Chapter Overview During this unit, the ideal gas laws are taught through experience and then taught conceptually, graphically, and mathematically to give students a broad understanding of kinetic molecular theory and how temperature, pressure, volume, mass, and moles are related. Students then use balanced equations, the gas laws, and molar volume to solve gas stoichiometry problems. Main Ideas *Kinetic molecular theory is used to understand and predict the behavior of ideal gases. *There is a relationship between ideal gas pressure and volume (when the temperature and moles remain constant). *There is a relationship between ideal gas volume and temperature (when pressure and moles are held constant). *There is a relationship between pressure, volume, temperature, and the number of moles for an ideal gas. *Boyle, Charles, Gay-Lussac, Dalton, and Avogadro made contributions to our current understanding of gas behavior. *There is a relationship between volume and number of moles for an ideal gas (when pressure and temperature are held constant). *Avogadro’s law and the ideal gas laws can be applied to chemical stoichiometry to determine mass, pressure, volume, temperature, and mole relationships in chemical reactions involving gases. *There is a relationship between the total pressure of a mixture of gases and the pressures of the component gases. Misconceptions ***Students may think gases do not have mass. ***Students may think air and oxygen are the same gas ions. ***Students may not understand how to use dimensional analysis. ***Students may not understand significant figures. Vocabulary Ideal Gas Laws
– mathematical formulas that describe
the relationships among temperature, pressure, volume, and moles in ideal gasesIdeal Gas – a hypothetical
gas whose molecules occupy negligible space and have no interactions, and that
obey gas laws exactlyBoyle’s Law – the pressure
and volume of a gas have an inverse relationship when temperature is held
constant Charles’ Law
– the volume of an ideal gas at constant pressure is directly proportional to
the absolute temperatureAvogadro’s Law
– equal volumes of all gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal
number of moleculesDalton’s Law of Partial Pressure
– in a mixture of non-reacting gases, the total pressure exerted is equal to
the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gasesStandard Temperature and Pressure (STP)
– the standard temperature is 273°K, 0°C, or 32°F and the standard pressure is
1atmGas Stoichiometry
– the relationship between the reactants and products in chemical reactions
that produce gasesKinetic Molecular Theory
- a theory of the thermodynamic behavior
of matter, based on the dependence of temperature on the kinetic energy of the
rapidly moving particles of a substanceNotes Other Valuable Resources |

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