. They provide specific examples for successful integration of student-centered learning through the use of technology as part of a framework. Keengwe, Onchwari and Onchwari draw upon the published research of other experts in the field to arrive at their conclusions that student-centered learning environments, when utilized with meaningful technology integration that focuses on the diversity of learners, can make the learning process much more meaningful.
Kiili, K. (2005). Digital game-based learning: Towards an experiential gaming model. The Internet and Higher Education, 8(1), 13.
In this paper, Kiili presents a model for educational game development that tie together learning theory, objective driven design, and game development. With objective driven design at the heart, this experiential gaming model attempts to define the key factors in good educational game design. According to the author, the three largest factors in good educational game design are that players are provided with clear objectives, immediate feedback, and challenged at a level that is within their zone of proximal development. Kiili postulates that attention to these three areas will increase the probability of a user experiencing flow during game play. Flow can be described as the ultimate gaming experience, the experience of being lost in the moment, and the state of flow has been said to have a positive effect on learning and motivation. Kiili does a nice job neatly summarizing his model , and while he focuses greatly on the concepts of games and game play, he never strays too far from his educational focus, neatly tying in a great deal of learning theory. Games are a fantastic medium for problem based, discovery, and experiential learning as they present students with semi-open-ended problems, often in novel environments, which they are then intended to solve. The model presented is intended to be a framework for pedagogically sound game design encompassing these three areas, not the basis for a whole game design process and as such there is little attention paid to the traditional gaming aspects such as: storylines, game balance, and cognitive load.
Koetting, J. R., & Januszewski, A. (1991). Theory building and educational technology: Foundations for reconceptualization (Report No. IR-015 158). Paper presented at the 1991 Annual
National Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT). Retrieved on April 29, 2009 from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDoc/data/ericdocs2
The authors Koetting and Januszewski present new thoughts and ideas to the way theories both in general and within educational technology are created. One of the first points that author portray is a reminder that all knowledge and learning is affected by who someone is what they already know. These prior knowledge and experiences then make everyone non-neutral when it comes to new thoughts or ideas. The article continues by focusing on three main points: Why use theory? What is theory? and What kinds of theories are there? The authors seem to be promoting the audience for an open mind and new thoughts on theories in education technology. This progress would then hopefully lead to a new definition of education technology. This article relates to my topic because it is a about theories in general, but it does not specifically deal with constructivism or teachers. This article details the framework necessary to develop a theory for educational technology. The authors draw on research of how theories are developed and how this can be applied to the area of Educational Technology. They describe how language has the power to bring about change and how theories can be written to also bring about change or to be statements that are not agents for change. Of the four types of theories developed by Ernest Nagel, the authors categorize Educational Technology as fitting into the fourth type, "a systematic analysis of a set of related concepts" that describe "how a given society operates". They argue that this understanding is not in itself a theory but could lead to the development of a theory. The authors do not give their definition to the theory Educational Technology, but they do offer an explanation in the difficulty in forming an accepted theory in the field. As Educational Technology defines itself it is important to keep in mind the main ideas of this article namely is the theory of Educational Technology designed to cause change and the development of a theory.
Koh, E., & Lim, J. (2008). The emergence of educational technology. In Impagliazzo, J. (Ed.) Proceedings of the Third IFIP Conference on the History of Computing and Education (pp. 99-112). Milano, Italy: Springer.
Dr. John Lim and doctoral candidate Elizabeth Koh, from the National University of Singapore, focus their research on the history of educational technology or information technology (IT) for education. They trace the beginnings of educational technology and the culture influence of its emergence. They provide a historical account of traditional and modern learning and instruction theories. Lim and Koh also compare traditional forms of learning and instruction with virtual and modern forms. In addition, they summarize the three main learning theories that influence educational technology, behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. Finally, the authors arrange technology in education into four generations to easily gain an understanding of its influence in modern learning and instructions theories.
Kop, R., & Hill, A. (2008). Connectivism: Learning theory of the future or vestige of the past? International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 9(3), 1-13.
In this article the authors discuss the idea of connectivism as a possible learning theory of the digital age. They delve into the question, “Is connectivism a learning theory?” To answer this question the authors look at what previous learning theories are the basis for these new ideas and also use research from others to look at what makes a learning theory well constructed. They even go into how learning theories are aligned with epistimologies. At the end they conclude that while connectivism supports new pedagogical practices and helps to create student- centered learning environments, it cannot be considered a new learning theory in itself yet. While connectivism is not a learning theory per se, it does share a lot of the same ideas presented by Distributed Cognition, Socially-Shared Cognition as well as Situated Cognition. In connectivism “learning is the network”. This means that because of the network and the participants that are connected to each other as well as the network itself, learning occurs. You must be actively connected to the learning community in order for learning to occur. This is yet another theory that supports communication between participants as the best way to learn. In this article, Rita Kop and Adrian Hill analyze the emerging theory of Connectivism. In their analysis, Kop and Hill question the emerging theory of Connectivism on its validity as a theory and its relevance to education. They question whether a new theory such as this, encompassing new technologies is really necessary, or if traditional theories will suffice. Kop and Hill cite the thoughts of Bill Kerr, a critic of Connectivism, in that the theory behind connectivism, internal and external knowledge, has already been addressed in Vygotsky’s theory of social constructivism. This point is countered by the work of Downes and Siemens, in that connectivism is the set of connections between internal and external knowledge which could possibly be considered just an argument of semantics. This article investigates the possibility that connectivism is a new learning theory by giving an overview of other learning theories including: behaviourism, cognitivism and constructivism. The authors provide a detailed history of learning frameworks and how these theories apply to connectivism. In basic terms of learners "connecting to and feeding information into a learning community" online learning lends itself very well to this framework. The authors argue that connectivism can be based on previous learning theories. The authors conclude that connectivism should not be considered a new learning theory but should be considered a part of a shift to another learning theory. This article relates to the difficulty of forming an Educational Technology theory. Based on the article by Koetting and Januszewski, connectivism could also be considered the fourth type of theory that describes a process but does not in itself define a new theory.
