Microcurrículo para alumnos del 4to semestre de Medicina.

Docentes del Instituto de Inmunología .  Universidad de Cartagena. Facultad de Medicina.  www.unicartagena.edu.co

DEL CURSO: Agenda para planeación :

Calendario: 1ER PER

Microcurrículo

Competencias a desarrollar

Mapa

Evaluación de Estilos de aprendizaje, conocimientos previos 

    Metodología pedagógica

      Trabajos en casa

        Guía texto

          Diapositivas

          Resúmenes

            Historias clínicas

              Artículos científicos

                ABP

                  Preguntas y casos problema

                    Videos:

                     

                      Search YouTube

                      No se ha podido encontrar la URL de especificaciones de gadget.

                      You Tube Inmunology


                      Bibliografía

                        Abbas

                        Regueiro

                        Links

                          Bases de datos

                            UdeC. Moodle

                              Evaluaciones

                                Diccionario de microbiología

                                  Tutorías

                                    Instrucciones Laboratorio

                                      Informes de Laboratorio

                                        CURSO BÁSICO DE INMUNOLOGÍA MÉDICA

                                        Presentación

                                        Programa del curso

                                        UTCIM00 PROGRAMAS Y PROYECTOS DOCENTES



                                        1. Generalidades

                                        2. Órganos y Células

                                        3. Antígenos y Alérgenos

                                        4. Estructura y función de los anticuerpos

                                        5. La Respuesta Inmune Innata I.

                                        6. La Respuesta Inmune Innata II.

                                        7. El Sistema HLA y Procesamiento Antigénico

                                        8. Estructura y función del TCR y del BCR

                                        9. Citoquinas y quemoquinas

                                        10. La respuesta inmune efectora contra patógenos y microbiota normal 

                                        11. Moléculas de adhesión y tráfico celular

                                        12. La Respuesta Alérgica

                                        13.  La Inmunología de los Trasplantes.

                                        14.  Tolerancia y autoinmunidad.

                                        15.  Inmunidad contra los tumores.

                                        17.  Inmunodiagnóstico I.

                                        18.  Inmunodiagnóstico II.

                                        19.  Inmunodiagnóstico III.

                                        Evaluación por competencias

                                        Bibliografía

                                        ADC UTC

                                        Objetivos  Generales y Específicos de la asignatura.
                                        Se desarrollan competencias del ser, saber y saber hacer.Se enfatizan las competencias interpretativas, argumentativas, propositivas, diagnósticas y terapeúticas.
                                         Conocer los diversos componentes humorales y celulares del sistema inmune, su funcionamiento normal y patologico, su participación en las infecciones, control de tumores , rechazos de transplantes, enfermedades autoinmune y alérgicas.
                                        El estudiante adquirirá competencias del saber ser tales como asistir puntualmente a todas las clases, respetuoso con docentes y compañeros, ético, bien comportado, bien vestido, mantener un buen nivel de concentración  durante la clase, organizar su agenda, su portafolio y ser muy reponsable en el manejo de su tiempo para lograr sus lecturas de repaso y aprendizaje de conceptos básicos construidos con el uso del mentefacto y los mapas conceptuales y una vez comprendidos, memorizados.
                                         
                                         PROGRAMA DEL CURSO
                                         
                                        Programa de la clase  
                                         Actividades y temas a realizar y revisar, tareas en casa, bibliografía.
                                         Mapa de la clase 
                                         Contenido de la clase. Palabras y conceptos claves.
                                        MICROCURRICULO

                                        I

                                        UNIDAD DE TRABAJO

                                         

                                         

                                         

                                         

                                        Introducción al S. Inmunológico

                                        El Sistema inmunológico órganos y células.

                                        Antigenos y alergenos.

                                        El complejo mayor de histocompatilidad  (HLA) y procesamiento antigénico. Inmunoglobulinas receptor  de linfocitos

                                        Respuesta inmune innata (1)

                                        Respuesta inmune innata (2)

                                        Respuesta inmune efectora

                                        Citoquinas y quemoquinas. Inmunologia  de los transplantes

                                        Inmunidad a tumores

                                        alergias

                                        Autoinmunidad y tolerancia

                                        Técnicas  de

                                        inmunodiagnostico (1),

                                         técnicas de inmunodiagnostico (2)

                                        Tiempo de Trabajo Académico

                                          

                                         

                                        Inmunología

                                        T  P  A  I

                                              18  10     10

                                         

                                         

                                         

                                        SER

                                        Valores, Principios, Normas

                                        SABER

                                        Hechos, Conceptos, Generalizaciones

                                        SABER HACER

                                        Métodos, Procedimientos, Técnicas

                                         

                                         

                                         

                                         

                                         

                                         

                                        El estudiante mostrará responsabilidad con los conocimientos  adquiridos de acuerdo al tema trabajado

                                         

                                        El estudiante deberá conocer las bases del sistema inmunológico.

                                         

                                         

                                        conocimientos adquiridos deben reafirmarse


                                        Se harán evaluaciones en fechas asignadas formativa y reflexiva para analizar en forma objetiva.

                                         

                                        Se realizaran evaluaciones orales y escritas para determinar los niveles de compresión.

                                         

                                        Aprender los órganos y células del sistema inmune. Se reconocerán los antigenos e inmunoglobinas, receptores de linfocitos T y B. Conocimiento de la respuesta inmune innata y celular efectora.

                                         

                                        sesiones

                                        Ambiente de aprendisaje

                                        Actividades Didácticas

                                        T.P.

                                        Trabajo Independiente

                                        T.I.

                                         

                                         

                                        1

                                         

                                         

                                        Salón de clases

                                        Internet

                                        Biblioteca

                                        laboratorio

                                         

                                        Clases magistrales

                                        seminarios

                                        Practicas en el lab.

                                         

                                         

                                         Consultara  bibliografía para argumentar

                                         

                                         

                                         

                                         

                                        Tiempos de trabajo academico

                                        Tiempos de trabajo

                                        presencial

                                         

                                        Tiempos de trabajo independiente

                                         

                                         

                                         

                                        Recursos didacticos

                                        Tema de lectura obligatoria

                                        ref

                                        Tema de lectura complementaria

                                        ref

                                         

                                         

                                         


                                        Preguntas de clases

                                        Video beam

                                         

                                        Inmunologia. W. Rojas- ultima edición.

                                        Inmunologia celular y molecular .ABBAS, Inmunologia de Golsby

                                        Inmunobiologia de Janeway

                                         

                                         

                                         

                                         

                                        Consulta en Internet y revistas especializadas.

                                         













                                         

                                        PROGRAMA DE INMUNOLOGÍA BÁSICA PRIMER PERÍODO DEL 2015

                                            ALUMNOS DE CUARTO SEMESTRE DE LA FACULTAD DE MEDICINA

                                         

                                         

                                         
                                        Evaluación de conocimientos previos    prerrequisitos para la clase: Se exploran competencias del saber requeridas para la comprensión de los conceptos a tratar en la clase
                                         
                                        Metodología pedagógica :
                                        Clases magistrales con sesiones de preguntas y respuestas , quiz grupal.  Recomendaciones de trabajo independiente en casa.  
                                         
                                        GUÍA:
                                        Texto 
                                        El recomendado para lectura  por el docente
                                        Diapositivas resúmen de clase
                                        Utilizadas por el docente en la exposicion de su clase con los conceptos y palabras claves descritas. 
                                         
                                         
                                        AUDIO DE DIAPOSITIVAS
                                        Grabaciones de clase pra facilitar la comprensión de la misma
                                        VIDEO 
                                         Recomendado por el docente.
                                         Trabajo Independiente post clase
                                         Asignado por el docente cuando lo estime conveniente
                                         Resúmenes  en mf  mc :
                                         Estrateegia de aprendizaje significativo, conceptual para mejorar la calidad del aprendizaje.
                                        Historias clínicas 
                                         Las sugeridas por el docente para correlación básica clínica en la formación del estudiante
                                        ABP 
                                        Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas utilizado por el docente cuando lo estime conveniente 
                                        Preguntas y casos problema 
                                         Elaboradas por el docente para mejorar la comprensión de conceptos claves en el proceso del aprendizaje
                                         
                                        Bibliografía 
                                        Recomendada por el docente para la mejor comprención de la clase y  el desarrollo de las competencias del saber y saber hacer.
                                         
