Chapter Overview During this unit, students develop an understanding of Avogadro’s number and how to apply it to atoms, formula units, and molecules. The concepts of mole and molar mass of substances are introduced by example and visualization. Avogadro’s number and the molar mass are then used in calculations. Students design and implement a descriptive investigation to determine the cost of an atom of an element. Students also implement a comparative investigation to measure, calculate, and then use percent composition and molar mass to derive empirical and a molecular formulas. Main Ideas The mole is a fundamental SI unit in science. A mole of anything contains Avogadro’s number of representative particles (atoms, molecules, ions, formula units). An empirical formula gives the relative numbers of atoms of each element found in a chemical compound. Percent composition is the percentage by mass of each element in a given compound. A molecular formula for a compound is a whole number multiple of its empirical formula. Vocabulary Avogadro’s Number/Constant
– the number of representative
particles in a mole of a substance 6.02x1023Molecular Formula
– a whole number multiple of the
empirical formulaEmpirical Formula
– the simplest ratio of the different
elements in a given compoundMole Concept
– the idea that the number of particles
and mass of a substance can be calculated using the SI unit moleMolar Mass – the mass in grams of a mole of a substanceMole – the mass of substance containing the same
number of fundamental units as there are in atoms in exactly 12.000g of 12CPercent Composition
– percentage by mass of each element in a compoundAtomic Mass – average mass
of an elementAtomic Mass Unit (AMU)
– average of the proton rest mass and the neutron rest massFormula Mass
– the sum of the atomic weights of the atoms in the empirical formula of the
compoundNotes Other Valuable Resources |

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