Presented in the blogosphere in 2005, connectivism is a learning theory which to date has received only minimal attention in peer reviewed literature. One potential for the limited number of publications surrounding this concept is the debate over whether or not connectivism constitutes a new learning theory. In “Connectivism: Learning Theory of the Future or Vestige of the Past?” Kop and Hill thoroughly explore the current view of Constructivism both in the field and in the classroom. A large portion of the paper is focused on the theory debate surrounding connectivism, but regardless of the debate outcome, one theme keeps emerging: the learning needs of the millennial generation are not being met in the classroom. Connectivism is one theory that aims to rectify this perceived issue. Kop and Hill explore both the pros and cons of this theory as well as the challenges with integrating such a theory into an educational system that is not set up to handle such a system. This paper is a nice connection between constructivism and the connective affordances of emerging technologies. Kop and Hill’s article discuss the learning theory of connectivism. This theory is based on making connections with the community and networking online in order for learning to occur. It is using social networks to enhance learning. Though the learning theory has a different name than my paper’s topic, it still provides proof on the benefits of and the importance of social interactions. I found this article to be a very credible source. This article is peer-reviewed and contains multiple sources to support its statements.
Kress, G. (2005). Gains and losses: New forms of texts, knowledge and learning. Computers and Composition, 22(1) 5-22.
Kress explores issues relating to learning and knowledge as the primary form of communication moves from text to image. He also discusses apt theories of learning, writing, and meaning and that the traditional theories no longer apply.
Land, S., & Hannafin, M. (2000). Student-centered learning environments. In Jonassen, D.H. & Land, S.M. (Eds.), Theoretical foundations of learning environments (pp. 1-23). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
This chapter defines constructivism and discusses how constructivism fits or fails to fit into learning frameworks. Of key interest is if the framework is grounded. The authors detail several constructivist methods including Blueprint, in which students are given open-ended problems and must solve using playground design, and Model It, in which students can model scientific phenomenon. The role of technology to extend the learning possibility is also covered. Technology has often led away from grounded teaching as the learning activities lack a link to constructivism. The authors provide a wide variety of examples that are relevant to the classroom especially in terms of technology. They provide several specific programs that explain how these programs can work for students. The work also shows areas in which the constructivist approach may fall short especially where students make incorrect assumptions about what is being seen. As the authors state a shift to this type of instruction involves, in some cases, a change of the entire educational system to truly function as a grounded constructivist environment. Land and Hannafin offer an introduction to student-centered learning environments through the prospective of grounded design. The authors point out what main ideas are needed like verified and practiced methods. Also in this chapter are some of the downfalls of constructivism and student centered learning environments. A main road block being students wanting to know what the answers are and if it will be on the test. Land and Hannafin offer some K-12 classroom examples of student- centered learning environments. Although the chapter does not focus on teachers, I feel that it gives a good basis for a definition of constructivism as well as the positives and negatives. The chapter will not become the main focus of the research, but will help define and summarize constructivism.
Lee, M. J. W., Miller, C., Newnham, L. (2008). RSS and content syndication in higher education: Subscribing to a new model of teaching and learning. Educational Media International, 45(4), 311.
RSS, often dubbed the poorer cousin of the Web2.0 family, and its use in higher education is explored. In this article, by Lee et al. the authors explore the potential of RSS to support student-centered learning environments stressing the theories of connectivism, socially constructivism, and communities of practice. Using several examples of small learning units, the authors demonstrate how RSS could be used to support student centered learning environments. While I agree with the authors acceptations that RSS is not being used to its full potential in education, I do not feel that they made a very strong case for the ‘need.’ The authors clearly demonstrate some uses of RSS, but most of the examples they provided could be achieved with alternative technologies. I also feel that Lee et al. failed to demonstrate how incorporation of RSS in particular into the higher ed classroom would constitute a new model of teaching and learning especially when they state: “The examples presented also emphasize that RSS should not be viewed in a decontextualised fashion, or in isolation from other technologies and applications. In fact, syndication technologies may be seen as the conduit connecting or joining the various “pieces” in a Web framework”.
Lewis, T. (2005). Creativity—A framework for the design/problem solving discourse in technology education. Journal of Technology Education, 17 (1), 35-52.
Lewis draws upon the research of an extensive list of resources to draw conclusions about the benefits of learning creatively through educational technology. Lewis outlines theoretical background information which leads to a discussion about the implementation of problem-solving practices in education, while summarizing the implications that these practices have on technology education. While no background information about Lewis is provided in the article, he is a Professor Emeritus at Ohio State University and is highly acclaimed, with a multitude of published, award-winning works. This article is an argument for constructivist practices in the secondary education classroom.
Liaw, S. S. (2004). Considerations for developing constructivist web-based learning. International Journal of Instructional Media, 31(3), 309.
This article provides some ideas in creating instructional design in web-based learning. The constructivist approach lends itself to web-based learning because it centers on the learner. Constructivism calls for the learner to control the learning process. This is very evident in web-based learning. Instructional designers can apply these ideals to instruction.
Liu, Y., & Ginther, D. (1999). Cognitive styles and distance education. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 2. Retrieved March 15, 2009, from http://www.westga.edu/~distance/liu23.html
This review provides an overview of cognitive styles and its application to the design of distance education taking into consideration sensory preferences and aligning the use of images with teaching styles and cognitive styles. This will support my research by matching digital visual literacy with cognitive styles.
Lunenberg, F. C. (1998). Constructivism and technology: instructional designs for successful education reform. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 25(2), 75.
Lunenberg discusses the theory of constructivism and the principles of constructivist pedagogy. Lunenburg argues that with the integration of technology a constructivist learning environment would allow greater student achievement. He also recognizes the current state of education still being in the Industrial Age and not the Information Age.
Moore, M. G. (2004). Research worth publishing. The American Journal of Distance Learning, 18(3), 127-130. Retrieved March 9, 2008 from http://www.ajde.com/Documents/pp127-130.pdf
This editorial is very focused in its message. Those submitting research for publication should include a rationale for their research that is based on the work of other researchers. The answers to the research questions should offer something new to the field related to the topic. The researcher must do the necessary groundwork so as to not waste resources on questions that have been answered in the past. One way to do this is to use more than Internet sources for the research. The research articles must come from reputable sources and include preeminent work from others in the field. The points of the editorial are certainly important to remember if the goal of the work is to be published, but also if the work is a research paper. The sources need to be sound and include the important ideas and sources from leaders in the field.
