Regents Physics Course OutlineRegents Physics Topics of StudyMechanicsLinear motionVectors vs scalarsConstant velocity vs accelerated motionFriction cause falling objects to deviate from theoretical path2D motionVector addition and resolutionVertical and horizontal independenceA projectile's time of flight is dependent upon the vertical component of its motionRange is dependent on horizontal velocity and time of flightNewton's LawsNo net force results in no accelerationAn unbalanced force causes accelerationWeight is the gravitational force of attractionKinetic friction opposes motionForces occur in action / reaction pairsCircles, planets, and springsCentripetal force produces centripetal acceleration and is directed perpendicular to the tangential velocityHooke's law and energy in a springUniversal gravitation and the inverse square lawMomentum and impulseMomentum is conserved in a closed systemImpulse is a change in momentumEnergy and PowerTypes of energyHeight increases potential energySpeed increases kinetic energyFriction increases internal energyWork-energy theoremWork done changes total energy of the systemAll energy transfers are governed by the law of conservation of energyPower is the rate at which work is doneIdeal vs non-ideal systemsIn an ideal mechanical system the sum of kinetic and potential energy is constantIn a non-ideal system, as mechanical energy decreases there is a corresponding increase in other energies such as internal energy.Electrostatics and CircuitsElectric forces and fieldsElectric and magnetic forces may be attractive of repulsiveElectric fields and forces are governed by the inverse square lawCurrent and electric circuitsThe factors effecting resistance in a conductor are length, cross-sectional area, temperature, and resistivity.Common metallic conductors follow Ohm's law at constant temperatures.Electric power and energy can be determined for electric circuits.Diagrams and analysis of simple parallel and series circuits.MagnetismMoving electric charges create magnetic fieldsEnergy can be stored in electric of magnetic fields.Compass behavior and magnetic force of attraction.Waves and the Electromagnetic SpectrumPhysical wavesOscillations produce wavesWaves carry information and not massWaves are categorized as transverse or longitudinalMechanical waves require a medium to travel throughThe model of a wave includes characteristics of amplitude, wavelength, frequency, period, speed, and phase.The electromagnetic spectrumElectromagnetic radiation can travel in a vacuum.When a wave strikes a boundary reflection, transmission, and absorption occur. Often refraction occurs as well.Refraction of a light wave depends on the indices of refraction of the two interacting mediums.Speed of a light wave in inversely proportional to the index of refraction.Wave phenomenaSuperposition of wavesResonance causes sympathetic vibrationsDiffractions is dependent on wavelength and the size of the openingThe Doppler effect is due to the relative motion between the source and observer. This causes red and blue shift.Modern PhysicsModels of the atomEnergy and matter exhibit characteristics of both waves and particles at the sub-atomic levelRutherford's model, Thompson's model, Bohr's modelEnergy of the atom and photonsMass and energy of atoms are always conservedEnergy of matter is restricted to discrete valuesThe energy of a photon is proportional to its frequencyThe Standard Model of Particle PhysicsCharge is quantized at the atomic and the sub-atomic levelThe nucleus is a conglomeration of quarks which manifest themselves at protons and neutrons.Each elementary particle has a corresponding antiparticle.