                                        Artículos científicos
                                        Recomendados por el Docente y el instituto para mejorar la comprension de las clases y desarrollar conocimientos y habilidades para las competencias investigativas 
                                         
                                         
                                        Links
                                        Recomendados por el Instituo para complementacion de clases y la elaboracion de proyectos de investigacion
                                         
                                         
                                         VIDEOS VER ANALIZAR Y ESCOGER:
                                        YOUTUBE :
                                         
                                         
                                         
                                         
                                         
                                        UDEC MOODLE
                                         
                                        Bases de datos
                                         
                                        DICCIONARIO DE MICROBIOLOGIA
                                         
                                        Evaluaciones:  A P C PVC QG QI ETC TALLER
                                         
                                        AGENDA:
                                         
                                         
                                        TUTORIAS
                                        Planeadas por el instituto de Inmunología
                                        INSTRUCCIONES LAB
                                         Solicitados y orientadoas através de tutorías por los docentes del instituto
                                        INFORMES LAB
                                         Solicitados y orientadoas através de tutorías por los docentes del instituto
                                         
                                          LINKS PARA INMUNOLOGIA
                                        http://www.ugr.es/~decacien/Planes/Bioquimica/temarios/1611125.pdf


                                        ALERGIA E INMUNOLOGIA
                                        Allergy and Immunology Society.
                                        Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Online.
                                        Allergy (European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology).
                                        Allernet.
                                        American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.
                                        Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.
                                        Asociación Argentina de Alergia e Inmunología Clínica.
                                        Asociación Colombiana de Alergia, Asma e Inmunología.
                                        Asociación de Alergia, Asma e Inmunología "Buenos Aires".
                                        Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America.
                                        British Society for immunology.
                                        European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology.
                                        European Federation of Asthma and Allergy Associations.
                                        Food Allergy Initiative.
                                        Immunology Link.
                                        Internet Journal of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology.
                                        National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.
                                        On Line Allergy Center.
                                        Pediatric Allergy Unit of La Fe Hospital of Valencia.
                                        Sociedad Española de Inmunología Clínica y Alergia Pediátrica.
                                        Sociedad Latinoamericana de Alergia, Asma e Inmunología.
                                        Sociedad Paraguaya de Alergia, Asma e Inmunología.
                                        Sociedade Brasileira de Alergia e Inmunopatología.
                                        The American Academy of Otolaryngic Allergy.
                                        The American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association.
                                        The American Board of Allergy and Immunology.
                                        The Food Allergy & Anaphylaxis Network.
                                        The Internet Journal of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology.
                                        The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.
                                        World Allergy Organization.


                                        RICHARD HUNT, MARGARET HUNT, PATRICK MURRAY. VIROLOGIA ON LINE.
                                        UNIVERSIDAD SOUTH CAROLINA.         
                                        MICROBIOLOGIA    


                                        INMUNOLOGIA   

                                        VIROLOGIA

                                        BACTERIOLOGIA
                                        MICOLOGIA
                                        PARASITOLOGIA
                                        INFECTOLOGIA, PATOGENESIS MICROBIANA, INMUNOPATOLOGIA,  POR APARATOS Y SISTEMAS  DIAGNOSTICO DIFERENCIAL
                                        CHAPTER ONE
                                        INTRODUCTION

                                        PIEL Y MUCOSAS
                                        CHAPTER FOUR
                                        INFECTIONS OF THE SKIN AND ITS APPENDAGES, MUSCLE AND BONE
                                         CCCCC CABEZA CRANEO CUERO CABELLUDO Y CUELLO
                                        CHAPTER TWO
                                        UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS AND INFECTIONS OF THE HEAD AND NECK

                                        RESPIRATORIO
                                        CHAPTER TWO
                                        UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS AND INFECTIONS OF THE HEAD AND NECK
                                        CHAPTER THREE
                                        LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS

                                        CHAPTER FIVE
                                        MYCOBACTERIAL INFECTIONS
                                        CARDIOVASCULAR Y SANUINEO Y ENDOTELIO VASCULAR

                                        SISTEMA DIGESTIVO , GASTROINTESTINAL, BOCA, ESOFAGO, INTESTINO DELGADO, HIGADO, PANCREAS
                                        CHAPTER SIX
                                        GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT INFECTIONS

                                        CHAPTER SEVEN
                                        URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS
                                        TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE


                                        CHAPTER EIGHT
                                        SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES



                                        CHAPTER TEN 
                                        CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INFECTIONS
                                        HTTP://WWW.MICROBIOLOGYBOOK.ORG/INFECTIOUS%20DISEASE/CNS%20INFECTIONS.HTM