Naismith, L., Lonsdale, P., Vavoula, G., & Sharples, M. (2004). Mobile technologies and learning (NESTA Futurelab Literature Review Series, Report No 11). Retrieved on April 29, 2009 from http://www.futurelab.org.uk/resources/documents/lit_reviews/Mobile_Review.pdf
This article takes a different approach to the traditional review of mobile technologies and the world of education. It shifts the concentration from the use of mobile technologies to address specific curriculum areas, to an activity-centered perspective in which new practices are compared to traditional existing theories. The focus of the article is that the entire world is going mobile. Mobile devices have gotten smaller and more popular and have the ability to provide new anytime access to communication and information. The article recognizes that there is considerable interest in utilizing the appeal and abundance of these mobile technologies in educational and compares the technology with learning theories. The article is well written and compares major learning theories with the use of these technologies. The article was organized by educational theory heading which made it easy to follow and direct comparisons of information. Each topic area provided information and examples about the learning theory and a direct educational correlation to the use of mobile technologies within that particular theory. The article provided relevant and use information that was easily related to real world implementation and use. This article will be helpful in my research in the area of mobile devices in education. The information provided will enable me to make a direct connection between the use of mobile technologies in K-12 education and learning theories. Mobile technologies are not currently supported in my current learning environment but perhaps with this information and others a change in may be in order.
Lainema, Timo (2009, February). Perspective making: constructivism as a meaning-making structure for simulation gaming. Simulation & Gaming, 40(1), 48-67.
In Perspective making: Constructivism as a meaning-making structure for simulation gaming, Lainema presents a literature review designed to address the question of how constructivism fits into the field of simulation game (SG) training. Lainema hypothesizes that the SG field has to date been suffering from the lack of a clear link to learning theory; he suggests that constructivism might be the theory link that SG researchers need to be able to make educational claims regarding their simulations. As a theory constructivist learning environments have many corollaries with the simulation gaming environment and offers a more robust model of learning than experiential learning which is often used to describe SG activities. The paper presented an overview of the development of constructivism as a theory, why technology is particularly well suited to the constructivist environment, and how this all ties to SG. Unfortunately, I did not find this paper well referenced, and the author’s use of “I” throughout gave it a less credible feel as the paper felt more like an opinion essay than a true review of the literature. The historical overview of the development of learning theory was very interesting and tied in well with several of the other papers in this review but it did not seem to be as relevant to the topic of this paper.
Loyens, S. M. M., & Gijbels, D. (2008). Understanding the effects of constructivist learning environments: introducing a multi-directional approach. Instructional Science, 36(5/6), 351-357.
Loyens works for Erasmus University Rotterdam in the Department of Psychology and Gijbels works for University of Antwerp in the Institute for Education and Information Sciences. Both of the authors have been involved in research, writing papers and presenting their findings at symposiums. A key component of constructivist learning environments is self-regulation. Students will not be successful in a constructivist learning environment if they are unable to set goals, develop a plan of action, and complete necessary steps to solve the problem. Problems should be complex with the possibility of multiple solutions. Learners build deeper understandings of the subject while working through the problem. Students need to have opportunities to build deeper understandings when taking an online course.
Luppicini, R. (2005). A systems definition of educational technology in society. Educational Technology & Society, 8(3), 103-109.
Luppicini gathers research about the field of educational technology to provide a base from which other research can branch out. He states the problems involved with defining educational technology, which will prove useful when drawing conclusions about educational theories and their ties to educational technology. Though stating the clearly defining educational technology is difficult, Luppicini relies upon a list of resources that enable him to publish a basic definition of the term.
Mackinnon, G. R. (2004). Computer-Mediated communication and science teacher training: two constructivist examples. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 12(1), 101-114.
In this study Mackinnon points to two action research studies conducted at Acadia University using undergraduate students preparing to be science teachers. The first example uses an online discussion environment such as e-mail groups for students to build on their knowledge of an assigned topic. The research found that unless there was management of the discussion or a set purpose such as use in a paper students felt that the group had little success. The second example used concept-mapping software, Inspiration®, for students to organize their thinking through-out a course. Mackinnon’s research indicates that students saw this as a worthwhile and valuable experience. The article does point out two relative and hands-on examples, but there is no direct connection to the K-12 classroom. None of the participants were teachers, but students studying to be teachers. The study could have a different outcome if they were practicing teachers.
Marra, R. M. (2004). An online course to help teachers "use technology to enhance learning": Successes and limitations. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 12(3), 411-429.
Marra in the 2004 study looks as if teachers really learn constructivist theory and technology in an online course. The study surveys first year teachers enrolled in a technology course before the course, immediately following the course, and four months later. Marra’s research found that teachers using the Blackboard system did learn technology through constructivist learning, but the online environment might have been more harmful than helpful. Some teachers found dealing with the technology more of a struggle than the coursework itself. In fact after four months it seems the course had no long term affects on the teacher’s classrooms. I found this study to take a different approach than the others. It focused on if teachers learn technology through a constructivist online environment. Although it did focus on the transfer to the classroom, I felt most of the information was about how the teachers felt. The study also only used 48 first year teachers and only one male. I would like to see more studies on this topic because it is contrary to what I originally thought.
Masri, K., Parker, D., & Gemino, A. (2008). Using iconic graphics in entity-relationship diagrams: the impact on understanding. Journal of Database Management, 19(3) 22-41.
Masri’s study uses iconic graphics (icons) and two theories (Cognitive Load Theory and CTML) to research the idea that the use of icons in instruction reduces the cognitive load leading to a more thorough understanding. Focusing on a single CTML principle this study suggests that with the addition of iconic graphics instruction is more effective than text only graphics. This paper introduces the Cognitive Load Theory and reinforces the CTML theory in relation to digital visual literacy.
Matzen, N. J., & Edmunds, J. S. (2007). Technology as a catalyst for change: The role of professional development. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 39(4), 417-430.
Matzen and Edmunds write about a study (quantitative and qualitative) among elementary school teachers. The teachers attended a seven-day professional development program in which for the first five days they were students in a constructivist classroom learning to use technology. One of the main questions that authors are trying to answer is if technology can change a teacher to be constructive or is a teacher who already practices constructive teaching just constructive with technology. The conclusions indicate that some teachers who are already using constructive learning in their classroom will continue. The two conclusions I found the most interesting were that some teachers used technology in ways that was not in connection with their teaching style and for other teachers technology was the catalyst for them to change their teaching style. The study was not a long-term study and only focused on elementary teachers in one state. I would be very interested to see this study repeated with a boarder audience and long-term effects. I think that this article fits right into the research I am conducting. It offers both quantitative and qualitative information in a organized form. Both authors are from the Technology and Learning program at the University of North Carolina and seem to have background knowledge in this type of study. Matzen’s and Edmunds’ article discusses the teacher’s role in a technology age. This article explains why many teachers are using only technologies that fit into their own teaching style, as opposed to using technology to create student-centered activities. The article explains the importance of the delivery of professional development. This information will be useful in showing how to begin to implement technology into a social network classroom. This source is a credible source. There are multiple references to support the material and the article is peer-reviewed.
