### Physics Notes

 Be sure to check out the Unit Readings found on the Physics Files page!We have created a Video Library of instructional videos, organized by unit.  Click HERE.New Physics eBook can be found HERE.  This was written by LPHS Physics teachers, and has information and examples for the Physics content we teach here.Check out the MrEScienceTheater channel on Youtube.Unit 2 Notes:  (Constant Velocity)   Notes- Distance, Displacement, Speed, & Velocity- click HERE.    Good review of Position vs. Time graphs... Click HERE.    Velocity vs. Time graphs... Click HERE (Youtube video).    Notes- Motion Maps...  Click HERE.  View a video lesson about Motion Maps.    Multiple Representations:  Given one, determine the rest (xt graph, vt graph, motion map, description)        Review Unit 2 videoOnline Help:      Extra help on Unit 2:  The Physics Classroom    Extra help with position vs. time graphs Physics Lab Online    Extra help with velocity vs. time graphs Physics Lab Online    Comparing constant velocity x vs. t and v vs. t graphs Physics Lab Online    Area under V vs. T graphUnit 1 Notes:  Scientific Thinking & Experimental DesignGraphingEquation of LinesLinearizing Graphs to get equations of non-linear graphsRules for the ZERO  digit:Zeroes sandwiched between non-zero digits ARE significant. (e.g. 120.05 cm has five sig figs)Zeroes BEFORE the first non-zero digit ARE NOT significant. (e.g. 0.0045 cm has two sig figs)Zeroes AFTER the last non-zero digit ARE significant IF THE DECIMAL POINT IS THERE.  (e.g. 45.200 g has five sig figs)Zeroes AFTER the last non-zero digit ARE NOT significant IF the DECIMAL POINT IS NOT there.  (e.g. 6,500 km has two sig figs)Unit 9 Notes:  WavesNotes from class:Check out the Physics Files page for PowerPoint notes from class.Online Help:The Physics Classroom review of WavesUnit 3 Notes:  (Constant Acceleration Kinematics)Notes from class:    Position, Velocity, & Acceleration vs. Time graphs     See a video lesson about Kinematics Graphs.  (YouTube Link)   See a video lesson about Deriving the Kinematics Equations. (YouTube Link)   Using Kinematics Equations.  (written notes)   See a video lesson about Using Kinematics Equations. (YouTube Link) Online Help:  Extra help on Unit 3:  The Physics ClassroomExtra help with position, velocity, and acceleration graphs:  Spark Notes     Extra help with position, velocity, and acceleration graphs:  Physics HypertextbookUnit 2 Notes:  (Constant Velocity)   Notes- Distance, Displacement, Speed, & Velocity- click HERE.    Good review of Position vs. Time graphs... Click HERE.    Notes- Motion Maps...  Click HERE.Online Help:      Extra help on Unit 2:  The Physics Classroom    Extra help with position vs. time graphs Physics Lab Online    Extra help with velocity vs. time graphs Physics Lab Online    Comparing constant velocity x vs. t and v vs. t graphs Physics Lab Online    Area under V vs. T graphUnit 9 Notes:  Gravitation & Electric Forces Notes from class:Check out the Physics Files page for PowerPoint notes from class.Online Help:The Physics Classroom review of Universal GravitationThe Physics Classroom review of Electric Forces (Coulomb's Law)Watch a great video explaining Coulomb's Law.Unit 8 Notes:  Work, Energy, and PowerNotes from class:Check out the Physics Files page for PowerPoint notes from class.Energy--Kinetic Energy = 1/2 m*v²Gravitational Energy = mghElastic Energy = 1/2 k*x²Dissipated Energy = Work done by friction or other forces.  Also, Dissipated energy can be found by finding the difference between the initial and final energies.Hooke's Law:  F=kx  (k=spring constant--the slope of F vs. x graph, x=displacement of spring from rest position)Physics eBooks can be found HERE.  Look for unit 7.Online Help:The Physics Classroom review of Work, Energy, & PowerKhan Academy -- Physics -- Work & Energy  (you can skip the Mechanical Advantage section if you wish)Unit 7 Notes:  (Momentum & Impulse)Notes from class:Check out the Physics Files page for PowerPoint notes from class. (They are in the folder called UNIT 10 Momentum.)Momentum = Mass x VelocityImpulse = change in Momentum = Force x time = mass x (change in velocity)Conservation of Momentum:  Initial System Momentum = Final System MomentumPi = Pf(initial)m1v1+m2v2=(final)m1v1+m2v2Online Help:The Physics Classroom review of MomentumKhan Academy MomentumUnit 6 Notes: (Projectile Motion)Notes from class: See a video tutorial of how to solve a Free Fall Kinematics problem. Click HERE.  (or Here  for a refresher on using Kinematics Equations.)See a video tutorial of how to use the Quadratic Formula. Click Here (non-YouTube version)  or Here (YouTube).Free fall means an object accelerates only because of gravity. For objects near the Earth's surface, this means that acceleration = 10 m/s². When an object in free fall is thrown upward, its velocity will be zero when it reaches its highest position. When an object is thrown upward and allowed to return to its original height, its displacement will be zero.Projectile Motion--think of the amazing basketball shot. We learned that for a projectile, horizontal velocity is CONSTANT, while vertically the object accelerates because of gravity (10 m/s^2 on earth).  To solve projectile motion problems, first split the problem into HORIZONTAL and VERTICAL parts, fill in what you know, use one part of the problem to solve for TIME, and use that time with the other part to solve for what you're looking for.See a video tutorial of how to solve a Projectile Motion Problem Involving Angles. Click HERE. Problem Set Solutions can be found on the Physics Files Page. These Problem Sets are based on what we learn each day, and are similar to the online homework. If you are struggling with the online homework, check out the corresponding Problem Set Solution to see in detail how to approach and solve the problems.Online Help:Extra help of Unit 6: The Physics Classroom: Free FallUnit 5 Notes: (Unbalanced Forces, F=ma)Notes from class: Newton's 2nd Law: Net Force = Mass x Acceleration. The Net Force can be found by taking R - L, or L - R, or U - D, or D - U. How do you know which one? Take the direction it accelerates to be positive, then subtract forces in the opposite direction. So if something accelerates to the Right, it will be Right minus Left.Friction: We learned a formula for determining the amount of friction acting on an object: Ff=(mu)*FN.We have learned about Acceleration before--Kinematics. We can use kinematics equations to find acceleration, and then plug that into F=maI created an EPUB version of the notes for this unit. Try it out on your eReader device (Nook, Kindle, iOS device, etc.), and let me know how it worked. File is found in the Unit 5 folder on the Physics Files Page. (There is also a .pdf version that can be viewed/printed from a computer if you do not want to use the eReader format.)Problem Set Solutions can be found on the Physics Files Page. These Problem Sets are based on what we learn each day, and are similar to the online homework. If you are struggling with the online homework, check out the corresponding Problem Set Solution to see in detail how to approach and solve the problems.Extra help on Unit 5: The Physics Classroom: Newton's Laws    Mr. T Video lessons:    Mr. B notes/videos for Unit 5Unit 4 Notes: (Balanced Forces)    Intro to Forces & Force Diagrams: View the lesson Physics Classroom--Drawing force diagrams (sometimes called free body diagrams)Video about how to draw force diagrams.    Solving Balanced Force Problems:  View the lesson View an example of a balanced forces problem:  Click HERE, or download it from the Physics Files page, Unit 4 folder.Forces PowerPoints are available on the Physics Files page, Unit 4 folder.Online Help:Visualizing Newton's 3rd LawExtra help on Unit 4:  The Physics Classroom: Newton's LawsUnit 3 Notes:  (Constant Acceleration Kinematics)Notes from class:    Position, Velocity, & Acceleration vs. Time graphs     See a video lesson about Kinematics Graphs.  (YouTube Link)   See a video lesson about Deriving the Kinematics Equations. (YouTube Link)   Using Kinematics Equations.  (written notes)   See a video lesson about Using Kinematics Equations. (YouTube Link) Online Help:  Extra help on Unit 3:  The Physics ClassroomExtra help with position, velocity, and acceleration graphs:  Spark Notes     Extra help with position, velocity, and acceleration graphs:  Physics HypertextbookFinal Exam Review:Click HERE to see a brief outline of what to review for the final.  Then visit the following links if you need a little memory boost about these topics.Newton's Laws (Pretty much all four lesson, all parts)Freefall and Gravitational Acceleration (all five parts of the lesson)Projectile Motion (first six parts of the lesson)Uniform Circular Motion (first three parts of the lesson)Unit 8 Notes:  Work, Energy, and PowerNotes from class:Check out the Physics Files page for PowerPoint notes from class.Energy--Kinetic Energy = 1/2 m*v^2Gravitational Energy = mghElastic Energy = 1/2 k*x^2Dissipated Energy = Work done.  Also, Dissipated energy can be found by finding the difference between the initial and final energies.Hooke's Law:  F=kx  (k=spring constant--the slope of F vs. x graph, x=displacement of spring from rest position)Physics eBooks can be found HERE.  Look for unit 7.Online Help:The Physics Classroom review of Work, Energy, & PowerKhan Academy -- Physics -- Work & Energy  (you can skip the Mechanical Advantage section if you wish)Unit 7 Notes:  (Momentum & Impulse)Notes from class:Check out the Physics Files page for PowerPoint notes from class.Momentum = Mass x VelocityImpulse = change in Momentum = Force x time = mass x (change in velocity)Conservation of Momentum:  Initial System Momentum = Final System MomentumPi = Pf(initial)m1v1+m2v2=(final)m1v1+m2v2Online Help:The Physics Classroom review of MomentumUnit 6 Notes: (Projectile Motion)Notes from class: See a video tutorial of how to solve a Free Fall Kinematics problem. Click HERE.Projectile Motion--think of the amazing basketball shot. We learned that for a projectile, horizontal velocity is CONSTANT, while vertically the object accelerates because of gravity (10 m/s^2 on earth).  To solve projectile motion problems, first split the problem into HORIZONTAL and VERTICAL parts, fill in what you know, use one part of the problem to solve for TIME, and use that time with the other part to solve for what you're looking for.Free fall means an object accelerates only because of gravity. For objects near the Earth's surface, this means that acceleration = 10 m/s^2. When an object in free fall is thrown upward, its velocity will be zero when it reaches its highest position. When an object is thrown upward and allowed to return to its original height, its displacement will be zero.See a video tutorial of how to solve a Projectile Motion Problem Involving Angles. Click HERE. See a video tutorial of how to use the Quadratic Formula. Click Here.Problem Set Solutions can be found on the Physics Files Page. These Problem Sets are based on what we learn each day, and are similar to the online homework. If you are struggling with the online homework, check out the corresponding Problem Set Solution to see in detail how to approach and solve the problems.Online Help:Extra help of Unit 6: The Physics Classroom: Free FallUnit 5 Notes: (Unbalanced Forces, F=ma)Notes from class: Newton's 2nd Law: Net Force = Mass x Acceleration. The Net Force can be found by taking R - L, or L - R, or U - D, or D - U. How do you know which one? Take the direction it accelerates to be positive, then subtract forces in the opposite direction. So if something accelerates to the Right, it will be Right minus Left.Friction: We learned a formula for determining the amount of friction acting on an object: Ff=We have learned about Acceleration before--Kinematics. We can use kinematics equations to find acceleration, and then plug that into F=maI tried something new-- an EPUB version of the notes for this unit. Try it out on your eReader device (Nook, Kindle, iOS device, etc.), and let me know how it worked. File is found in the Unit 5 folder on the Physics Files Page. (There is also a .pdf version that can be viewed/printed from a computer if you do not want to use the eReader format.)Problem Set Solutions can be found on the Physics Files Page. These Problem Sets are