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Unit 3

Chapter Overview
During this unit, students engage in a basic review of chemistry concepts. Students begin to see the relationship between biology and chemistry through learning about the structure and function of biomolecules. Students implement controlled experiments, such as identifying organic compounds and enzyme activity and the factors that affect the reactions. Students identify the role of enzymes and their importance in living organisms. Students demonstrate safe practices as outlined in the Texas Safety Standards.

Main Ideas
*** Organic compounds are biomolecules made and used by living organisms.  They all contain carbon and hydrogen.  The structure of biomolecules gives rise to their function.  The four types of biomolecules are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. 
*** Enzymes are an example of an organic compound; they speed up reaction rates and are critical to metabolic processes within living organisms.  Enzymes function best within a certain temperature, range, salt concentration, and pH.

*** Students may think biology and chemistry are separate and unrelated disciplines, rather than understanding that the study of living things (biology) at their most basic level (chemical make-up) is in essence chemistry.
*** Students may think all chemical reactions occur at the same rate, rather than understanding that there are many factors that affect the rate of chemical reactions.
*** Students may think the molecules in the food they eat are utilized by the body in the same form. (i.e., the fat consumed in food moves directly to storage in the body
without any alteration).

Biomolecule/Organic Molecule – molecule made by living things, molecule that makes up living things

Carbohydrates – molecule for energy and structure, made of C (carbon), H (hydrogen), and O (oxygen)

Lipids – fats and oils that don’t mix with water, give <<more>> energy and make cell membranes, long chain of C (carbon) and H (hydrogen) with some O (oxygen) at one end

Proteins – a chain of amino acids folded into a complex shape, many functions like being a catalyst, moving materials in/out of a cell, moving your body

Nucleic Acids – RNA and DNA, stores genetic information in cells

Polymer – is a large molecule (macromolecule) made of many repeated parts

Monomer – a molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to make a polymer

Dehydration Synthesis – monomers bond together to make a polymer and water is released

Hydrolysis – a polymer breaks down into monomers, water is needed

Enzyme – protein that makes a chemical reaction happen faster but is not changed in the process

Catalyst – lowers the energy needed for a chemical reaction

Substrate – this is changed by the enzyme

Activation Energy – energy needed for a chemical reaction to happen

Denature – shape of protein is changed by heat or acid so it won’t work


Other Valuable Resources

Amoeba Sisters: Biomolecules

Crash Course: Biomolecules

Amoeba Sisters: Enzymes