Mayer, R. (2002). Cognitive theory and the design of multimedia instruction: An example of the two-way street between cognition and instruction. New Directions for Teaching and Learning. 89, 55-71. Retrieved Mar. 13, 2009, from http://www.fp.ucalgary.ca/maclachlan/cognitive_theory_mm_design.pdf
Mayer’s paper proves how multimedia instruction based on cognitive theories improves student learning. It explains the importance of visual and auditory instruction simultaneously. He states the importance of making instruction and cognition a “two-way street.” Mayer’s paper is very credible. It is cited by multiple references and Mayer himself is professor of psychology at the University of California. He has also received the E.L. Throndike Award for career achievement in educational psychology. The paper itself lacked in social cognition; however, the technology and cognition relation provided a deeper focus on technology.
Metros, S. E., & Woolsey, K. (2006). Visual literacy: an institutional imperative. EDUCAUSE Review, 41. Retrieved March 15, 2009, from http://connect.educause.edu/Library/EDUCAUSE+Review/VisualLiteracyAnInstituti/40635
Metros and Woolsey outline a systematic institutional approach to defining a curriculum that includes digital visual literacy with multimodal fluency, visual judgment and a design context which provides for the people, places and resources needed for an institution to become visual producers. This article will provide insight into what the institution needs to do to make digital visual literacy a reality in the academic community.
Moore, M.G. (2004). Research worth publishing [Editorial]. The American Journal of Distance Education, 18(3), 127-130.
Moore as an editor for The American Journal of Distance Education discusses the main errors he sees in people attempting to publish scholarly research. His main point in dealing with both articles and case studies is the lack of a literature review. To Moore this could cause a couple of problems. He notes this could show a lack of research into the topic before someone professing to learn/gain knowledge or data. The other main concern with lack of a literature review is answering a question that has already been answered. Moore indicates that as he looks at submitted articles he looks for well-established journals and authors who are well-known in the field. If these are lacking then, it shows a lack of prior knowledge in the topic. I found this article to be very eye-opening for any research I will complete.
Moore, M.G. (1993) Theory of transactional distance. In D. Keegan (Ed.), Theoretical Principles of Distance Education (pp. 22-38). New York: Routledge.
In this article, Michael G. Moore explains the history behind the theory of transactional distance, as mentioned by Insung Jung in her 2001 article Building a Theoretical Framework of Web-Based Instruction in the context of distance Education. Jung actually quotes Moore in defining distance education as “instructional methods in which teaching behaviors are executed apart from the learning behaviors…so that communication between the teacher and the learner must be facilitated by print, electronic, mechanical, or other devices” (Jung, 2001, p. 526). This may infer that distance education means through physical distance or time, but Moore states that there is some distance education in any setting, including face-to-face instruction. Even with varying degrees of distance, as well as the variety of learners and instructors, all transactional distance learning is based on collaboration.
Murphy, E. & Manzanares, M. (2008). Contradictions between the virtual and physical high school classrooms: A third-generation activity theory perspective. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39 (6), 1061-1072.
The authors of this article compare and contrast activity theory-based learning in a physical high school classroom and a virtual high school classroom. The authors further claim the virtual and physical contradictions contribute to change in classroom procedure and policy. Although the challenges and strengths of the two different learning environments in comparison were credible, some of the statements seemed generalized or one-sided. The information provided was intriguing, especially using the characteristics of activity theory within different online learning situations.
Myers, K. M., & Wilson, B. G. (2000). Situated cognition in theoretical and practical context. In D. Jonassen, & L. S. M., Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments (pp. 57-88). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
The authors compare the theories that are the base for instructional design such as Behaviorism and Information Processing theory with Situated Cognition. The authors propose that meaning construction happens when it is connected to specific contexts and purposes, that it is a social activity. They continue saying that this social activity takes place within the community with various participants that have varying degrees of knowledge. This web of social processes within the community helps to create more authentic learning. These ideas are connected to anthropology, critical theory and sociocultural constructivism. The authors use various researches from different perspectives to produce a convincing article which helps the reader to understand that learning, which occurs in a naturalistic environment, including social interactions will produce more authentic learning. The ideas presented in this article are similar to the other articles as they are all supporting the idea of a learning environment based on activity and interaction.
Nagle, B., McHale, J.M., Alexander, G.A. and French, B.A. (2009). Incorporating scenario-based simulation into a hospital nursing education program. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 40(10), 18-25.
Simulation methods recently employed in nursing education include computer indicated physiologically responsive mannequins, self-study computer-based programs, and virtual reality. The active participation involved with simulations supports experiential learning, problem-solving and application of clinical knowledge and allows the nursing educator to meet learning objectives without risk to a patient. This article describes a simulation mannequin experience that is formative in nature rather than evaluative and is followed by a guided reflective process. The authors conclude that simulation is a “useful teaching methodology for nurses at all levels of experience”. This is a credible article that describes a process used to implement simulations into nursing education. Unfortunately, it is descriptive only and the efficacy of this system is not evaluated. It doesn’t really provide any concrete support for the use of this method by documenting any performance results. The authors do comment that a key future priority is to evaluate the effectiveness of this method for both learning and the retention of knowledge. This article provides some food for thought but has limited value in supporting my research topic. The information is valid, particularly in terms of clinical information but it is apparent that the authors are clinicians rather than educators.
Nash, J. B., Richter, C., & Allert, H. (2005). Evaluating Computer-Supported Learning Initiatives. In M. Khosrow-Pour (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology. pp. 1125-1129. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Reference.
This article addresses the need of having evaluation as a central piece of instructional design for online learning. The authors surmise that summative evaluation is not enough to assess if online instruction is having the desired results. A formative solution should be integrated into the design process. The authors indicate that one nuance that may be unique to the online learning is that all of the learning cannot be scripted. Throughout the design process certain goals may arise as a result of the planning. Various approaches to evaluation are discussed including scenario-based and program theory evaluations. The key to both approaches is the social aspect that is involved. Designing curriculum especially in online environments is critical to the success of the program. Assessment and evaluation should be central to this process in order that the successfulness of the program can be measured. As the authors state programs in the future will be evaluated on why the program worked and not just if it did work.
Nevgi, A., Niemi, H., & Virtanen, P. (2006). Supporting students to develop collaborative learning skills in technology-based environments. British Journal of Educational Technology, 37 (6), 937-947.
This article explores the use of a new web-based tool, IQ Form (intelligent questionnaire platform) in improving and tracking the collaborative efforts of students in an online environment. Through the study, the authors emphasize the importance the social process has in an online learning environment. Studying the abilities of students to learn as part of an online collaborative group is important in tracking successful learning criteria within the context of technology.
