Software as a service is a model of software deployment over the internet. With SaaS, a provider licenses an application to customers for use as a service on demand, either through a time subscription or a “pay-as-you-go” model. Also known as “software on demand,” the SaaS model allows vendors to develop, host and operate software for customer use.
Platform as a service' (PaaS) the delivery of a computing platform and solution stack as a service. PaaS offerings facilitate deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software and provisioning hosting capabilities, providing all of the facilities required to support the complete life cycle of building and delivering web applications and services entirely available from the Internet.
Infrastructure as a Service is a provision model in which an organization outsources the equipment used to support operations, including storage, hardware, servers and networking components. The service provider owns the equipment and is responsible for housing, running and maintaining it. The client typically pays on a per-use basis.
MapReduce algorithm is a patented software framework introduced by Google to support distributed computing on large data sets on clusters of computers.
BigTable is a compressed, high performance, and proprietary database system built on Google File System (GFS), Chubby Lock Service, and a few other Google programs; it is currently not distributed or used outside of Google, although Google offers access to it as part of their Google App Engine.
Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems. A distributed system consists of multiple autonomous computers that communicate through a computer network. The computers interact with each other in order to achieve a common goal.
PageRank is a link analysis algorithm, named after Larry Page, used by the Google Internet search engine that assigns a numerical weighting to each element of a hyperlinked set of documents, such as the World Wide Web, with the purpose of "measuring" its relative importance within the set.
Google File System (GFS) is a proprietary distributed file system developed by Google Inc. for its own use. It is designed to provide efficient, reliable access to data using large clusters of commodity hardware.
Middleware is computer software that connects software components or applications. The software consists of a set of services that allows multiple processes running on one or more machines to interact.
Cloud computing is Internet-based computing, whereby shared resources, software and information are provided to computers and other devices on-demand, like the electricity grid.
In computing, a distributed file system or network file system is any file system that allows access to files from multiple hosts sharing via a computer network.
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is an information system that integrate business activities across departmental boundaries, include planning, manufacturing, sales, marketing
Customer relationship management (CRM) is a corporate level strategy designed to create and maintain lasting relationship with customers by concentrating on the downstream information flows through the introduction of reliable systems, processes, and procedures
Supply chain management (SCM) is an information system focusing on the improving upstream information flows with two main objectives – to accelerate product development and to reduce costs associated with procuring raw materials, components, and services from suppliers.
Business process management (BPM) is a systematic, structured improvement approach by all part of an organization including a critical examination and redesign od business processes in order to achieve dramatic improvements in one or more performance measures such as quality, cycle time or cost.
Legacy system is an older stand alone computer system within organization with older versions of applications that are either fast approaching or beyond the end of their useful life within the organization.
Shadow system is a term used in information services for any application relied upon for business processes that is not under the jurisdiction of a centralized information systems department.
Sales force automation (SFA) is a CRM system to support the day – to – day activities of an organization.
Service-oriented architecture is a software architecture in which business processes are broken into individual components that are designed to achieve desired for the service customer.
Interorganizational system is an informational system that communicates across organizational boundaries.
Business intelligence is the use of information systems to gather and analyze information from internal and external sources in order to make better business decisions.
A transaction processing system is a special class of an information system designed to process business events and transactions.
Online Analytical Processing refers to the process of quickly conducting complex, multidimensional analyses of data stored in a database that is optimized for retrieval, typically using graphical software tools.
Data mining complements OLAP in that it provides capabilities for discovering “hidden” predictive relationships in the data.
Clustering is the process of grouping related records together on the basis of having similar values for attributes.
Classification is used when groups are known beforehand, and records are segmented into these classes.
An information system designed to support the highest organizational manager is called an executive information system.
A decision support system is a special-purpose information system designed to support organizational decision making related to a particular recurring problem.
A what-if-analysis allows you to make hypothetical changes to the data associated with a problem and observe how these changes influence the results.
Groupware refers to a class of software that enables people to work together more effectively.
Artificial intelligence is the science of enabling information technologies to simulate human intelligence.
An expert system is a type of intelligent system that uses reasoning methods based on knowledge about a specific problem domain in order to provide advice.
An intelligent agent is a program that works in the background to provide some service when a specific event occurs.
Visualization refers to the display of complex data relationships using a variety of graphical methods, enabling managers to quickly grasp the results of the analysis.
A content management system allows users to publish, edit, version track, and retrieve digital information. Typical roles in a content management system include: creator, editor, administrator, and guest.
Blog is a specialized site that allows people to share a journal or diary posted on the internet.
Crowdsourcing is delegating a task to a large diffuse group, usually without monetary compensation.
Geo-tagging is tagging information to maps.
A mashup is a new application (or Web site) that integrates one or more Web services.