                                        CHAPTER ELEVEN
                                        INFECTIOUS DISEASE EMERGENCIES





                                        FLASH AND GIF ANIMATIONS
                                        by Gary Kaiser
                                        November, 2008
                                        MEMBRANE TRANSPORT AND PROKARYOTIC CELL STRUCTURE
                                        Flash animation showing passive diffusion of oxygen.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/passive_flash.html
                                        Flash animation showing osmosis in an isotonic environment.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/isotonic_flash.html
                                        Flash animation showing osmosis in a hypertonic environment.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/hypertonic_flash.html
                                        Flash animation showing osmosis in a hypotonic environment.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/hypotonic_flash.html
                                        Flash animation showing transport by way of an uniporter.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/uniiporter_flash.html
                                        Flash animation showing transport of water across a membrane by channel proteins.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/channelanim.html
                                        Flash animation showing transport by way of an antiporter.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/antiporter_flash.html
                                        Flash animation showing transport by way of a symporter.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/symport_flash.html
                                        Flash animation showing an "ABC" transport system.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/ABC_flash.html
                                        Flash animation showing group translocation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/group_flash.html
                                        GIF animation showing the synthesis of peptidoglycan.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/ppgsynanim.html
                                        GIF animation showing endospore formation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/sporeform_an.html
                                        GIF animation showing endospore germination.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/sporegerm_an.html
                                        1
                                        Flash animation showing a motile bacterium contacting a host cell by swimming through the mucus.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/bacpath/contactcell_flag.html
                                        Flash animation showing spirochetes using motility to enter and exit blood vessels.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/bacpath/contactcell_spiro.html
                                        GIF animation showing induction of stomach ulcers by Helicobacter pylori.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/bacpath/helico.html
                                        Flash animation showing a bacterium using both pili and adhesins to adhere to a host cell.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/bacpath/pili_fl_anim.html
                                        GIF animation showing bacteria lacking pili being flushed out of the urethra.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/nopili.html
                                        GIF animation showing how bacteria with pili may resist being flushed out of the urethra.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/yespili.html
                                        Flash animation showing bacteria using invasions to enter a hoist cell
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/invas.html
                                        Gif animation of Shigella invading an intestinal mucosal epithelial cell.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/bacpath/shiginv.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating the function of endocytic pattern-recognition receptors on phagocytes.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/bacpath/endoprr.html
                                        Flash animation summarizing phagocytosis through unenhanced attachment.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/unenhanced_sum.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating the function of enhanced attachment by way of IgG.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/opson_IgG.html
                                        Flash animation summarizing phagocytosis through enhanced attachment.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/phagsum.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating how capsules can block unenhanced attachment of pathogen-associated molecular
                                        patterns to endocytic pattern-recognition receptors on phagocytes.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/phag_pampcap.html
                                        Flash animation showing phagocytosis of an encapsulated bacterium through opsonization.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/opson_capsule.html
                                        Flash animation showing an encapsulated bacterium resisting phagocytosis by blocking C3b.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/bacpath/capc3b.html
                                        GIF animation showing bacteria depolymerizing actin in order to resist phagocytosis.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/bacpath/actinan.html
                                        GIF animation showing a bacterium resisting phagocytosis by escaping from a phagosome.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/bacpath/rick.html
                                        GIF animation showing a bacterium resisting phagocytosis by blocking the fusion of a lysosome and a
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/bacpath/nofuse.html
                                        2
                                        Flash animation of a capillary prior to vasodilation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/bacpath/nodilat.html
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/bacpath/dilat.html
                                        Flash animation showing toll-like receptors responding to lipoteichoic acid(LTA) from the gram-positive cell wall
                                        and signaling the synthesis inflammatory cytokines.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/LTAsignal_flash.html
                                        Flash animation showing toll-like receptors responding to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the gram-negative cell
                                        wall and signaling the synthesis inflammatory cytokines.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/lpssignal_flash.html
                                        Flash animation showing binding of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and chemokines to neutrophils triggering
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/bacpath/exkill_lps_fl.html
                                        Flash animation showing binding of teichoic acids (TA) and chemokines to neutrophils triggering extracellular
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/bacpath/exkill_ta_fl.html
                                        GIF animation of an A-B toxin binding to and penetrating a susceptible host cell.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/bacpath/exoab.html
                                        Flash animation showing neutralization of an exotoxin by antibodies.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/humoral/abydefense/neutexo/toxin_neut.html
                                        USING ANTIBIOTICS TO CONTROL BACTERIA
                                        GIF animation showing the synthesis of peptidoglycan.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/ppgsynanim.html
                                        GIF animation illustrating how penicillins inhibit peptidoglycan synthesis.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/penres.html
                                        GIF animation illustrating how vancomycin inhibit peptidoglycan synthesis.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/vanres.html
                                        Flash animation of a normal bacterial enzyme reaction.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/normalenz_anim.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating how antimicrobial agents may inactivate a bacterial enzyme.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/enzinact_anim.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating the early stages of translation during bacterial protein synthesis.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/translat.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating aminoglycosides preventing the translocation of tRNA from the A-site to the P-site of
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/aglyconoAP_anim.html
                                        3
                                        Flash animation illustrating aminoglycosides causing a misreading of codons.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/aglycomiscode_anim.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating how tetracyclines bind to the 30S ribosomal subunit and block translation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/tetres_anim.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating how macrolides bind to the 50S ribosomal subunit and block translation by blocking
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/macresp_anim.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating how macrolides bind to the 50S ribosomal subunit and block translation by preventing
                                        the transfer of the peptidyl tRNA from the A-site to the P-site.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/macresr_anim.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating how oxazolidinones block the binding of the 50S ribosomal subunit to the initiation
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/oxazolres_anim.html
                                        BACTERIAL RESISTANCE TO ANTIBIOTICS
                                        Flash animation showing a bacterium producing an enzyme capable of destroying the antibiotic.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/inact_antibio_enz_fl.html
                                        Flash animation showing a bacterium producing an altered ribosomal subunit to which the antibiotic no longer
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/altrib_fl.html
                                        Flash animation showing a bacterium producing an altered enzyme to which the antibiotic no longer binds.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/altenz_anim.html
                                        Flash animation showing a bacterium producing altered porins to block transport of the drug across the outer
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/altpor.html
                                        Flash animation showing a bacterium producing an altered carrier protein to block transport of the drug across the
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/altcar.html
                                        Flash animation showing a bacterium producing new transporter protein able to pump the drug out of the
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/pump.html
                                        Flash animation showing competitive antagonism.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/compant_an.html
                                        Flash animation showing a bacterium producing more of a limited enzyme so competitive antagonism favors the
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/moreenz_an.html
                                        GIF animation showing antisense RNA.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/antisense_an.html
                                        GIF animation illustrating R plasmid conjugation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/r.html
                                        4
                                        Flash animation showing the sodium-potassium pump in animal cells.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/eustruct/sppump_flash.html
                                        GIF animation showing phagocytosis.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/eustruct/phagocyt.html
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/eustruct/pinocyt.html
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/eustruct/exocyt.html
                                        For more animations of membrane transport see page 1.
                                        Flash animation showing the endomembrane system.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/eustruct/endomembanim.html
                                        Flash animation showing toll-like receptors responding to fungal mannans from the cell wall of yeast and signaling
                                        the synthesis inflammatory cytokines.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/fungi/Mannansignal_flash.html
                                        Flash animation showing toll-like receptors responding to GPI-anchored proteins from the cytoplasmic
                                        membranes of protozoa and signaling the synthesis inflammatory cytokines.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/protozoa/GPIsignal_flash.html
                                        Flash animation showing adsorption of an enveloped virus.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/adsorp_ev_fl.html
                                        Flash animation showing adsorption of a naked virus.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/adsorp_nv_fl.html
                                        Flash animation showing entry of an enveloped virus by envelope fusion.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/entry_fuse_ev_fl.html
                                        Flash animation showing entry of an enveloped virus by endocytosis.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/entry_endo_ev_fl.html
                                        Flash animation showing entry of a naked virus by capsid reconfiguration.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/entry_fuse_nv_fl.html
                                        Flash animation showing penetration of a naked virus by endocytosis.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/entry_endo_nv_fl.html
                                        Fusion of the viral envelope with the membrane of the endocytic vesicle.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/endoves_fuse_ev_fl.html
                                        5
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/endoves_lysis_nv_fl.html
                                        Viral capsid undergoing conformational changes that forms pores in the endocytic vesicle and enable the virial
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/endoves_capsid_nv_fl.html
                                        Release of the viral genome from the capsid (uncoating).
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/uncoat_nuccapsid_fl.html
                                        A viral DNA genome entering the nucleus of the host cell through the pores in the nuclear membrane.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/entry_nuc_genome_fl.html
                                        A viral capsid interacting with the nuclear membrane of the host cell enabling the viral DNA to enter the nucleus.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/entry_nuc_capsid_fl.html