Oberlander, J., et. al. (2004). Using technology to support problem-based learning. Action in Teacher Education, 25(4), 48-57.
This article discusses technology and its use in instructional design. The author brings in the pedagogical background of instructional design and how it relates to problem-based learning. The constructivist view of design relates very well to technology. This article shows this relation fairly well.
Papastergiou, M. (2006, October 1). Course management systems as tools for the creation of online learning environments: Evaluation from a social constructivist perspective and implications for their design. International Journal on E-Learning, 5(4), 593-622.
Marina Papastergiou is a lecturer in Computers in Education at University of Thessaly, Greece. Papastergiou’s research focus is teaching and learning using the internet and web technologies and teacher training using technology tools. This article examines the use of course management systems (CMS) in higher education and the tools within the systems to facilitate socialist constructivist teaching and learning. The perfect system hasn’t been designed yet, but CMS are evolving each year to meet the needs of teachers and students. The article points out some key components of a CMS necessary to facilitate a socialist constructivist learning environment.
Petraglia, J., (1998). The real world on a short leash: The (mis)application of constructivism to the design of educational technology. Educational Technology, Research and Development, 46(3), 53-65.
Petraglia teaches at Georgia Institute of Technology. Petraglia (1998) states “most educators easily accept constructivism’s central premise that learners approach tasks with prior knowledge and expectations based on their knowledge of the world around them, leading educators to attempt to create authentic learning environments” (p.53). Authentic learning environments must correspond to what the learner needs verses what the teacher has predetermined is the need of the learner. Silvers, O’Connell and Fewell, (2007). Discuss the need of the instructor to be aware of the unique needs of their learners. Online instruction should not look the same as a traditional course on campus. Students have lost the privilege of having the right to fail. Petraglia observes “the most important lesson constructivism teaches: students are free to fail” (12). The lack of students having the right to try and fail is prompting many to view all learning activities with suspension.
Piaget, J. (1955). The construction of reality in the child. London: Routledge.
Piaget outlines how children build meaning and learn in this renowned work which provides a valuable resource for comparing his constructivist theories with those of behaviorism in terms of today’s classroom. His writings are frequently referenced in various works of today, as he is known to be one of the foremost constructivists. Though Piaget provides detailed examples of his theories, a researcher will need to draw more of his or her own conclusions as to how it relates to the educational technologies of today, as Piaget does not explicitly address technology used in learning as Skinner does in his entry.
Rakes, G. C., Fields, V. S., & Cox, K. E. (2006). The influence of teachers' technology use on instructional practices. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 38(4), 409-424.
Rakes, Fields, & Cox conducted a study on classroom teachers’ personal computer use and current instructional practices in relation to technology implementation. The authors had 186 forth and eight grade teachers from low-income schools rate themselves on a scale of zero to seven. The teachers rated themselves using a descriptive scale in three areas: personal computer use, current instructional practices, and technology implementation. The scales used to indicate instructional practices and technology implementation used constructivist examples and lessons. The authors did determine a relationship between a teacher’s computer skills and the implementation in the classroom. I noticed a few differences in this study versus the other I had read. These in-service teachers had the technology available to them and professional development in the year prior to the study. I found that to be important and offer more validity to the study because it was not teacher with new technology in a new study. The authors also indicate an area for future research that I think is important. They indicate that a teacher’s beliefs about technology in the classroom will affect their implementation.
Rikers, R. M. J. P., van Gog, T., & Pass, F., (2008). The effects of constructivist learning environments: a commentary. Instructional Science, 36 (5/6), 463-467.
The authors wrote a commentary on the collections of papers in the above edition of Instructional Science. The papers were part of a symposium at the American Educational Research Association. Constructivist learning environments look many different ways. Learning is constructed by the learner based on past knowledge and experiences. Rikers, Gog, and Paas state “an important goal of constructivist learning environments is to engage students in deep and meaningful learning” (2008, p.464). Teachers need to help students understand how to learn within the learning community. Students in constructivist learning environments must look beyond the surface and dig for deeper meaning and connections.
Roschelle, J. (2003). Unlocking the learning value of wireless mobile devices. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. 19(3), 260-272. Retrieved March 11, 2009, from http://ctl.sri.com/publications/downloads/UnlockingWILDs.pdf
This article concerns itself with the results of various technologies and applied learning. Information is provided on the history, future and current technologies, and several theories that affect these technologies. Many statistics are presented from several studies that demonstrate the effectiveness and perceived effectiveness of educators. In conclusion, it is going to take effort and a focus of research to realize the possible benefits of this new technology. The use of generic technologies will need to be focused on pedagogically specific technologies like teacher-controllable topologies. Many other challenges and changes will need to be addressed before wide spread success, along with acceptance is realized for mobile technology. The writer of this article is the first in my research to address some of the limitations and challenges of mobile technology in education. The information presented provides an accurate look at the success of mobile technologies by providing real world information and statistics. Along with this positive representation was a realistic look at some of the issues of small screen sizes, access to information, and other factors that will come into play with various mobile devices. This look at both sides is beneficial to everyone considering mobile technologies and encourages further research into the mobile technologies in education.
Rothgeg, M.K. (2008). Creating a nursing simulation library: A literature review. Journal of Nursing Education. 47(11), 489-494.
This literature review explores the factors related to establishment of a simulation laboratory for nursing education. Simulations are described as one of the “up-and-coming” tools that can be used for experiential learning in a safe environment. The article takes the reader through the steps involved in developing a simulation program based on a review of the literature. The reference list is adequate but appears to be rather unilateral with most of the articles published in nursing education journals only and six articles written by the same author. A number of the references are not from peer-reviewed sources. As this is a literature review, the reader is directed to additional resources that would support the research focus. For example, the six learning theories that support the use of simulation in nursing education are described and referenced. There is helpful information in this article but it is rather narrowly focused on specific nursing education applications and would have limited use in other health care professions.
Rowland, A., & Stanley, M. (2008, July). Elementary schools: Kansas: Transforming the classroom. T.H.E. Journal. 7/1/2008. Retrieved on April 29, 2009 from http://www.thejournal.com/articles/22921
A school in Kansas received a grant for creating Technology Rich Classrooms. They received interactive whiteboards, laptops, student response systems, online textbooks, projector, and some science supplies. The teacher found that the students were more inclined to participate when the lessons where technology rich.
Ryba, K., Selby, L., & Kruger, L. J. (2001). Creating computer-mediated communities of practice in special education. Computers in the Delivery of Special Education and Related Services, 17 (1/2), 59-76.
