computing is an increasingly popular enterprise model in which computing
resources are made available to the user as needed. The resources may be
maintained within the user's enterprise, or made available by a service
Utility computing is the packaging of computing resources, such as computation and storage, as
a metered service similar to a traditional public utility
(such as electricity, water, natural gas, or telephone network).
This system has the advantage of a low or no initial cost to acquire hardware;
instead, computational resources are essentially rented. Customers
with very large computations or a sudden peak in demand can also avoid the
delays that would result from physically acquiring and assembling a large
number of computers.
A Storage Service Provider (SSP) is any company that
provides computer storage space and related management services.
Grid computing (or
the use of computational grids) is the combination of computer resources
from multiple administrative domains applied to a common task, usually to a
scientific, technical or business problem that requires a great number of
computer processing cycles or the need to process large amounts of data.
provides application processing load balancing capacity to corporate and other
large-scale web servers.
Green computing or green IT refers to
environmentally sustainable computing or IT. It is "the study and practice
of designing, manufacturing, using, and disposing of computers, servers, and
associated subsystems—such as monitors, printers, storage devices, and
networking and communications systems—efficiently and effectively with minimal
or no impact on the environment.
a term that refers to the abstraction of computer resources.
is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems. A distributed
system consists of multiple autonomous computers that communicate through a
computer network. The computers interact with each other in order to achieve a
common goal. A computer program that runs in a distributed system is called a
distributed program, and distributed programming is the process of writing such
Cloud application services or "Software as a Service
(SaaS)" deliver software as a service over the Internet, eliminating
the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computers and
simplifying maintenance and support.
service provider (ASP) is a business that provides computer-based services
to customers over a network.
architecture (SOA) is
a flexible set of design principles used during the phases of systems development and integration. A deployed SOA-based architecture
will provide a loosely-integrated suite of services that can be used within multiple
Positioning System (GPS) is a U.S. space-based radio navigation system that
provides reliable positioning, navigation, and timing services to civilian
users on a continuous worldwide basis -- freely available to all. For anyone
with a GPS receiver, the system will provide location and time. GPS provides
accurate location and time information for an unlimited number of people in all
weather, day and night, anywhere in the world.
Autonomic Technology is a group of enabling technologies that support the
automation and process changes necessary to deliver end to end IT Service
A data model in
software engineering is an abstract model that describes how data is represented
and accessed. Data models formally define data elements and relationships among
data elements for a domain of interest.
entity-relationship (ER) diagram is a specialized graphic that illustrates
the interrelationships between entities in a database. ER diagrams often use
symbols to represent three different types of information. Boxes are commonly
used to represent entities. Diamonds are normally used to represent
relationships and ovals are used to represent attributes.
A data dictionary,
a.k.a. metadata repository, as defined in the IBM Dictionary of Computing, is a
"centralized repository of information about data such as meaning,
relationships to other data, origin, usage, and format." The term may have
one of several closely related meanings pertaining to databases and database
management systems (DBMS).
are documents which present focused, salient content to a specific audience.
Reports are often used to display the result of an experiment, investigation,
or inquiry. The audience may be public or private, an individual or the public
in general. Reports are used in government, business, education, science, and
Online transaction processing, or OLTP, refers
to a class of systems that facilitate and manage transaction-oriented
applications, typically for data entry and retrieval transaction processing.
processing is an approach to
quickly answer multi-dimensional analytical queries.
An operational system
is a term used in data warehousing to refer to a system that is used to process
the day-to-day transactions of an organization. These systems are designed so
processing of day-to-day transactions is performed efficiently and the
integrity of the transactional data is preserved.
refers to the interaction between algorithmic processes and technology; it
consists of four parts which include: procedures, software, hardware, and
information or data, which are essentially the same.
Load (ETL) is the processes that
enable companies to move data from multiple sources reformat and cleanse it,
and load it into another database, a data mart or a data warehouse for
analysis, or on another operational system to support a business process.
Data warehouse is a repository of an
organization's electronically stored data. Data warehouses are designed to
facilitate reporting and analysis
Data cleansing or
data scrubbing is the act of detecting and correcting (or removing) corrupt
or inaccurate records from a record set, table, or database. Used mainly in
databases, the term refers to identifying incomplete, incorrect, inaccurate,
irrelevant etc. parts of the data and then replacing, modifying or deleting
this dirty data.
A data mart is a subset of an organizational data
store, usually oriented to a specific purpose or major data subject, that may
be distributed to support business needs.