Metadata can be simply thought of as a data about data.
Netcasting is the distribution of digital media, such as audio or video files via syndication feed for playback on digital media players.
Real Simple Syndication (RSS) is a family of syndication feeds used to publish the most current blogs, podcasts, videos, and news stories.
The semantic Web is a set of design principles that will allow computers to be able to better index Web sites, topics, and subjects.
Social networking is the term used to describe the acivity of networking through social sites such as Twitter, Facebook and Linked In.
Tagging is adding descriptive information to Web site content.
Viral marketing is using the network effect to increase brand awareness.
Web services allow data to be accessed without intimate knowledge of other organizations’ systems, enabling machine-to-machine interaction over the Internet. The central idea behind Web services is that any device can use any network to access any service.
Widgets are small interactive tools used for a single purpose such as taking notes, viewing pictures, or simply displaying a clock.
Web-based collaboration tools allow for easy access and easy transferability from one person to another, as the tools can run on any computer with a Web browser and Internet connectivity.
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) refers to the structured transmission of data between organizations by electronic means. It is used to transfer electronic documents from one computer system to another, i.e. from one trading partner to another trading partner. It is more than mere E-mail; for instance, organizations might replace bills of lading and even Cheques with appropriate EDI messages. It also refers specifically to a family of standards, including the X12 series. However, EDI also exhibits its pre-Internet roots, and the standards tend to focus on ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)-formatted single messages rather than the whole sequence of conditions and exchanges that make up an inter-organization business process.
Net neutrality is the principle that data packets on the Internet should be moved impartially, without regard to content, destination or source. Net neutrality is sometimes referred to as the "First Amendment of the Internet."
Web analytics is the measurement, collection, analysis and reporting of internet data for purposes of understanding and optimizing web usage.
eCommerce, consists of the buying and selling of products or services over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks.
Four major categories of eComerce are: B2B, B2C, C2C/P2P, C2B.
Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process of improving the volume or quality of traffic to a web site from search engines via "natural" or un-paid ("organic" or "algorithmic") search results as opposed to search engine marketing (SEM) which deals with paid inclusion. Typically, the earlier (or higher) a site appears in the search results list, the more visitors it will receive from the search engine. SEO may target different kinds of search, including image search, local search, video search and industry-specific vertical search engines. This gives a web site web presence.
CVV is an anti-fraud security feature. For Visa/Mastercard, the three-digit CVV number is printed on the signature panel on the back of the card immediately after the card's account number For American Express, the four-digit CVV number is printed on the front of the card above the card account number.
Data mining is the process of extracting patterns from data. Data mining is becoming an increasingly important tool to transform this data into information. It is commonly used in a wide range of profiling practices, such as marketing, surveillance, fraud detection and scientific discovery.
Globalization (or globalisation) describes an ongoing process by which regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through a globe-spanning network of communication and trade. The term is sometimes used to refer specifically to economic globalization: the integration of national economies into the international economy through trade, foreign direct investment, capital flows, migration, and the spread of technology.
Nearshoring (also known as "nearshore outsourcing" and "nearshoring") means sourcing service activities to a foreign, lower-wage country that is relatively close in distance. Nearshoring is becoming competitive with outsourcing to farther areas since the recent rise of fuel costs.
Offshoring is a type of outsourcing. Offshoring simply means having the outsourced business functions done in another country. Frequently, work is offshored in order to reduce labor expenses.
Offshore outsourcing is the practice of hiring an external organization to perform some business functions in a country other than the one where the products or services are actually developed or manufactured.
Uncertainty avoidance deals with a society’s tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity; it ultimately refers to man’s search for Truth. It indicates to what extent a culture programs its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations.
A wiki (pronounced /ˈwɪki/ WIK-ee) is a website that allows the easy creation and editing of any number of interlinked web pages via a web browser using a simplified markup language or a WYSIWYG text editor. Wikis are typically powered by wiki software and are often used to create collaborative websites, to power community websites, for personal note taking, in corporate intranets, and in knowledge management systems.
A workflow can usually be described using formal or informal flow diagramming techniques, showing directed flows between processing steps. Single processing steps or components of a workflow can basically be defined by three parameters:
The star schema (sometimes referenced as star join schema) is the simplest style of data warehouse schema. The star schema consists of a few fact tables (possibly only one, justifying the name) referencing any number of dimension tables.
A snowflake schema is a logical arrangement of tables in a multidimensional database such that the entity relationship diagram resembles a snowflake in shape. Closely related to the star schema, the snowflake schema is represented by centralized fact tables which are connected to multiple dimensions.