based on what we learn each day, and are similar to the online homework. If you are struggling with the online homework, check out the corresponding Problem Set Solution to see in detail how to approach and solve the problems.Online Help:Extra help on Unit 5: The Physics Classroom: Newton's LawsUnit 4 Notes: (Balanced Forces)Notes from class: View the lesson from Day 3 (Oct. 29th) about solving balanced force problems.View the lesson from Day 1 (Oct. 23rd) on MrEScienceTheater (Youtube).Drawing force diagrams (sometimes called free body diagrams)Solving Balanced Forces-- View an example of a balanced forces problem.  Click HERE, or download it from the Physics Files page, Unit 4 folder.Forces PowerPoint is available on the Physics Files page, Unit 4 folder.I tried something new-- an EPUB version of the notes for this unit. Try it out on your eReader device (Nook, Kindle, iOS device, etc.), and let me know how it worked.  File is found in the Unit 4 folder on the Physics Files Page.Online Help:Visualizing Newton's 3rd LawExtra help on Unit 4:  The Physics Classroom: Newton's LawsUnit 3 Notes:  (Constant Acceleration Kinematics)Notes from class:    10/2: Position, Velocity, & Acceleration vs. Time graphs            See a video lesson about Kinematics Graphs.  (YouTube Link)   10/4:See a video lesson about Deriving the Kinematics Equations. (YouTube Link)            Using Kinematics Equations.  (written notes)             See a video lesson about Using Kinematics Equations. (YouTube Link) Online Help:  Extra help on Unit 3:  The Physics ClassroomExtra help with position, velocity, and acceleration graphs:  Spark Notes     Extra help with position, velocity, and acceleration graphs:  Physics HypertextbookUnit 2 Notes:  (Constant Velocity)   Read in the USOE OER Physics Textbook:  pages 13-19 & 21-25.    Notes- Distance, Displacement, Speed, & Velocity- click HERE.    Good review of Position vs. Time graphs... Click HERE.    Notes- Motion Maps...  Click HERE.Online Help:      Extra help on Unit 2:  The Physics Classroom    Extra help with position vs. time graphs Physics Lab Online    Extra help with velocity vs. time graphs Physics Lab Online    Comparing constant velocity x vs. t and v vs. t graphs Physics Lab Online    Area under V vs. T graphUnit 9 Notes:  Gravitation & Electric Forces Notes from class:Check out the Physics Files page for PowerPoint notes from class.Online Help:The Physics Classroom review of Universal GravitationThe Physics Classroom review of Electric Forces (Coulomb's Law)Unit 8 Notes:  WavesNotes from class:Check out the Physics Files page for PowerPoint notes from class.Online Help:The Physics Classroom review of WavesUnit 4 Notes: (Balanced Forces)Notes from class: Solving Balanced Forces-- View an example of a balanced forces problem.  Click HERE, or download it from the Physics Files page, Unit 4 folder.Forces PowerPoint is available on the Physics Files page, Unit 4 folder.I tried something new-- an EPUB version of the notes for this unit. Try it out on your eReader device (Nook, Kindle, iOS device, etc.), and let me know how it worked.  File is found in the Unit 4 folder on the Physics Files Page.Online Help:Visualizing Newton's 3rd LawExtra help on Unit 4:  The Physics Classroom: Newton's LawsUnit 3 Notes:  (Constant Acceleration Kinematics)Notes from class:     Position, Velocity, & Acceleration vs. Time graphs    Using Kinematics Equations.  (written notes)     See a video lesson about Using Kinematics Equations. Online Help:  Extra help on Unit 3:  The Physics ClassroomExtra help with position, velocity, and acceleration graphs:  Spark Notes     Extra help with position, velocity, and acceleration graphs:  Physics HypertextbookUnit 2 Notes:  (Constant Velocity)Notes from class: Motion Maps...  Click HERE.Good review of Position vs. Time graphs... Click HERE.Online Help:      Extra help on Unit 2:  The Physics Classroom    Extra help with position vs. time graphs Physics Lab Online    Extra help with velocity vs. time graphs Physics Lab Online    Comparing constant velocity x vs. t and v vs. t graphs Physics Lab Online    Area under V vs. T graph