                                        A viral capsid interacting with the nuclear membrane of the host cell enabling the viral DNA to enter the nucleus.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/entry_nuc_nucapsid_fl.html
                                        Flash animation showing viral replication.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/replicate_ev_fl.html
                                        Flash animation showing maturation of an enveloped virus that will be released by budding.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/matureev_bud_fl.html
                                        Flash animation showing maturation of an enveloped virus that will be released by exocytosis.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/matureev_exo_fl.html
                                        Flash animation showing maturation of a naked virus.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/mature_nv_fl.html
                                        Flash animation showing release of a naked virus by cell lysis.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/release_nv_fl.html
                                        Flash animation showing release of an enveloped virus by budding.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/release_bud_fl.html
                                        Flash Animation showing release of an enveloped virus by exocytosis.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/release_exo_fl.html
                                        Flash Animation showing a summary animation of the life cycle of an enveloped virus.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/summary_ev_fl.html
                                        Flash Animation showing a summary animation of the life cycle of a naked virus.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/summary_nv_fl.html
                                        Flash Animation Showing All Viral Life Cycle Animations on this Page.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/VLC/viral_life_cycle.swf
                                        GIF animation showing adsorption of HIV.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/hivad.html
                                        GIF animation showing penetration of HIV.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/hivpen.html
                                        GIF animation showing the action of reverse transcriptase.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/hivdsdna.html
                                        6
                                        GIF animation showing provirus formation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/provirus.html
                                        GIF Animation showing translation of HIV mRNA.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/hivrep.html
                                        GIF animation showing maturation of gp41 and gp120.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/hivmatgp.html
                                        GIF animation showing maturation of HIV.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/hivmat.html
                                        GIF animation summarizing the life cycle of HIV.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/hivsum.html
                                        Flash Animation of normal transcription of DNA from the RNA genome of HIV.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/normpro.html
                                        Flash Animation showing the action of ZDV in causing the formation of an incomplete provirus.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/zdvanim.html
                                        GIF animation showing the normal function of an allosteric enzyme.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/allonormal.html
                                        GIF animation showing the action of an inhibitor on an allosteric enzyme.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/alloinhib.html
                                        GIF animation showing the normal function of HIV protease.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/paseanim.html
                                        GIF animation showing the action of protease inhibitors.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/pianim.html
                                        Flash animation showing adsorption of a lytic bacteriophage.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/adsorb_lyt.html
                                        Flash animation showing penetration of a lytic bacteriophage.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/pen_lyt.html
                                        Flash animation showing replication of a lytic bacteriophage.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/replicate_lyt.html
                                        Flash animation showing maturation of a lytic bacteriophage.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/mature_lyt.html
                                        Flash animation showing release of a lytic bacteriophage.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/release_lyt.html
                                        Flash animation summarizing the lytic life cycle of a lytic bacteriophage.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/lyticsum01.html
                                        Flash animation showing adsorption of a temperate bacteriophage.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/adsorb_lyso.html
                                        Flash animation showing penetration of a temperate bacteriophage.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/pen_lyso.html
                                        7
                                        Flash animation showing prophage formation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/prophage_lyso.html
                                        Flash animation showing spontaneous induction.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/sponinduct_lyso.html
                                        Flash animation showing replication of a temperate bacteriophage.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/replicate_lyso.html
                                        Flash animation showing maturation of a temperate bacteriophage.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/mature_lyso.html
                                        Flash animation showing release of a temperate bacteriophage.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/release_lyso.html
                                        Flash animation summarizing the lysogenic life cycle of a temperate bacteriophage.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/lysosum01.html
                                        Flash Animation of normal transcription of DNA from the RNA genome of HIV.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/normpro.html
                                        Flash Animation showing the action of ZDV in causing the formation of an incomplete provirus.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/zdvanim.html
                                        Flash animation showing the normal function of an allosteric enzyme.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/allonormal.html
                                        Flash animation showing the action of an inhibitor on an allosteric enzyme.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/alloinhib.html
                                        Flash animation showing the normal function of HIV protease.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/paseanim.html
                                        Flash animation showing the action of protease inhibitors.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/pianim.html
                                        INNATE IMMUNITY: PAMPs, PRRs, COMPLEMENT PATHWAYS, PHAGOCYTOSIS, INFLAMMATION
                                        Flash animation illustrating the function of endocytic pattern-recognition receptors on phagocytes.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/endoprr.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating signaling toll-like receptors on defense cells: LPS and TLR-4.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/lpssignal_flash.html
                                        Flash animation showing toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognizing viral double-stranded RNA.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/tlrviralanim.html
                                        GIF animation showing the antiviral nature of interferon.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/if.html
                                        8
                                        Flash animation showing assembly of C1 during the classical complement pathway.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/c1act_flash.html
                                        Flash animation showing formation of C3 convertase during the classical complement pathway.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/c3case_flash.html
                                        Flash animation showing cleavage of C3 and the formation of C5 convertase during the classical complement
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/c5case_flash.html
                                        Flash animation showing the formation of the Membrane Attack Complex (MAC) during the complement
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/mac_flash.html
                                        GIF animation showing the role of C5a in vasodilation, the chemotaxis of phagocytes towards C5a, and their
                                        attachment to the opsonin C3b as a result of the complement pathways.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/c5a.html
                                        Flash animation showing activation of the lectin pathway, formation of C3 convertase, and formation of C5
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/lectin_flash.html
                                        Flash animation showing the activation of the alternative complement pathway, the formation of C3 convertase,
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/alternative_flash.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating the function of endocytic pattern-recognition receptors on phagocytes.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/endoprr.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating the function of enhanced attachment by way of IgG.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/opson_IgG.html
                                        GIF animation showing the formation of neutrophil NETs.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/neutNET_an.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating how capsules can block unenhanced attachment of pathogen-associated molecular
                                        patterns to endocytic pattern-recognition receptors on phagocytes.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/phag_pampcap.html
                                        Flash animation showing an encapsulated bacterium resisting phagocytosis by blocking C3b.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/capc3b.html
                                        Flash animation showing phagocytosis of an encapsulated bacterium through opsonization.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/opson_capsule_sum.html
                                        Flash animation showing ingestion and phagosome formation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/phing.html
                                        Flash animation showing intracellular destruction.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/phdes.html
                                        9
                                        Flash animation summarizing phagocytosis by unenhanced attachment.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/unenhanced_sum.html
                                        Flash animation summarizing phagocytosis by enhanced attachment (opsonization).
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/phagsum.html
                                        GIF animation showing a bacterium resisting phagocytosis by escaping from a phagosome.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/rick.html
                                        GIF animation showing a bacterium resisting phagocytosis by blocking the fusion of a lysosome and a
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/nofuse.html
                                        Flash animation summarizing extracellular killing by phagocytosis.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/exkill.html
                                        Flash animation of a NK cell interacting with a normal body cell.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/nkn.html
                                        Flash animation of a NK cell interacting with a virus-infected cell or tumor cell not expressing MHC-I molecules.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/nkn.html
                                        Flash animation of apoptosis by NK cells.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/nkapop.html
                                        Flash animation of a capillary prior to vasodilation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/nodilat.html
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/dilat.html
                                        Flash animation summarizing early inflammation and diapedesis.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/diapedesis_early_fl.html
                                        Flash animation summarizing late inflammation and diapedesis.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/diapedesis_late_fl.html
                                        ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY: HUMORAL AND CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY
                                        Flash animation of epitopes reacting with specific B-cell receptors on B-lymphocytes.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/antigens/epsig_flash.html
                                        Flash animation of MHC-II molecules binding epitopes from exogenous antigens.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/intro/mhc/mhctwo.html
                                        Flash animation of a naive T4-lymphocyte recognizing epitopes bound to MHC-II molecules on an APC and the
                                        subsequent activation of that naive T4-lymphocyte by the APC.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/intro/mhc/t4act1.html
                                        10
                                        Flash animation of the binding of peptide epitopes to MHC-II molecules by a B-lymphocyte.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/intro/bcell/bcellmhc2.html
                                        Flash animation of an effector T4-lymphocyte recognizing epitopes bound to MHC-II molecules on a B-
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/intro/bcell/bcellt4_fl.html
                                        GIF Animation showing proliferation of a B-lymphocyte.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/intro/gensteps/bcprodif.html
                                        GIF Animation showing proliferation of a T4-lymphocyte.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/intro/gensteps/t4pro.html
                                        Flash animation showing gene translocation and combinatorial diversity.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/humoral/abydiversity/vdj_flash.html
                                        GIF animation showing clonal selection of B-lymphocytes.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/humoral/clonal/clonalan.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating the function of enhanced attachment by way of IgG.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/humoral/abydefense/opsonization/opson_IgG.html