In data warehousing, a fact table consists of the measurements, metrics or facts of a business process. It is often located at the centre of a star schema, surrounded by dimension tables.Fact tables provide the (usually) additive values that act as independent variables by which dimensional attributes are analyzed. Fact tables are often defined by their grain. The grain of a fact table represents the most atomic level by which the facts may be defined.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fact_table
In data warehousing, a dimension table is one of the set of companion tables to a fact table .The fact table contains business facts or measures and foreign keys which refer to candidate keys (normally primary keys) in the dimension tables. The dimension tables contain attributes (or fields) used to constrain and group data when performing data warehousing queries.
On-demand (OD) computing is an increasingly popular enterprise model in which computing resources are made available to the user as needed. The resources may be maintained within the user's enterprise, or made available by a service provider.
Utility computing is the packaging of computing resources, such as computation and storage, as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility (such as electricity, water, natural gas, or telephone network). This system has the advantage of a low or no initial cost to acquire hardware; instead, computational resources are essentially rented. Customers with very large computations or a sudden peak in demand can also avoid the delays that would result from physically acquiring and assembling a large number of computers.
A Storage Service Provider (SSP) is any company that provides computer storage space and related management services.
Grid computing (or the use of computational grids) is the combination of computer resources from multiple administrative domains applied to a common task, usually to a scientific, technical or business problem that requires a great number of computer processing cycles or the need to process large amounts of data.
Edge computing provides application processing load balancing capacity to corporate and other large-scale web servers.
Green computing or green IT refers to environmentally sustainable computing or IT. It is "the study and practice of designing, manufacturing, using, and disposing of computers, servers, and associated subsystems—such as monitors, printers, storage devices, and networking and communications systems—efficiently and effectively with minimal or no impact on the environment.
Virtualization is a term that refers to the abstraction of computer resources.
Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems. A distributed system consists of multiple autonomous computers that communicate through a computer network. The computers interact with each other in order to achieve a common goal. A computer program that runs in a distributed system is called a distributed program, and distributed programming is the process of writing such programs.
Cloud application services or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliver software as a service over the Internet, eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computers and simplifying maintenance and support.
Application service provider (ASP) is a business that provides computer-based services to customers over a network.
Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is a flexible set of design principles used during the phases of systems development and integration. A deployed SOA-based architecture will provide a loosely-integrated suite of services that can be used within multiple business domains
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a U.S. space-based radio navigation system that provides reliable positioning, navigation, and timing services to civilian users on a continuous worldwide basis -- freely available to all. For anyone with a GPS receiver, the system will provide location and time. GPS provides accurate location and time information for an unlimited number of people in all weather, day and night, anywhere in the world.
Self Managing Autonomic Technology is a group of enabling technologies that support the automation and process changes necessary to deliver end to end IT Service Management solutions.
A data model in software engineering is an abstract model that describes how data is represented and accessed. Data models formally define data elements and relationships among data elements for a domain of interest.
An entity-relationship (ER) diagram is a specialized graphic that illustrates the interrelationships between entities in a database. ER diagrams often use symbols to represent three different types of information. Boxes are commonly used to represent entities. Diamonds are normally used to represent relationships and ovals are used to represent attributes.
A data dictionary, a.k.a. metadata repository, as defined in the IBM Dictionary of Computing, is a "centralized repository of information about data such as meaning, relationships to other data, origin, usage, and format." The term may have one of several closely related meanings pertaining to databases and database management systems (DBMS).
Written reports are documents which present focused, salient content to a specific audience. Reports are often used to display the result of an experiment, investigation, or inquiry. The audience may be public or private, an individual or the public in general. Reports are used in government, business, education, science, and other fields.
Online transaction processing, or OLTP, refers to a class of systems that facilitate and manage transaction-oriented applications, typically for data entry and retrieval transaction processing.
Online analytical processing is an approach to quickly answer multi-dimensional analytical queries.
An operational system is a term used in data warehousing to refer to a system that is used to process the day-to-day transactions of an organization. These systems are designed so processing of day-to-day transactions is performed efficiently and the integrity of the transactional data is preserved.
Information Systems refers to the interaction between algorithmic processes and technology; it consists of four parts which include: procedures, software, hardware, and information or data, which are essentially the same.
Extract-Transform and Load (ETL) is the processes that enable companies to move data from multiple sources reformat and cleanse it, and load it into another database, a data mart or a data warehouse for analysis, or on another operational system to support a business process.
Data warehouse is a repository of an organization's electronically stored data. Data warehouses are designed to facilitate reporting and analysis
Data cleansing or data scrubbing is the act of detecting and correcting (or removing) corrupt or inaccurate records from a record set, table, or database. Used mainly in databases, the term refers to identifying incomplete, incorrect, inaccurate, irrelevant etc. parts of the data and then replacing, modifying or deleting this dirty data.
A data mart is a subset of an organizational data store, usually oriented to a specific purpose or major data subject, that may be distributed to support business needs.