The authors use different studies and examples to put forth the idea that a group of learners can have a collective zone of proximal development. This is obviously based on Vygotky’s constructivist idea that when a person is placed in a learning environment where they can interact with a more knowledgeable other, then their understanding will also deepen. This paper suggests that if the learning community is set up properly the group develops a collective ZPD. They suggest that this community of practice follow several underlying principles in order to be effective such as active participation and collaboration with others in which cognition is socially shared. This article is yet another that suggests a learning community of practice where learning is a natural process created through interaction, action, and reflection. Their ideas are supported through several studies that utilize technology as the communication tool for the community of practice.
Sahin, T. Y. (2003). Student teachers' perceptions of instructional technology: Developing materials based on a constructivist approach. British Journal of Educational Technology, 34(1), 67-74.
The author describes a study that took place in Turkey in the year 2000. The study had elementary student teachers create constructivist lessons in their technology integration course. The participants were asked a eight questions which were then encoded with an inductive technique. Sahin’s article indicates that student teachers enjoyed active learning in dealing with technology. The article only studied 80 elementary student teachers at on university enrolled in one course. The student teachers generated lesson plans and activities that were not used on school classroom. The participants taught to their classmates and instructors the lesson plans. The article seems to be relevant to how teachers learn, but might not carry over into the K-12 classroom without additional studies.
Scherba de Valenzuela, J. (2002). Sociocultural theory. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico. Retrieved Mar. 13, 2009 from http://www.unm.edu/%7Edevalenz/handouts/sociocult.html
Dr. Scherba de Valenzuela’s article is a brief description of Vygotsky’s influence on the sociocultural theory. The intent of this article is to introduce the sociocultural theory. The article is cited by various credible references as well as a paper by Vygotsky. This article provides some viewpoints from Vygotsky on the social aspect of psychology.
Shaffer, D. W. (2006). Epistemic frames for epistemic games. Computers & Education, 46(3). Retrieved on April 29, 2009 from http://epistemicgames.org/cv/papers/shaffer_cae_2005.pdf
One of the major questions in educational gaming literature seems to be that of knowledge transfer; once a student has mastered a concept within the gaming environment, will they have the ability to transfer that knowledge to novel situations? Building on prior research in Islands of Expertise, Schaffer proposes a new model for knowledge transfer in games he calls Epistemic Frames. Schaffer defines Epistemic Frames as “the organizing principle for practices” for a specific field. By participating in a game that mimics a field of practice students are able to learn the elements of the epistemic frame that is associated with that field. The students are then able to apply the epistemic frame to other situations. This paper was intended as a conversation starter and as such I think it did a great job, however more data would need to be gathered to show that students really are able to transfer the epistemic frame from the gaming context to real world situations. This paper also focuses specifically on simulations which, as Garris et al. argue, may not fit the definition of an educational game.
Sharples, M. (2005) Learning As Conversation: Transforming Education in the Mobile Age. Proceedings of Conference on Seeing, Understanding, Learning in the Mobile Age. Budapest, Hungary, pp. 147-152. Retrieved March 13, 2009 from http://www.fil.hu/mobil/2005/Sharples_final.pdf
The article contends that communication and conversation are essential components of learning. This implies that when we start to look at education in this fashion we see that mobile technology is and will continue to increase in importance. It removes the notion that education revolves around classroom instruction and that education is held within the curriculum. Mobile technology can enable young people to learn by exploring their world with the ability to be constantly connected through technology. Instant messaging, for example, enables people to create learning communities that are both contextual and unbounded since the messages can be exchanged anywhere in the world. Mobile technology can also enable interactions of learners in real and virtual worlds. If we can design technology to enable rich conversations between these, education in the mobile age does not replace formal education, any more than the worldwide web replaces the textbook; rather it offers a way to extend the support of learning outside the classroom, to the conversations and interactions of everyday life. This article provided a great deal of informative information for the reader. It did not contain a great deal of statistics for decision making but did contain good conception information. The article references other works and applies them to the mobile world and the concept of conversation as key to learning. It was easy to read and will provide the reader with a good conceptual view of the role of mobile technology.
Sharples, M., Taylor, J., & Vavoula, G. (2005). Towards a Theory of Mobile Learning. In H. van der Merwe & T. Brown, Mobile Technology: The Future of Learning in Your Hands, mLearn 2005 Book of Abstracts, 4th World Conference on mLearning, Cape Town, 25-28. Retrieved March 10, 2009 from http://www.eee.bham.ac.uk/sharplem/Papers/Towards%20a%20theory%20of%20mobile%20learning.pdf
The objective of this article is to take a hard look at how to build an initial framework in regards to mobile technologies and how they fit into classrooms, working environments, and informal learning. A secondary objective is to impact the design of new technologies and the relationships they will have on learning and future developments. The article covers the advantages and appeal of mobile technologies and its relevance to various centers of learning. The article practically looks at the contemporary theories of learning: learner-centered, knowledge- centered, assessment-centered and community-centered. The article then provides a theory that it is the user that is mobile and will use the technology closest at hand. The conclusion is that the continuation of growth in mobility and technology has the potential to remove the gap between formal and experiential learning. These new technologies and theories may lead to new possibilities of lifelong learning and personal fulfillment. The article provides many ideas and theories for consideration. I was a little surprised that the information provided did not link more directly to learning theories. The information that was provided would be useful to someone researching and designing a system for utilizing and understanding how people use mobile technology.
Sherman, T.M. & Kurshan, B.L. (2005). Constructing learning: using technology to support teaching for understanding. Learning & Leading with Technology, 32(5), 10-39.
Sherman and Kurshan’s article discusses the eight characteristics that are consistent with constructivist principles and how technology has a role in each principle. The main principle I am concerned with is “social.” The article provides good examples on how to use technology to increase understanding in a social setting. This source is very credible. The source is directly from ISTE (International Society for Technology in Education), a very credible society that contains the technology standards. Also, this source has been peer-reviewed.
Sheth, A., Ramakrishnan, C., & Thomas, C. (2005). Semantics for the semantic web: the implicit, the formal, and the powerful. International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems, 1(1), 1-18.