                                        Flash animation of opsonization and intracellular destruction.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/humoral/abydefense/opsonization/phagsum.html
                                        Flash animation of opsonization and extracellular destruction.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/humoral/abydefense/opsonization/exkill.html
                                        Flash animation showing phagocytosis of an encapsulated bacterium through opsonization.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/humoral/abydefense/opsonization/opson_capsule_sum.
                                        Flash animation showing cytolysis of a gram-negative bacterium by MAC.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/humoral/abydefense/cytolysis/cytogn.html
                                        Flash animation showing damage to a viral envelope by MAC.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/humoral/abydefense/cytolysis/MAC_virus.html
                                        Flash animation showing cytolysis of an infected human cell by MAC.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/humoral/abydefense/cytolysis/incell.html
                                        Flash animation showing ADCC destruction of a virus-infected cell by NK cells.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/humoral/abydefense/adcc/adccigg.html
                                        Flash animation showing ADCC-induced apoptosis by NK cells.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/humoral/abydefense/adcc/adccapop.html
                                        Flash animation showing neutralization of an exotoxin by antibodies.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/humoral/abydefense/neutexo/exo.html
                                        Flash animation showing neutralization of a virus by antibodies.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/humoral/abydefense/neutvirus/nvir.html
                                        Flash animation showing antibodies blocking bacterial adherence to host cell.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/humoral/abydefense/adherence/blockadhesan.html
                                        11
                                        Flash animation showing the use of monoclonal antibodies to block the attachment of IgE to mast cells.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/humoral/monoclonal/monoige.html
                                        Flash animation of MHC-I molecules binding epitopes from endogenous antigens by an antigen-presenting cell.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/intro/mhc/mhcone_dend.html
                                        GIF animation of a proteasome degrading proteins into peptides.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/cellular/mechanismcmi/proteasome.html
                                        Flash animation of a naive T8-lymphocyte recognizing epitopes bound to MHC-I molecules on an APC.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/intro/mhc/mhc1t8.html
                                        Flash animation of MHC-I molecules binding epitopes from endogenous antigens in an infected cell.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/intro/mhc/mhcone_inf.html
                                        GIF Animation showing proliferation of a T8-lymphocyte.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/intro/gensteps/t8prodif.html
                                        GIF Animation showing proliferation of a T8-lymphocyte and its differentiation into an effector cell.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/intro/gensteps/t8prodif.html
                                        Flash animation of a CTL causing apoptosis by way of perforins and granzymes.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/intro/mhc/ctlapop.html
                                        Flash animation of CTL-induced apoptosis of a virus-infected cell.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/cellular/cmidefense/ctls/apoctl.html
                                        Flash animation of a CTL causing apoptosis by way of Fas/FasL interaction.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/cellular/cmidefense/ctls/fasan.html
                                        Flash animation of a macrophage processing an antigen for presentation to a Th1 cell.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/cellular/cmidefense/macronk/macro_process.html
                                        Flash animation of the activation of a macrophage by a Th1 cell.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/intro/apc/th1macro.html
                                        GIF animation showing production of IgE in response to an allergen.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/hypersensitivity/type1/allerg.html
                                        Flash animation showing the mechanism behind Type-1 hypersensitivity.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/hypersensitivity/type1/mast.html
                                        Flash animation showing the use of monoclonal antibodies to block the attachment of IgE to mast cells.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/hypersensitivity/type1/monoige.html
                                        Flash animation showing opsonization of cells during Type-II hypersensitivity.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/hypersensitivity/type2/opsontii.html
                                        Flash animation showing MAC lysis of cells during Type-II hypersensitivity.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/hypersensitivity/type2/mactii.html
                                        12
                                        Flash animation showing ADCC destruction of cells during Type-II hypersensitivity.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/hypersensitivity/type2/adcctii.html
                                        Flash animation showing apoptosis of cells during Type-II hypersensitivity.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/hypersensitivity/type2/adccapop.html
                                        GIF animation showing inflammation and tissue death during Type-III hypersensitivity.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/hypersensitivity/type3/typeiii.html
                                        MOLECULAR GENETICS: DNA, RNA, PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
                                        GIF animation showing the formation of a peptide bond.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/proteins/proteins/peptide.html
                                        GIF animation showing an enzyme-substrate reaction.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/proteins/enzymes/enzsub.html
                                        DNA Replication, Transcription, and Translation
                                        GIF animation illustrating DNA replication by complementary base pairing.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/DNA/DNArep/dnarepeu.html
                                        GIF animation illustrating the replication of leading and lagging strands of DNA.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/DNA/DNArep/lag.html
                                        GIF animation illustrating RNA polymerase unwinding the DNA helix during transcription.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/protsyn/transcription/rnapol.html
                                        GIF animation illustrating the synthesis of mRNA complementary to DNA during transcription.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/protsyn/transcription/transc.html
                                        GIF animation illustrating RNA processing.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/protsyn/transcription/exon.html
                                        Flash Animation illustrating the formation of the initiation complex during translation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/protsyn/translation/init.html
                                        Flash Animation illustrating the joining of the 50S ribosomal subunit to the initiation complex during translation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/protsyn/translation/50s.html
                                        Flash Animation illustrating the insertion of amino acids into a growing protein during translation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/protsyn/translation/peptidea.html
                                        Flash Animation illustrating the termination of translation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/protsyn/translation/stop.html
                                        Flash Animation summarizing translation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/protsyn/translation/translat.html
                                        GIF animation of the repressible trp operon in the absence of a co-repressor.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/protsyn/regulation/ronorep.html
                                        13
                                        GIF animation of the repressible trp operon in the presence of a co-repressor.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/protsyn/regulation/rorep.html
                                        GIF animation of the inducible lac operon in the absence of an inducer.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/protsyn/regulation/ionoind.html
                                        GIF animation of the inducible lac operon in the presence of an inducer.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/protsyn/regulation/ioind.html
                                        GIF animation an activator protein in the absence of an inducer.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/protsyn/regulation/activ.html
                                        GIF animation an activator protein in the presence of an inducer.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/protsyn/regulation/actind.html
                                        GIF animation showing antisense RNA.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/protsyn/regulation/antisense_an.html
                                        GIF animation showing non-competitive inhibition by an allosteric enzyme.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/protsyn/regulation/noncom.html
                                        Genetic Recombination in Bacteria
                                        GIF animation illustrating transformation in a competent bacterium.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/recombination/transformation/transf.html
                                        GIF animation illustrating generalized transduction.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/recombination/transduction/gentran.html
                                        GIF animation illustrating specialized transduction.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/recombination/transduction/spectran.html
                                        GIF animation illustrating F+ conjugation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/recombination/conjugation/f.html
                                        GIF animation illustrating Hfr conjugation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/recombination/conjugation/hfr.html
                                        GIF animation illustrating R plasmid conjugation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/recombination/conjugation/r.html
                                        GIF animation illustrating a restriction endonuclease.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/recombination/recombinant/enuc.html
                                        ATP Production and Glycolysis
                                        Flash animation illustrating the formation of ATP from ADP and phosphate.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/metabolism/energy/ATPform_flash.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating the hydrolysis of ATP to provide energy for cellular work.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/metabolism/energy/ATPhydrol_flash.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating substrate-level phosphorylation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/metabolism/energy/subphos_flash.html
                                        14
                                        Flash animation illustrating energy release during oxidation-reduction reactions.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/metabolism/energy/ets_flash.html
                                        GIF animation illustrating ATP synthase generating ATP.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/metabolism/energy/atpsynthase_an.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating the development of proton motive force as a result of chemiosmosis.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/metabolism/energy/hpump_flash.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating the formation of ATP from proton motive force and ATP synthase.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/metabolism/energy/atpase_flash.html
                                        GIF animation illustrating ATP production by chemiosmosis during aerobic respiration.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/metabolism/energy/chemios.html
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/metabolism/cellresp/glycol_an.html
                                        GIF animation showing photons exciting an electron to a higher energy level.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/metabolism/photosyn/photon.html
                                        GIF animation illustrating the development of proton motive force as a result of chemiosmosis.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/metabolism/photosyn/hpumpp.html
                                        GIF animation illustrating the formation of ATP from proton motive force and ATP synthase.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/metabolism/photosyn/atpasep.html
                                        GIF animation showing how to streak an agar plate for isolation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/labmanua/lab2/streak_an.html
                                        GIF animation showing a portion of a single colony being "picked off."
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/labmanua/lab3/pick.html
                                        Flash Animation showing serologic identification of Group A Streptococci, part-1.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/labmanua/lab17/StrepA1_flash.html
                                        Flash Animation showing serologic identification of Group A Streptococci, part-2.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/labmanua/lab17/StrepA2_flash.html
                                        Flash Animation showing immunologic testing for pregnancy.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/labmanua/lab17/preg_flash.html
                                        Flash Animation showing a positive direct fluorescent antibody test.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/labmanua/lab17/dfaby_flash.html
                                        Flash Animation showing a negative direct fluorescent antibody test.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/labmanua/lab17/negdfaby_flash.html
                                        Flash animation of the FTA-ABS test for syphilis.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/labmanua/lab18/fta_flash.html
                                        Flash animation of the EIA test for antibodies against HIV.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/labmanua/lab18/eia_flash.html
                                        15
                                        Flash animation of the WB test for antibodies against HIV.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/labmanua/lab18/wb_flash.html
                                        16
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/hivsum.
                                         FLASH AND GIF ANIMATIONS
                                        by Gary Kaiser
                                        November, 2008
                                        MEMBRANE TRANSPORT AND PROKARYOTIC CELL STRUCTURE
                                        Flash animation showing passive diffusion of oxygen.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/passive_flash.html
                                        Flash animation showing osmosis in an isotonic environment.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/isotonic_flash.html
                                        Flash animation showing osmosis in a hypertonic environment.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/hypertonic_flash.html
                                        Flash animation showing osmosis in a hypotonic environment.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/hypotonic_flash.html
                                        Flash animation showing transport by way of an uniporter.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/uniiporter_flash.html
                                        Flash animation showing transport of water across a membrane by channel proteins.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/channelanim.html
                                        Flash animation showing transport by way of an antiporter.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/antiporter_flash.html
                                        Flash animation showing transport by way of a symporter.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/symport_flash.html
                                        Flash animation showing an "ABC" transport system.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/ABC_flash.html
                                        Flash animation showing group translocation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/group_flash.html
                                        GIF animation showing the synthesis of peptidoglycan.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/ppgsynanim.html
                                        GIF animation showing endospore formation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/sporeform_an.html
                                        GIF animation showing endospore germination.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/sporegerm_an.html
                                        1
                                        Flash animation showing a motile bacterium contacting a host cell by swimming through the mucus.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/bacpath/contactcell_flag.html
                                        Flash animation showing spirochetes using motility to enter and exit blood vessels.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/bacpath/contactcell_spiro.html
                                        GIF animation showing induction of stomach ulcers by Helicobacter pylori.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/bacpath/helico.html
                                        Flash animation showing a bacterium using both pili and adhesins to adhere to a host cell.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/bacpath/pili_fl_anim.html
                                        GIF animation showing bacteria lacking pili being flushed out of the urethra.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/nopili.html
                                        GIF animation showing how bacteria with pili may resist being flushed out of the urethra.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/yespili.html
                                        Flash animation showing bacteria using invasions to enter a hoist cell
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/invas.html
                                        Gif animation of Shigella invading an intestinal mucosal epithelial cell.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/bacpath/shiginv.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating the function of endocytic pattern-recognition receptors on phagocytes.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/bacpath/endoprr.html
                                        Flash animation summarizing phagocytosis through unenhanced attachment.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/unenhanced_sum.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating the function of enhanced attachment by way of IgG.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/opson_IgG.html
                                        Flash animation summarizing phagocytosis through enhanced attachment.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/phagsum.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating how capsules can block unenhanced attachment of pathogen-associated molecular
                                        patterns to endocytic pattern-recognition receptors on phagocytes.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/phag_pampcap.html
                                        Flash animation showing phagocytosis of an encapsulated bacterium through opsonization.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/opson_capsule.html
                                        Flash animation showing an encapsulated bacterium resisting phagocytosis by blocking C3b.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/bacpath/capc3b.html
                                        GIF animation showing bacteria depolymerizing actin in order to resist phagocytosis.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/bacpath/actinan.html
                                        GIF animation showing a bacterium resisting phagocytosis by escaping from a phagosome.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/bacpath/rick.html
                                        GIF animation showing a bacterium resisting phagocytosis by blocking the fusion of a lysosome and a
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/bacpath/nofuse.html
                                        2
                                        Flash animation of a capillary prior to vasodilation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/bacpath/nodilat.html
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/bacpath/dilat.html
                                        Flash animation showing toll-like receptors responding to lipoteichoic acid(LTA) from the gram-positive cell wall
                                        and signaling the synthesis inflammatory cytokines.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/LTAsignal_flash.html
                                        Flash animation showing toll-like receptors responding to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the gram-negative cell
                                        wall and signaling the synthesis inflammatory cytokines.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/lpssignal_flash.html
                                        Flash animation showing binding of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and chemokines to neutrophils triggering
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/bacpath/exkill_lps_fl.html
                                        Flash animation showing binding of teichoic acids (TA) and chemokines to neutrophils triggering extracellular
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/bacpath/exkill_ta_fl.html
                                        GIF animation of an A-B toxin binding to and penetrating a susceptible host cell.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/bacpath/exoab.html
                                        Flash animation showing neutralization of an exotoxin by antibodies.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/humoral/abydefense/neutexo/toxin_neut.html
                                        USING ANTIBIOTICS TO CONTROL BACTERIA
                                        GIF animation showing the synthesis of peptidoglycan.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/ppgsynanim.html
                                        GIF animation illustrating how penicillins inhibit peptidoglycan synthesis.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/penres.html
                                        GIF animation illustrating how vancomycin inhibit peptidoglycan synthesis.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/vanres.html
                                        Flash animation of a normal bacterial enzyme reaction.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/normalenz_anim.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating how antimicrobial agents may inactivate a bacterial enzyme.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/prostruct/enzinact_anim.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating the early stages of translation during bacterial protein synthesis.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/translat.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating aminoglycosides preventing the translocation of tRNA from the A-site to the P-site of
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/aglyconoAP_anim.html
                                        3
                                        Flash animation illustrating aminoglycosides causing a misreading of codons.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/aglycomiscode_anim.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating how tetracyclines bind to the 30S ribosomal subunit and block translation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/tetres_anim.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating how macrolides bind to the 50S ribosomal subunit and block translation by blocking
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/macresp_anim.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating how macrolides bind to the 50S ribosomal subunit and block translation by preventing
                                        the transfer of the peptidyl tRNA from the A-site to the P-site.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/macresr_anim.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating how oxazolidinones block the binding of the 50S ribosomal subunit to the initiation
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/oxazolres_anim.html
                                        BACTERIAL RESISTANCE TO ANTIBIOTICS
                                        Flash animation showing a bacterium producing an enzyme capable of destroying the antibiotic.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/inact_antibio_enz_fl.html
                                        Flash animation showing a bacterium producing an altered ribosomal subunit to which the antibiotic no longer
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/altrib_fl.html
                                        Flash animation showing a bacterium producing an altered enzyme to which the antibiotic no longer binds.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/altenz_anim.html
                                        Flash animation showing a bacterium producing altered porins to block transport of the drug across the outer
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/altpor.html
                                        Flash animation showing a bacterium producing an altered carrier protein to block transport of the drug across the
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/altcar.html
                                        Flash animation showing a bacterium producing new transporter protein able to pump the drug out of the
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/pump.html
                                        Flash animation showing competitive antagonism.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/compant_an.html
                                        Flash animation showing a bacterium producing more of a limited enzyme so competitive antagonism favors the
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/moreenz_an.html
                                        GIF animation showing antisense RNA.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/antisense_an.html
                                        GIF animation illustrating R plasmid conjugation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/control/r.html
                                        4
                                        Flash animation showing the sodium-potassium pump in animal cells.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/eustruct/sppump_flash.html
                                        GIF animation showing phagocytosis.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/eustruct/phagocyt.html
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/eustruct/pinocyt.html
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/eustruct/exocyt.html
                                        For more animations of membrane transport see page 1.
                                        Flash animation showing the endomembrane system.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/eustruct/endomembanim.html
                                        Flash animation showing toll-like receptors responding to fungal mannans from the cell wall of yeast and signaling
                                        the synthesis inflammatory cytokines.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/fungi/Mannansignal_flash.html
                                        Flash animation showing toll-like receptors responding to GPI-anchored proteins from the cytoplasmic
                                        membranes of protozoa and signaling the synthesis inflammatory cytokines.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/protozoa/GPIsignal_flash.html
                                        Flash animation showing adsorption of an enveloped virus.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/adsorp_ev_fl.html
                                        Flash animation showing adsorption of a naked virus.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/adsorp_nv_fl.html
                                        Flash animation showing entry of an enveloped virus by envelope fusion.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/entry_fuse_ev_fl.html
                                        Flash animation showing entry of an enveloped virus by endocytosis.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/entry_endo_ev_fl.html
                                        Flash animation showing entry of a naked virus by capsid reconfiguration.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/entry_fuse_nv_fl.html
                                        Flash animation showing penetration of a naked virus by endocytosis.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/entry_endo_nv_fl.html
                                        Fusion of the viral envelope with the membrane of the endocytic vesicle.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/endoves_fuse_ev_fl.html
                                        5
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/endoves_lysis_nv_fl.html
                                        Viral capsid undergoing conformational changes that forms pores in the endocytic vesicle and enable the virial
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/endoves_capsid_nv_fl.html
                                        Release of the viral genome from the capsid (uncoating).
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/uncoat_nuccapsid_fl.html
                                        A viral DNA genome entering the nucleus of the host cell through the pores in the nuclear membrane.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/entry_nuc_genome_fl.html
                                        A viral capsid interacting with the nuclear membrane of the host cell enabling the viral DNA to enter the nucleus.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/entry_nuc_capsid_fl.html
                                        A viral capsid interacting with the nuclear membrane of the host cell enabling the viral DNA to enter the nucleus.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/entry_nuc_nucapsid_fl.html