This article was an overview of semantics used in computer and Internet technologies. The authors set forth the relationship between different semantic systems and draw parallels. An interest in this type of technology is making learning more just-in-time for students. One of the drawbacks to using short answer lessons created in learning management systems is that students often are using the system at a time when the instructor is not available. By using technology to score this type of response students could receive immediate feedback to their learning. As the authors point out, this type of technology is very difficult. Natural language is difficult for computers to process and make comparisons between. The current technologies available are improving but not yet ready for this type of use. Short answer and essay type responses in addition to discussions that could be evaluated as the students enter them could be a step between self-scoring multiple choice type questions and teacher scored questions. Although this type of scoring could not substitute for teacher review it could provide more immediate feedback to students.
Silvers, P., O’Connell, J., & Fewell, M. (2007). Strategies for creating community in a graduate education online program. Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 23, 81-87.
The authors are professors at a suburban campus using Blackboard, and were asked to developed online courses from content courses already used. They shared their online community building process as well as feedback from students. The effectiveness of the learning community was seen when all members participated together sharing ideas and reflecting on the process. As other studies have shown, online communities work best when members enter into relationships by getting to know each other, participate in online discussions about the learning material, and begin to support one another’s learning and understanding.
Skinner, B. F. (1958). Teaching machines. Science, 128 (3330), 969-977.
Skinner provides information about Pressey’s teaching machines, designed in the 1920s. He describes how through a series of successes and failures, students are able to learn at their own pace and receive immediate feedback. Skinner also provides information about other types of teaching machines that are more in depth. Skinner provides valuable insight about education in his writings that is still an ultimate reference for researchers. Many of the other entries in this bibliography discuss the importance of the theories that Skinner presents, demonstrating his influence on his field. Of special interest, however, is the fact that Skinner did not have a chance to work with the educational technologies of today and thought that the teaching machine could essentially dominate education, making teachers practically obsolete. Though we use computers in many of the same ways in which teaching machines were used, the emphasis of educational technology today is not to eliminate the role of the teacher but rather to integrate meaningful technologies into curricula when possible.
Srinivasan, M., Hwang, J.C., West, D., and Yellowlees, P.M. (2006). Assessment of clinical skills using simulator technology. Academic Psychiatry, 30(6), 505-515.
In this article the authors explore various aspects of emerging simulation technologies. Two examples have an educational technology focus- the high fidelity mannequin and virtual clinical stations/examinations and both are described in detail. The authors’ conclusions regarding these simulation technologies are based on a literature search as well as expert consensus. These technologies can be used instead of paper and pencil examinations to more accurately test the clinical skills of physicians in applied clinical settings in either formative or summative evaluations. Simulator technology use in medical education is increasing as a result of the increased emphasis on self-directed learning. However, the authors recommend that simulations should be considered complementary to other evaluation methods. This article contained new information that I had not encountered previously and covered gaming applications, avatars, and interactive web-based cases with branching logic. It also discusses methodologies for measuring the validity and reliability of the various approaches. This information supports my research focus. It appears in a peer-reviewed journal with an extensive reference list and the authors and information appear credible. My only concern is that the authors didn’t really discuss how the “expert consensus” was reached.
Stokes, S. (2001). Visual literacy in teaching and learning: A literature perspective. Electronic Journal for the Integration of Technology in Education, 1(1), 10-19. Retrieved March 14, 2009 from http://ejite.isu.edu/Volume1No1/Stokes.html
This article reviews learner differences in relation to visual literacy. It also reviews visual literacy and instructional technology in relation to a constructivist learning environment. Relating visual literacy to the constructivist learning theory will support my topic.
Sutton, M. J. (2003). Problem representation, understanding, and learning transfer implications for technology education. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, 40(4), 47-63.
In this essay, Sutton draws upon the research of various reliable sources in the field to come to conclusions about how to incorporate a problem-solving framework into future endeavors in the field of educational technology. Sutton is a professor of Industrial Technology at Purdue University. This article provides valuable insight about the shift in educational technology from behaviorism to constructivism, or a blending of the two. It provides practical examples of how problem-solving is incorporated into technological activities, and thus provides insight about which aspects of behaviorism and which of constructivism are utilized in the secondary education classroom.
Taasoobshirazi, G., Zuiker, S. J., Anderson, K. T. & Hickey, D. T. (2006, December). Enhancing inquiry, understanding, and achievement in an astronomy multimedia learning environment. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 15(5), 383-395.
Dr. Taasoobshirazi, from the University of Georgia, and a team of researchers assessed the software Astronomy Village®: Investigating the Universe™. The other team members are from Indiana University in Bloomington, Dr. Zuiker, Doctor of Philosophy, post doctoral researcher Dr. Anderson, and associate professor Daniel Hickey. They studied the implementation of this multifaceted inquiry-based learning software developed by NASA. The study began in first year implementation through assessment stages, including standardized testing. The author’s made recommendations to assist in better preparing students for the standardized test and still maintained the integrity of the learning theories involved in inquiry-based learning method.
Taylor, E.W. (2007) An update of transformative learning theory: A critical review of the empirical research (1999-2005). International Journal of Lifelong Education (26)2, (171-193).
In this article, Edward W. Taylor of Penn State University-Harrisburg addresses the popularity of transformative learning theory in adult education. Taylor’s conclusions of the empirical research acknowledge transformative learning as a still-developing theory. This theory ventures into the same field as constructivism in that it based on making meaning. In some respects, it could be considered a more specific form of constructivism with an emphasis on critical reflection of the learner.
Taylor, L. M., & Walls, R. T. (2005, May). A nine-step program. Leading & Learning with Technology, 32(8), 36-38.
Taylor and Walls present a nine-step professional development program for practicing teachers. Taylor is the president of the non-profit EdVenture Group and Walls a professor at West Virginia University. The two present the nine-step program teachers can use to create, submit, access, and post lessons online. The plan claims to use constructivist technology, but does describe how constructivism is used. The article does offer a possibly reasonable plan for teacher professional development, but lacks any statistics or data for proof.
Tüzün, H., Yılmaz-Soylu, M., Karakuş, T., İnal, Y., & Kızılkaya, G. (2009, January). The effects of computer games on primary school students’ achievement and motivation in geography learning. Computers & Education, 52(1), 68-77.
Tüzün et al. present a very interesting study combining both quantitative and qualitative methods. This study presents data that supports the assertions being made in several of the more theoretical gaming papers present in this bibliography and I found it to be good complementing to those papers. Using pre and post tests combined with interviews and open ended questions the researchers assessed gains in student achievement and affect following interaction with the inquiry based educational game, Quest Atlantis. The paper presented a strong mixed methodology research study with statistically sound results demonstrating positive gains in achievement and affect as a result of educational gaming. While the paper’s methodology was sound, an enlarged sample size (n=13) in this paper which is rather small) and comparison to a control group would have strengthened the results. The authors also present a thorough discussion of the results discussing the implications of increased learner autonomy in an inquiry centered game based environment.