                                        Flash animation showing viral replication.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/replicate_ev_fl.html
                                        Flash animation showing maturation of an enveloped virus that will be released by budding.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/matureev_bud_fl.html
                                        Flash animation showing maturation of an enveloped virus that will be released by exocytosis.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/matureev_exo_fl.html
                                        Flash animation showing maturation of a naked virus.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/mature_nv_fl.html
                                        Flash animation showing release of a naked virus by cell lysis.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/release_nv_fl.html
                                        Flash animation showing release of an enveloped virus by budding.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/release_bud_fl.html
                                        Flash Animation showing release of an enveloped virus by exocytosis.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/release_exo_fl.html
                                        Flash Animation showing a summary animation of the life cycle of an enveloped virus.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/summary_ev_fl.html
                                        Flash Animation showing a summary animation of the life cycle of a naked virus.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/summary_nv_fl.html
                                        Flash Animation Showing All Viral Life Cycle Animations on this Page.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/VLC/viral_life_cycle.swf
                                        GIF animation showing adsorption of HIV.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/hivad.html
                                        GIF animation showing penetration of HIV.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/hivpen.html
                                        GIF animation showing the action of reverse transcriptase.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/hivdsdna.html
                                        6
                                        GIF animation showing provirus formation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/provirus.html
                                        GIF Animation showing translation of HIV mRNA.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/hivrep.html
                                        GIF animation showing maturation of gp41 and gp120.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/hivmatgp.html
                                        GIF animation showing maturation of HIV.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/hivmat.html
                                        GIF animation summarizing the life cycle of HIV.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/hivsum.html
                                        Flash Animation of normal transcription of DNA from the RNA genome of HIV.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/normpro.html
                                        Flash Animation showing the action of ZDV in causing the formation of an incomplete provirus.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/zdvanim.html
                                        GIF animation showing the normal function of an allosteric enzyme.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/allonormal.html
                                        GIF animation showing the action of an inhibitor on an allosteric enzyme.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/alloinhib.html
                                        GIF animation showing the normal function of HIV protease.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/paseanim.html
                                        GIF animation showing the action of protease inhibitors.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/pianim.html
                                        Flash animation showing adsorption of a lytic bacteriophage.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/adsorb_lyt.html
                                        Flash animation showing penetration of a lytic bacteriophage.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/pen_lyt.html
                                        Flash animation showing replication of a lytic bacteriophage.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/replicate_lyt.html
                                        Flash animation showing maturation of a lytic bacteriophage.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/mature_lyt.html
                                        Flash animation showing release of a lytic bacteriophage.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/release_lyt.html
                                        Flash animation summarizing the lytic life cycle of a lytic bacteriophage.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/lyticsum01.html
                                        Flash animation showing adsorption of a temperate bacteriophage.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/adsorb_lyso.html
                                        Flash animation showing penetration of a temperate bacteriophage.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/pen_lyso.html
                                        7
                                        Flash animation showing prophage formation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/prophage_lyso.html
                                        Flash animation showing spontaneous induction.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/sponinduct_lyso.html
                                        Flash animation showing replication of a temperate bacteriophage.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/replicate_lyso.html
                                        Flash animation showing maturation of a temperate bacteriophage.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/mature_lyso.html
                                        Flash animation showing release of a temperate bacteriophage.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/release_lyso.html
                                        Flash animation summarizing the lysogenic life cycle of a temperate bacteriophage.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/lysosum01.html
                                        Flash Animation of normal transcription of DNA from the RNA genome of HIV.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/normpro.html
                                        Flash Animation showing the action of ZDV in causing the formation of an incomplete provirus.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/zdvanim.html
                                        Flash animation showing the normal function of an allosteric enzyme.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/allonormal.html
                                        Flash animation showing the action of an inhibitor on an allosteric enzyme.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/alloinhib.html
                                        Flash animation showing the normal function of HIV protease.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/paseanim.html
                                        Flash animation showing the action of protease inhibitors.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit3/viruses/pianim.html
                                        INNATE IMMUNITY: PAMPs, PRRs, COMPLEMENT PATHWAYS, PHAGOCYTOSIS, INFLAMMATION
                                        Flash animation illustrating the function of endocytic pattern-recognition receptors on phagocytes.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/endoprr.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating signaling toll-like receptors on defense cells: LPS and TLR-4.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/lpssignal_flash.html
                                        Flash animation showing toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognizing viral double-stranded RNA.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/tlrviralanim.html
                                        GIF animation showing the antiviral nature of interferon.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/if.html
                                        8
                                        Flash animation showing assembly of C1 during the classical complement pathway.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/c1act_flash.html
                                        Flash animation showing formation of C3 convertase during the classical complement pathway.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/c3case_flash.html
                                        Flash animation showing cleavage of C3 and the formation of C5 convertase during the classical complement
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/c5case_flash.html
                                        Flash animation showing the formation of the Membrane Attack Complex (MAC) during the complement
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/mac_flash.html
                                        GIF animation showing the role of C5a in vasodilation, the chemotaxis of phagocytes towards C5a, and their
                                        attachment to the opsonin C3b as a result of the complement pathways.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/c5a.html
                                        Flash animation showing activation of the lectin pathway, formation of C3 convertase, and formation of C5
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/lectin_flash.html
                                        Flash animation showing the activation of the alternative complement pathway, the formation of C3 convertase,
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/alternative_flash.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating the function of endocytic pattern-recognition receptors on phagocytes.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/endoprr.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating the function of enhanced attachment by way of IgG.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/opson_IgG.html
                                        GIF animation showing the formation of neutrophil NETs.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/neutNET_an.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating how capsules can block unenhanced attachment of pathogen-associated molecular
                                        patterns to endocytic pattern-recognition receptors on phagocytes.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/phag_pampcap.html
                                        Flash animation showing an encapsulated bacterium resisting phagocytosis by blocking C3b.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/capc3b.html
                                        Flash animation showing phagocytosis of an encapsulated bacterium through opsonization.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/opson_capsule_sum.html
                                        Flash animation showing ingestion and phagosome formation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/phing.html
                                        Flash animation showing intracellular destruction.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/phdes.html
                                        9
                                        Flash animation summarizing phagocytosis by unenhanced attachment.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/unenhanced_sum.html
                                        Flash animation summarizing phagocytosis by enhanced attachment (opsonization).
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/phagsum.html
                                        GIF animation showing a bacterium resisting phagocytosis by escaping from a phagosome.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/rick.html
                                        GIF animation showing a bacterium resisting phagocytosis by blocking the fusion of a lysosome and a
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/nofuse.html
                                        Flash animation summarizing extracellular killing by phagocytosis.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/exkill.html
                                        Flash animation of a NK cell interacting with a normal body cell.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/nkn.html
                                        Flash animation of a NK cell interacting with a virus-infected cell or tumor cell not expressing MHC-I molecules.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/nkn.html
                                        Flash animation of apoptosis by NK cells.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/nkapop.html
                                        Flash animation of a capillary prior to vasodilation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/nodilat.html
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/dilat.html
                                        Flash animation summarizing early inflammation and diapedesis.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/diapedesis_early_fl.html
                                        Flash animation summarizing late inflammation and diapedesis.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/innate/diapedesis_late_fl.html
                                        ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY: HUMORAL AND CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY
                                        Flash animation of epitopes reacting with specific B-cell receptors on B-lymphocytes.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit4/antigens/epsig_flash.html
                                        Flash animation of MHC-II molecules binding epitopes from exogenous antigens.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/intro/mhc/mhctwo.html
                                        Flash animation of a naive T4-lymphocyte recognizing epitopes bound to MHC-II molecules on an APC and the
                                        subsequent activation of that naive T4-lymphocyte by the APC.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/intro/mhc/t4act1.html
                                        10
                                        Flash animation of the binding of peptide epitopes to MHC-II molecules by a B-lymphocyte.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/intro/bcell/bcellmhc2.html
                                        Flash animation of an effector T4-lymphocyte recognizing epitopes bound to MHC-II molecules on a B-
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/intro/bcell/bcellt4_fl.html
                                        GIF Animation showing proliferation of a B-lymphocyte.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/intro/gensteps/bcprodif.html
                                        GIF Animation showing proliferation of a T4-lymphocyte.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/intro/gensteps/t4pro.html
                                        Flash animation showing gene translocation and combinatorial diversity.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/humoral/abydiversity/vdj_flash.html
                                        GIF animation showing clonal selection of B-lymphocytes.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/humoral/clonal/clonalan.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating the function of enhanced attachment by way of IgG.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/humoral/abydefense/opsonization/opson_IgG.html
                                        Flash animation of opsonization and intracellular destruction.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/humoral/abydefense/opsonization/phagsum.html
                                        Flash animation of opsonization and extracellular destruction.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/humoral/abydefense/opsonization/exkill.html
                                        Flash animation showing phagocytosis of an encapsulated bacterium through opsonization.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/humoral/abydefense/opsonization/opson_capsule_sum.
                                        Flash animation showing cytolysis of a gram-negative bacterium by MAC.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/humoral/abydefense/cytolysis/cytogn.html
                                        Flash animation showing damage to a viral envelope by MAC.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/humoral/abydefense/cytolysis/MAC_virus.html
                                        Flash animation showing cytolysis of an infected human cell by MAC.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/humoral/abydefense/cytolysis/incell.html
                                        Flash animation showing ADCC destruction of a virus-infected cell by NK cells.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/humoral/abydefense/adcc/adccigg.html
                                        Flash animation showing ADCC-induced apoptosis by NK cells.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/humoral/abydefense/adcc/adccapop.html
                                        Flash animation showing neutralization of an exotoxin by antibodies.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/humoral/abydefense/neutexo/exo.html
                                        Flash animation showing neutralization of a virus by antibodies.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/humoral/abydefense/neutvirus/nvir.html
                                        Flash animation showing antibodies blocking bacterial adherence to host cell.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/humoral/abydefense/adherence/blockadhesan.html
                                        11
                                        Flash animation showing the use of monoclonal antibodies to block the attachment of IgE to mast cells.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/humoral/monoclonal/monoige.html
                                        Flash animation of MHC-I molecules binding epitopes from endogenous antigens by an antigen-presenting cell.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/intro/mhc/mhcone_dend.html
                                        GIF animation of a proteasome degrading proteins into peptides.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/cellular/mechanismcmi/proteasome.html
                                        Flash animation of a naive T8-lymphocyte recognizing epitopes bound to MHC-I molecules on an APC.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/intro/mhc/mhc1t8.html
                                        Flash animation of MHC-I molecules binding epitopes from endogenous antigens in an infected cell.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/intro/mhc/mhcone_inf.html
                                        GIF Animation showing proliferation of a T8-lymphocyte.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/intro/gensteps/t8prodif.html
                                        GIF Animation showing proliferation of a T8-lymphocyte and its differentiation into an effector cell.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/intro/gensteps/t8prodif.html
                                        Flash animation of a CTL causing apoptosis by way of perforins and granzymes.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/intro/mhc/ctlapop.html
                                        Flash animation of CTL-induced apoptosis of a virus-infected cell.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/cellular/cmidefense/ctls/apoctl.html
                                        Flash animation of a CTL causing apoptosis by way of Fas/FasL interaction.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/cellular/cmidefense/ctls/fasan.html
                                        Flash animation of a macrophage processing an antigen for presentation to a Th1 cell.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/cellular/cmidefense/macronk/macro_process.html
                                        Flash animation of the activation of a macrophage by a Th1 cell.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/intro/apc/th1macro.html
                                        GIF animation showing production of IgE in response to an allergen.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/hypersensitivity/type1/allerg.html
                                        Flash animation showing the mechanism behind Type-1 hypersensitivity.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/hypersensitivity/type1/mast.html
                                        Flash animation showing the use of monoclonal antibodies to block the attachment of IgE to mast cells.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/hypersensitivity/type1/monoige.html
                                        Flash animation showing opsonization of cells during Type-II hypersensitivity.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/hypersensitivity/type2/opsontii.html
                                        Flash animation showing MAC lysis of cells during Type-II hypersensitivity.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/hypersensitivity/type2/mactii.html
                                        12
                                        Flash animation showing ADCC destruction of cells during Type-II hypersensitivity.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/hypersensitivity/type2/adcctii.html
                                        Flash animation showing apoptosis of cells during Type-II hypersensitivity.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/hypersensitivity/type2/adccapop.html
                                        GIF animation showing inflammation and tissue death during Type-III hypersensitivity.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit5/hypersensitivity/type3/typeiii.html
                                        MOLECULAR GENETICS: DNA, RNA, PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
                                        GIF animation showing the formation of a peptide bond.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/proteins/proteins/peptide.html
                                        GIF animation showing an enzyme-substrate reaction.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/proteins/enzymes/enzsub.html
                                        DNA Replication, Transcription, and Translation
                                        GIF animation illustrating DNA replication by complementary base pairing.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/DNA/DNArep/dnarepeu.html
                                        GIF animation illustrating the replication of leading and lagging strands of DNA.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/DNA/DNArep/lag.html
                                        GIF animation illustrating RNA polymerase unwinding the DNA helix during transcription.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/protsyn/transcription/rnapol.html
                                        GIF animation illustrating the synthesis of mRNA complementary to DNA during transcription.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/protsyn/transcription/transc.html
                                        GIF animation illustrating RNA processing.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/protsyn/transcription/exon.html
                                        Flash Animation illustrating the formation of the initiation complex during translation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/protsyn/translation/init.html
                                        Flash Animation illustrating the joining of the 50S ribosomal subunit to the initiation complex during translation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/protsyn/translation/50s.html
                                        Flash Animation illustrating the insertion of amino acids into a growing protein during translation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/protsyn/translation/peptidea.html
                                        Flash Animation illustrating the termination of translation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/protsyn/translation/stop.html
                                        Flash Animation summarizing translation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/protsyn/translation/translat.html
                                        GIF animation of the repressible trp operon in the absence of a co-repressor.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/protsyn/regulation/ronorep.html
                                        13
                                        GIF animation of the repressible trp operon in the presence of a co-repressor.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/protsyn/regulation/rorep.html
                                        GIF animation of the inducible lac operon in the absence of an inducer.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/protsyn/regulation/ionoind.html
                                        GIF animation of the inducible lac operon in the presence of an inducer.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/protsyn/regulation/ioind.html
                                        GIF animation an activator protein in the absence of an inducer.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/protsyn/regulation/activ.html
                                        GIF animation an activator protein in the presence of an inducer.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/protsyn/regulation/actind.html
                                        GIF animation showing antisense RNA.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/protsyn/regulation/antisense_an.html
                                        GIF animation showing non-competitive inhibition by an allosteric enzyme.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/protsyn/regulation/noncom.html
                                        Genetic Recombination in Bacteria
                                        GIF animation illustrating transformation in a competent bacterium.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/recombination/transformation/transf.html
                                        GIF animation illustrating generalized transduction.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/recombination/transduction/gentran.html
                                        GIF animation illustrating specialized transduction.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/recombination/transduction/spectran.html
                                        GIF animation illustrating F+ conjugation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/recombination/conjugation/f.html
                                        GIF animation illustrating Hfr conjugation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/recombination/conjugation/hfr.html
                                        GIF animation illustrating R plasmid conjugation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/recombination/conjugation/r.html
                                        GIF animation illustrating a restriction endonuclease.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/genetics/recombination/recombinant/enuc.html
                                        ATP Production and Glycolysis
                                        Flash animation illustrating the formation of ATP from ADP and phosphate.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/metabolism/energy/ATPform_flash.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating the hydrolysis of ATP to provide energy for cellular work.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/metabolism/energy/ATPhydrol_flash.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating substrate-level phosphorylation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/metabolism/energy/subphos_flash.html
                                        14
                                        Flash animation illustrating energy release during oxidation-reduction reactions.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/metabolism/energy/ets_flash.html
                                        GIF animation illustrating ATP synthase generating ATP.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/metabolism/energy/atpsynthase_an.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating the development of proton motive force as a result of chemiosmosis.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/metabolism/energy/hpump_flash.html
                                        Flash animation illustrating the formation of ATP from proton motive force and ATP synthase.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/metabolism/energy/atpase_flash.html
                                        GIF animation illustrating ATP production by chemiosmosis during aerobic respiration.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/metabolism/energy/chemios.html
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/metabolism/cellresp/glycol_an.html
                                        GIF animation showing photons exciting an electron to a higher energy level.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/metabolism/photosyn/photon.html
                                        GIF animation illustrating the development of proton motive force as a result of chemiosmosis.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/metabolism/photosyn/hpumpp.html
                                        GIF animation illustrating the formation of ATP from proton motive force and ATP synthase.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit6/metabolism/photosyn/atpasep.html
                                        GIF animation showing how to streak an agar plate for isolation.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/labmanua/lab2/streak_an.html
                                        GIF animation showing a portion of a single colony being "picked off."
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/labmanua/lab3/pick.html
                                        Flash Animation showing serologic identification of Group A Streptococci, part-1.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/labmanua/lab17/StrepA1_flash.html
                                        Flash Animation showing serologic identification of Group A Streptococci, part-2.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/labmanua/lab17/StrepA2_flash.html
                                        Flash Animation showing immunologic testing for pregnancy.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/labmanua/lab17/preg_flash.html
                                        Flash Animation showing a positive direct fluorescent antibody test.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/labmanua/lab17/dfaby_flash.html
                                        Flash Animation showing a negative direct fluorescent antibody test.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/labmanua/lab17/negdfaby_flash.html
                                        Flash animation of the FTA-ABS test for syphilis.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/labmanua/lab18/fta_flash.html
                                        Flash animation of the EIA test for antibodies against HIV.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/labmanua/lab18/eia_flash.html
                                        15
                                        Flash animation of the WB test for antibodies against HIV.
                                        http://student.ccbcmd.edu/courses/bio141/labmanua/lab18/wb_flash.html
                                        16