Van Gog, T., et. al. (2005). Instructional design for advanced learners: establishing connections between the theoretical frameworks of cognitive load and deliberate practice.
Educational Technology Research and Development. 53(3), 73-82.
This article is a good article to use because it describes the use of cognitive theories in instructional design. More importantly the article addresses web-based instructional design theories. The authors describe the use of the cognitive load theory in instructional design and its role in adapting to the learner’s increased knowledge base.
Vannatta, R. A., & Beryerbach, B. (2000). Facilitating a constructivist vision of technology integration amount education faculty and preservice teachers. Journal of Research and Computing in Education, 33(2), 132-148.
The authors present statistics from a grant research in the 1998-1999 academic school year. Vannatta and Beryerbach report on a project encouraging higher education
faculty and pre-service teachers to become more familiar with types of technology of the learners choosing. The study does not focus on the teachers using constructivism to
learn the skills, but the hope that through gaining comfort with technology they would use it in their classroom. After I looked over the list of ways teachers used technology in
their classroom, I do not feel that many of them fall into the constructivist category. For example, a teacher lists using PowerPoint to instruct. Although some of the items
listed do, I find some fault or question the true constructivism of the article. The article is dated like the Bostock study, but it does offer some insight into early thoughts of
combining constructivism and technology.
Vat, K.H. (2009). Conceiving a Learning Organization Model for Online Education. In Encyclopedia of Distance Learning, 2, 391-397, Hershey, USA.
This article details the importance of the social process in creating communities of learners (CoL). The author stresses the idea that educators need to embrace the new
technology. It is pointed out that early online instruction involved taking offline activities and putting them online. This type of instruction does not automatically lend itself to a
constructivist approach. Instead of this old approach, the author calls for a framework to be developed in which students are the center and need to take responsibility for
their learning. The three processes that the author states as being central to the CoL approach are detailed: personal process, social process, and organizational process.
Wang, Q. (2008). A generic model for guiding the integration of ICT into teaching and learning. Innovations of Education and Teaching International, 45(4), 411-419.
Wang presents a generic model of integrating information and communication technology into teaching and learning. This model includes three domains: pedagogy, social interaction, and technology. The theoretical influences for this model come from constructivism and the interactivity design model. Wang provide specific examples of the generic model in practice through the online learning platform, Moodle. The information and research provided in this article offered a fresh perspective and a simplistic, feasible model for the incorporation of technology in instruction and learning. The data related the impact and propellant effect technology has had on emerging learning theories through the author’s newly developed learning model.
Whitin, P. E. (2009). "Tech-to-stretch": Expanding possibilities for literature response. Reading Teacher, 62(5), 408–418.
This is a peer reviewed scholarly article which examines the incorporation of digital technology into the curriculum to promote critical thinking and increase achievement through a literature study of Through My Eyes by Ruby Bridges. This study supports the effective use of multimodalities playing a valuable role in literacy instruction.
Willett, R. (2007). Technology, pedagogy and digital production: a case study of children learning new media skills. Learning, Media, and Technology, 32 (2), 167-181.
Digital Cultures. This project was an out of school opportunity for low income students between the ages of nine and thirteen to create a computer game collaborative over the
course of a year on weekends. The article examines the impact of constructivism (cognitive and social), constructionism, and situated learning within the context of this
project. She concludes digital media skills may necessitate use of various aspects of diverse learning theories. She also brings to light the issues regarding acquiring specific,
sometimes advanced, software skills.
Williams, P. (March 2003). Analysis of semiotic principles in a constructivist learning environment. Retrieved May 1, 209 from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/contentdelivery
nuclear plant. The impact of visual signs and how students are affected by them are explored as well as their instructional application and how a constructivist learning
environment will assist the learner.
that constructivism is not the best instructional method, and his opinions, based upon his experiences as a faculty member of the School of Education in West Australia, support
more of a combination approach. He outlines a framework that begins with all students learning the same procedural knowledge, which is more of a behaviorist approach, and
ideally has students learning through project-based methods after they have memorized certain information.
(pp. 57-88). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
This article reviews the theory which supports situated cognition as well as possible uses of situated cognition in application. As instruction has begun to lend itself to
constructivist learning theories, more emphasis has been placed on the effect of context in teaching and learning. Situated Cognition (SigCog) focuses on the learning
environment in relation to the social relationships within those environments. SitCog branches from two perspectives, Behaviorism and Information Processing Theory. Learning
within the context of real communities has many benefits and bridges knowledge gained to knowledge used, but creating an authentic learning environment congruent to “real
world” environments can often times be difficult.
Professor Brent Wilson works in the University of Denver School of Education and Human Development. This paper reflects on the meaning of theory according to Brent Wilson.
He outlines the role theories play in everyday life. He further ponders the different role of theorist and practitioner. He forms an argument about the science and technology of
instructional design and educational technology. Wilson tries to sort out the criticisms of science versus postmodern in theories about instructional design and educational
when the theory of learning by doing is implemented. It makes the assumption that learners are truly motivated and internally driven to do so. The information moves on to
address attention and intention in learning. The critical role of intention is to focus the attention of the learner. This allows the material or technology to establish the focus and
remove other distractions. This indicates that with a little guidance learning by doing can be enhanced with a little help. The material then looks at different motivations that will
impact the learning process. The author asks that you look at learners as sophisticated information detectors. This material provided me with a theoretical look at his type of
educational theory that I can apply to mobile technology. Mobile technology has the ability to enhance the model of learning by doing. It also has the ability to help establish
and keep the attention of the user and distract from outside influences.
Yousuf, M. (2006). Effectiveness of mobile learning in distance education. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 8(4), 114-124.
The main goal of the article was to evaluate how students felt about mobile and distance education merging, was it beneficial in their education. It also wanted to measure the
students’ attitudes towards mobile technology. The survey clearly indicates that mobile technology can improve distance learning process. A key point was noted:
Communication was enhanced among students, tutors and supporting staff. Another noteworthy result was the fact that learning can happen anywhere, anytime. The
conclusion of the study was that students felt that the technology was an effective tool for improving communication and learning. It was presented that the technology could
be used for retention and support if utilized strategically. This article provided a large amount of feedback; this feedback was generally from students and their impressions of
mobile technology. This information can have a positive impact on decision making and design aspect of education. A number of statistics have been provided for readers to
utilize in other ways. The article provided me with a different perception of mobile technology and how it perceived from the users point of view. This information will be useful
to me and others interested in user perspectives.